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The electronic imaging symposium.

This symposium has content that is of great relevance to the security community in general, but the holography and 3D community in particular. The aim of this article is to give an overview of this meeting with particular emphasis on where this meeting can add value.

It predominantly covers the 2017 meeting. But it is interesting to note that the 2018 meeting is on the week following Optical Document Security[TM] and is in close geographic proximity. The 2018 symposium could therefore provide an additional justification to visit both conferences to maximise travel value.

The Electronic Imaging Symposium is an annual event that takes place in California. The symposium structure consists of around 20 individual conferences covering all aspects of Electronic Imaging. Those with a long memory will recall that the Reconnaissance International Optical Document Security[TM] conference was once a part of this symposium. Indeed some part of this link remains and in 2018 they will be on consecutive weeks in the San Francisco area.

I have attended this meeting for a number of years and have consistently found content here that is of interest to the holography and 3D community. The papers have a strong technical content covering all aspects of 3D vision and imaging science. Here is a summary of the 2017 event.

Technical content

The Electronic Imaging Symposium event covers more than just conferences. There is a short course programme too and this year I presented 'Electronic Imaging of Secure Documents' to this community. The presentations are also published as technical papers which after the conference are open access (downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity).

From our perspective the relevant content can be considered in two categories; 3D image technology and human vision.

3D imaging technology

For me the most interesting paper entitled 'Image Quality Assessment for Holographic Display' came from Samsung Electronics in the 'Image Quality and System Performance' conference. They proposed evaluation criteria for display contrast ratio, cross talk, colour dispersion and uniformity.

There would appear to be substantial work being conducted in the 3D display community on image quality, and some of this would appear to be pertinent to the objective assessment of security holograms.

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One of the most popular conferences at this meeting is 'Stereoscopic Display and Applications'. The highlight is an evening 3D theatre with large screen stereoscopic projection facilities. This allows delegates to bring along small clips of their work to demonstrate their technology and is a useful forum to assess different 3D imaging combinations. The attraction for us is that this community has become a forum to discuss the visual perception of 3D images.

One other area where this symposium is pertinent to the holography community is in the coverage of light-field (or plenoptic) cameras. These are now commercially available cameras and the interest for us is that the focal plane of the image can be altered after they have been taken.

In other words they can capture the full depth features of a hologram for assessment or verification purposes. Watch out for this technology in the future, particularly as it looks likely to emerge in mobile applications as user identification.

International standards activity

The Electronic Imaging Symposium is also the meeting place of a number of International Standards communities. The photographic standards community ISO TC42 congregate here and we plan to discuss the significance of this in a future edition of Authentication News[R] (Holography News[R]' sister publication).

More pertinent here is the work of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 (Coding of still pictures). They now have a JPEG Pleno group that is starting work on '... a standard framework to facilitate the capture, representation, and exchange of omnidirectional, depth-enhanced, point cloud, light field, and holographic imaging modalities.' This may be one for our community to be aware of and perhaps influence.

Human vision

The 'Human Vision and Electronic Imaging' conference looks at perceived image quality for both 2D and 3D images. While a lot of the focus is on making electronic displays comfortable to watch, there is the potential to turn this knowledge around to produce 3D effects that are uncomfortably attention grabbing. For example, one of the papers from workers in China cited proximity cues as a driver for comfort in stereoscopic images.

The way in which the human visual system perceives images is key to our understanding of what makes an effective optically variable feature. The keynote presentation came from MIT and showed how well the human visual system distinguishes 3D items amongst a cloud of 2D items.

Materials appearance

The measurement of materials appearance has become a crucial quality measurement issue across a range of industries, especially when dealing with natural products. Assessing and measuring quality is a big challenge, as it encompasses both objective and subjective parts of appearance perception.

It also spans a number of disciplines from the physics and optics to design, psychology and sociology. The aim of this conference is to gather this knowledge from both academic and industrial laboratories to understand and model appearance.

This is of interest to our community in a number of areas. The 2017 conference had a substantial contribution from the automotive paint sector on the measurement and modelling of opalescent and metallic finishes.

This involves appearance measurement at multiple illumination and viewing angles, technologies of interest for the evaluation and authentication of optically variable features from inks to holograms. Other aspects include the visual perception of embossed structures.

Other technologies on show

The science and technology behind micro-displays and optical engines behind augmented, virtual and mixed reality devices was discussed in the conference sessions, covering the optical and vision basis for the new generation of wearable optoelectronics. This could be the topic of a future article.

This symposium also has a very substantial community devoted to mobile (smartphone) camera systems. Given the growing importance of these features and identity verification I spent some time in these sessions. A glance through the Reconnaissance International publications will show the attention given to these so this area will be the subject of a series of future articles.

The new 'Holo' world

With an international list of over 700 delegates, the debate is wide ranging. As this meeting followed The Holography Conference[TM] 2016, one topic I was keen to explore was the current meaning of the prefix 'holo', keenly debated in Warsaw.

As documented in HN December 2016, the first session of the Warsaw conference covered 'The Changing Meaning of the Word Hologram' and concluded that in the popular vernacular the word has now come to mean anything with a visual perception of 3D.

Much the same pragmatic stance was taken at the Electronic Imaging Symposium. With significant coverage of the science behind augmented, virtual and mixed reality devices (see HN April 2016), the prefix 'holo' pervades the product marketing and positioning.

However, the technical community has moved on from this, recognising the distinction between new era 3D vision and classical holography. The quantum physics community has adopted the term in quantum gravity studies, extending it to denote the encoding of 3D information onto a 2D surface.

My view is that we should follow the outcome of the debate in Warsaw and acknowledge that the world has moved on with the term 'holo'. I come originally from the photography community where 'photo' classically meant visible light but now take 'photographs' well outside of the visible spectrum. We should take the same direction too.

In summary

Meetings like the Electronic Imaging Symposium have a lot to offer our community, both in terms of technical content and networking opportunities. In particular the focus on 3D imaging, human vision and smartphone imaging are particularly useful. In 2018 the close location and timing with Optical Document Security could make travel to this meeting easier to justify.

www.imaging.org/EI
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Author:Hodgson, Alan
Publication:Holography News
Date:Jul 1, 2017
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