The efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and yield components of two varieties of wheat in salinity condition.
Rhizobacteria can attach to the surface of plant roots or seeds and can take up some of the ACC exuded by the plant and degrade it through the action of ACC deaminase (Glick et al. 1998). Ethylene is required for many plants for seed germination but high levels of ethylene can impede plant growth. PGPR that contain ACC deaminase, when bound to the seed coat of a developing seedling, act as a mechanism for ensuring that the ethylene level dose not become raised to the point where root growth is impaired.
The objective in this study was to investigate the effect of PGPR on yield and yield components of two varieties in saline soil.
Materials and methods
In this experiment we used two varieties of wheat (T. aestivum ssp. Variety falat as sensitive genotype and T. aestivum ssp. Variety Bam4 as tolerant genotype). Wheat seeds were sterilized in 2% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min, And then rinsed 4 times with distilled water. Sixteen seed were sown in each pots (25 cm diameter and 15 cm deep) in a greenhouse under 12000-14000 lux light condition (that created by using sodium and helium lamps), at temperature of 30[degrees]C and 20[degrees]C in day and night, respectively. After sowing, seedlings numbers in any pots were decreased to ten. Soil samples were collected from farm and then transferred to the greenhouse. The soil used was Entisols. The soil characteristics were pH 7.9, EC 0.9 dS [m.sup.-1], total nitrogen 0.025 mg [kg.sup.-1], K 148, P 7.2, Mn 9.84, Zn 0.32, Fe 2.48, and Cu 0.82 mg [kg.sup.-1]. [P.sub.2][o.sub.5] and K2o fertilizer was applied according to the soil analysis. The PGPR effect on salinity levels was conducted by using 4 salinity levels (1, 4, 8 and 12 dS [m.sup.-1]). These saline solutions were prepared by NaCl and Ca[Cl.sub.2] and were applied after two leaves step. Before planting, one drop of Arabic gum added to 15 gr seeds for each pot and then inoculation was performed with 1 gr of inoculum. All plants were harvested after many of panicles were reached.
Four strains of rhizobacteria including Pseudomonas fluorescens 153, 169, Pseudomonas putida 108 and 4 were selected from the microbial bank of soil biology research department of khorasan razavi soil and water research institute. Perlit was used as vector for inoculum preparation. Cell density in Pseudomonas fluorescence 153, 169, Pseudomonas putida 108 and 4 were 1.3 x 109, 1.25 x 109, 1.2 x 109 and 1.01 x 109 per 1 ml, respectively.
After harvesting a total of five traits consist of grain yield, shoot dry weight (biologic yield), grain per panicle, 1000-grain weight and tiller number were evaluated.
The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with split factorial arrangement with 3 replications. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using the software MSTATC and treatment means were compared by tucky test.
Results and discussion
To alleviate the negative effect of soil salinity on wheat yield and yield components were inoculated four strains of PGPR, Pseudomonas fluorescens 153, 169, Pseudomonas putida 108 and 4.
Results of the measurements on yield and yield components are given in table 1 and 2.
All traits were significantly increased by inoculation with PGPR. We observed significantly differences for all traits under non-salinity and salinity stress. Under non-salinity stress, the grain yield, biologic yield, grain per panicle, 1000-grain weight and tiller number was increased by 26, 29.12, 23, 28.6 and 23.9%, respectively, in comparison to the bacterial control treatment. The grain yield(Fig. 1), biologic yield, grain per panicle, 1000-grain weight(Fig. 2) and tiller number of wheat varieties under salinity stress (EC 12 dS [m.sup.-1]) was also increased by 126, 138, 127, 76 and 66.9% in the PGPR strain treatments compared to the control condition. Grain yield in treatment containing Pseudomonas putida 108 was increased 10.14% compared to the non-salinity stress condition. The reduction of plant yield caused by salinity stress is the most common phenomenon of plants under stress.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
We also observed significantly difference between two wheat varieties in bacterial levels for all traits except tiller number. The reduction of yield by salinity stress is the most common reaction of plants under stress condition. This reduction is result of many alterations in physiological activities in the plant. PGPR improved plant yield in saline soils. This promotion effect, however, varied with varieties and soil salinity. The Bam4 variety treated with PGPR had higher yield and yield components than the non-PGPR plants in soil. In this study, inoculation with
The grain yield, biologic yield, grain per panicle, 1000-grain weight and tiller number of wheat varieties under salinity stress (EC 12 dS [m.sup.-1]) was also increased and these findings have been reported by others researchers (Hilali et al. 2000; Weller and Cook 1986; Vasudevan et al. 2002; Cheng 2007) for PGPR effects on yield and yield components. Hilali et al (2000) reported that grain yield of wheat inoculated by rhizoctonia leguminosarum bv. Trifolii were increased in comparison to the control treatment. PGPR strains increased yield and yield components of plant in comparison to the non-inoculated control treatment, and the inoculation with PGPR strains under soil salinity conditions improved yield and yield components compared to the non-inoculated control.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
In conclusion, PGPR promoted phytoremediation was confirmed to be a feasible and effective remediation technique for soils with moderate salinity.
