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The effects of instruction on the degree of bad effects of child abuse on properties of children's personality to parents by using electronic educational software method.

INTRODUCTION

Family is the smallest social unit which is formed by marriage. Gradually, children join and are supported by parents. Children have a pure soul and are the signs of human completion and are discussed by scholars and teachers over and over. As stated by some scholars, it can be said that 21st century is the "century of children". So, the most important part of material and intellectual sources of more developed countries is to pay attention to children and support them mentally and physically. Child abuse means intentional harm to child body by an adult and physical abuse includes any kind of sexual activity with a child before he can have legal satisfaction and ignorance that is not observing the main needs of a child including food, clothes and educational support. Excitement abuse means any kind of bad behavior with children which is harmful based on experts idea and social factors; That is any kind of behavior which affects the behavioral, cognitive and physical and emotional function of a child such as continuous humility and using offensive words for the child.

Hilgard defines personality and the behavioral patterns and thinking methods which determine the type of compatibility with environment. Ericson believes that personality growth happens during life and the mental growth took place in 8 stages of trust against distrust, independence against doubt, innovation against feeling guilty, identification against role distortion, intimacy against isolation, production against isolation and perfection against disappointment.

It seems that another aspect of child abuse is the consequences of it. This point is approved by others that child abuse can have harmful effects on children and all the society. Sexual, physical and emotional abuse can affect the physical and mental health of children in short and long run and affects his normal growth. Long term mental effect is approved so that the results of researches and various studies published in field of effects and results of child abuse show that mental, physical, emotional, social and psychological or behavioral disorders in victims of child abuse are the consequence of the action Research background has shown that the researches on training programs for reducing child abuse are limited and the importance of improving people information about negative effects of child abuse and then reducing it, shows the importance of the present research. So, it is needed to study the plans for reducing child abuse and then use them practically in comprehensive designs to prevent and reduce child abuse. The present research aims at determining bad effect of child abuse by electronic training software to help parents for reducing the child abuse behaviors in pre-school children.

Research Hypotheses:

1. Teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software helps children to reduce the child abuse behaviors of parents.

2. Teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software helps children to reduce the physical child abuse behaviors of parents.

The main variables of the research include:

Dependent variable: teaching bad effect of child abuse by electronic software Independent variable: child abuse behaviors of children

Research Background:

Zerehpoush and colleagues in a research titled as "comparing child abuse in the patients with drag dependence and independent people in Isfahan" shows that the amount of physical, sexual and emotional child abuse in dependent people is significantly more than the control group. In addition, findings show that not paying attention to the people in control group is more than experimental group.

Children are the most vulnerable groups of society and danger of intervention by other people in the society always threatens them. Child abuse emerges in different forms and unfortunately sometimes the family unit is a place for violence and pain for children [1], Child abuse means the physical, sexual and emotional abuse and not paying attention the needs of children. Narter and colleagues criticized two films about child abuse in America and Turkey. Justice, behavioral consciousness and emotional relation were differently addressed in these films. The results of the study showed the moral growth and consciousness and punishment for reducing the harm. Adults punished children due to different reasons so that during the centuries, punishment has been considered as the most effective method for order and transforming decisions and removing wanton ghosts.

Child abuse Models:

Wolf (quoted by Hampton and colleagues, 1993) introduced the transitive model of how to describe the fights of parents-child which lead to physical child abuse. According to this model, stress is a key element which increased the possibility of fighting inside family structure. Transitional model includes three phases and includes the unbalancing, multiple and compensational structures. Stages are not separated and disconnected but they are covering each other and show the forerunner growth of parents-children fight. First stage describes the factors which are effective in reducing the stress resistance by parents and their abilities in preventing the aggressiveness. Unbalancing factors include the stress in life and not efficient preparation for being parents. Parents behavior in this stage includes marginal efforts for compatibility with stressful factors and controlling the incompatible behaviors; furthermore the compensational economic and social supports factors can modify the effect of stress.

Studying the methodology of different child abuse in various researches has had different results but the results shown in most studies indicated that child abuse has the highest share and physical and sexual harm are in the next stages. Furthermore, the studies have shown that boys are more physically abused than the girls. The studies done in the field of preventing and reducing child abuse indicated that child abuse is done due to lack of information in parents and even some types of child abuse are not known for the parents including emotional child abuse and improving the parents' information causes prevention and reduction of child abuse. One of the pans done in this field is to produce and distribute the catalogs about child abuse. Furthermore, the results have shown that parents who participate in un-known parent's sessions and use these plans reduce bad behavior and not paying attention to the children.

Research Method:

The present research is a semi-experimental study (according to the Research Method by Ali Akbar Hooman, 2011). The research design is the pre-test-posttest design in two groups. Groups are randomly selected and replaced. The experimental group is exposed to dependent variable and control group is not exposed to independent variable and continue their continuous plan (Khalatbari, 2007). Each group is tested twice (pre-test and posttest).

3.3. Population, Sample and Sampling Method:

Population:

Population of the present study includes all the parents of pre-school children in 2nd district of Rasht in 2013-2014 who had signs of child abuse.

The questionnaire of Child Abuse:

The questionnaire was developed by Nouhjah and colleagues (2011) in order to determine the distribution of child abuse and the factors related to it. The questionnaire includes 32 questions which are divided into three parts:

First part includes the information about parents and children. This part includes some information about age, nationality, education and parents' job and also the birth range of the child, gender, child weight and age. Question 1-18 are related to this part.