We thank the soil and water section of Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Institute in Mashhad for supporting and cooporation in this thesis.
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(1) Abolfazl Abbaspoor, (2) Hamid Reza Zabihi, (3) Sadeq Movafegh and (4) Mohammad Hossein Akbari Asl
(1) Soil Science Department, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Institute, Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran
(2) Soil Science Department, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Institute, Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran
(3) Jolge Rokh Department, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Institute, Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran
(4) Toroq Department, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Institute, Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran
Corresponding Author: Abolfazl Abbaspoor, Razavi Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Institute Toroq section, Razavi Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Institute, Mashhad, Iran.
E- mail: Abolfazl.firstname.lastname@example.org,
Tel. Number: +98 511 38 22378, Fax Number: +98 511 38 22390
Table 1: Variance analysis of tiller number, grain per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and shoot dry weight (biologic yield) Tiller number Grain per 1000-grain panicle weight Cultivar(A) 165.769 ** 42.459 * Error 0.292 2.223 4.732 Salinity(B) 0.879 2116.024 593.750 (A*B) 0.003 PGPR(C) 1.350 ** 855.745 ** 362.549 ** (A*C) 0.003 (B*C) 0.916 ** 83.562 ** 35.186 ** (A*B*C) 0.003 Error 0.210 9.614 1.976 Grain yield Biologic yield Cultivar(A) 39.71 2.085 Error 10.06 72.570 Salinity(B) 613.342 7561.716 ** (A*B) 0.076 0.039 PGPR(C) 607.629 ** 5281.731 ** (A*C) 0.075 0.058 (B*C) 20.053 * 139.875 * (A*B*C) 0.075 0.017 Error 8.489 80.383 * and ** significant at 95% and 99% confidence Table 2: Measuring results of yield components Traits Variety Salinity (dS [m. sup.-1]) Bam Falat 1 Tiller number 1.754 1.754 1.95 Grain per panicle 40.473 38.122 50.198 1000-grain weight 33.072 31.882 37.827 Grain yield (g [plant.sup.-1]) 26.947 25.796 31.216 Biologic yield (g [plant.sup.-1]) 76.884 77.148 95.14 Traits Salinity (dS [m.sup.-1]) 4 8 12 Tiller number 1.845 1.601 1.621 Grain per panicle 43.234 36.519 30.133 1000-grain weight 34.324 29.732 28.026 Grain yield (g [plant.sup.-1]) 28.289 25.37 20.611 Biologic yield (g [plant.sup.-1]) 82.339 73.183 57.403 Traits Bacteria Control PF153 PF169 Tiller number 1.553 1.519 1.814 Grain per panicle 32.118 34.008 42.329 1000-grain weight 27.873 29.315 34.062 Grain yield (g [plant.sup.-1]) 20.864 22.611 27.993 Biologic yield (g [plant.sup.-1]) 61.435 63.78 84.502 Traits Bacteria PP108 PP4 Tiller number 2.108 1.776 Grain per panicle 46.18 41.849 1000-grain weight 37.518 33.618 Grain yield (g [plant.sup.-1]) 33.726 26.662 Biologic yield (g [plant.sup.-1]) 97.163 78.201 PF153, Pseudomonas fluorescens 153, PF169, Pseudomonas fluorescens 169 PP108, Pseudomonas putida 108 PP4, Pseudomonas putida 4
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|Title Annotation:||Original Articles|
|Author:||Abbaspoor, Abolfazl; Zabihi, Hamid Reza; Movafegh, Sadeq; Asl, Mohammad Hossein Akbari|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2009|
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