Second part includes information about physical abuse (slap, using belt, wood, bum, pinch, throwing and not feeding) and emotional child abuse (prisoning, comparing with others, verbal offence, tie up to the chair, humiliating children personality and leaving child alone at home) and no paying attention to the child. Questions 19-26 are related to this part.

Third part includes the information related to parents. In this part the fights of parents and children and their verbal, physical and fights leading to physical harm are discussed, questions 23-27 are related to this part.

Reliability and Validity of the Questionnaire:

Reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by Cronbach Alpha and was 0.79 (Nohjah and colleagues, 2011).

In this research, in order to measure the reliability of the questionnaire, it was first distributed among 20 people and based on filling the responses, the Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.76. Validity of the test was done qualitatively and using the opinions of the experts.

Data Analysis:

Sample of the study included the parents of the pre-school children in Rasht city and the children who underwent child abuse by their parents. Parents were divided into two groups of experimental (20 people who received the training about bad effects of child abuse and its effect on personality characteristics of children) and control group (20 people). The information related to testees features include age, weight and higher which are presented in table 1-4.

3.4. Research Hypotheses:

H1: teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software method to parents reduces the child abuse behavior.

In order to test the hypothesis, covariance analysis of MANCOVA was applied which is a statistical method of measuring the effect of independent variable on dependent variable while the effect of other variable is removed. So, before doing the analysis, first the components of the test including regression, linear relation, matrices of variance-covariance were all tested.

Interaction between independent variable and pre-test is not significant (p< 0.05) and the regression equality is approved.

As box measure shows since the test is not significant the condition of variance-covariance equity is approved. Leven's test is performed to study the variance equity and as it can be seen in the table below, significance level of all the calculated F is more than p > 0.05. so, variance difference is not statistically significant and variance equity is accepted.

Results of the covariance test indicate the significant effect of teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software on reducing child abuse behavior of the parents is significant with (p> 0.01) and Wilk's Lambda shows the effect (0.71) which indicates the intensity of the effect. The effect size is more than 0.14. So, the null hypothesis is rejected and research hypothesis is approved.

Hypothesis 2: teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software reduces child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse.

Results of Covariance indicate that teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software was significantly effective on reducing child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse and (f =295.09). So, the null hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis that teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software reduces child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse is approved. In addition, the results have shown that in following section teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software was effective on reducing child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse.

Results:

Results of Covariance indicate that teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software was significantly effective on reducing child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse and (f =295.09). So, the null hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis that teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software reduces child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse is approved. In addition, the results have shown that in following section teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software was effective on reducing child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse.

Results of the present research agree with the results of Deblinger and colleagues (2011), Polinsky (2010) and Ruff (2010). It is obvious that child abuse is not created by a single cause and various families, mental and cultural causes are effective, too. Child abuse may happen in all social class but it is obvious that in families with behavioral, economic and special cultural features, child abuse will be more.

Studies of Nohjah (2011) and Zargar and colleagues (2007) showed that highest child abuse is seen in low educated children. Kholasezade and colleagues (2006) in a study aimed tat studying the child abuse frequency in drug dependent people showed that 81.9 percent of the samples did child abuse behavior. In this research parents with divorce experience, drag abuse, with physical abuse experience and fight experience in their childhood, had the most child abuse, respectively. Asadollahi and Bratvand (2006) showed that there is a significant relationship between parent's educational level and single child construct and early divorce with child abuse. Stocker and colleagues (2012) considered cultural factors effective. In the studies, various factors are pointed and one of them is the cultural factor. A person who grows in a culture that slapping children is one of the ways for treating, they do not consider physical punishment as child abuse and this behavior is defined as description of child abuse. This type of belief is more common in people with lower educational level and this is due to social and cultural poverty.

Furthermore, the package used in this study includes films and videos and so it is more effective. Results of Covariance indicate that teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software was significantly effective on reducing child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse and (f =295.09). So, the null hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis that teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software reduces child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse is approved. In addition, the results have shown that in following section teaching bad effects of child abuse by electronic software was effective on reducing child abuse behavior of the parents considering physical abuse.

The results agree with the study of Polanski (201) and child abuse is one of the most consequent types of child abuse. Moroniro and colleagues (2007) in a study showed that amount of distribution and ranking of child abuse 67.6 and sexual child abuse was 4 percent with emotional abuse is 28.4 percent. Aieen and colleagues (2002) defined child abuse frequency as 81.1 percent in the society. Sayari and colleagues showed a significant relationship between physical child abuse with age, gender, habitation place, parents' divorce and physical punishment abuse. Kazemipoor (1999) showed that there is a significant relationship between physical punishment and parents educational level. In addition Buniard (2003) studied 152 women who witnessed fights between their parents during their childhood and concluded that facing harm accompanies with increasing parental dissatisfaction in adulthood and using physical punishment.

The researches have shown that high level of child abuse compared to other types and its relation with child abuse is related to parents educational level. However, educational level is important since it can increase personal information in traditional level. If the training is accompanied by using pictures and simple language, it will be more effective since most of the parents consider physical abuse as the highest level of harm to children and consider other weak forms as s normal behavior. A parent who experienced physical punishment as a child, can repeat the behavior as an adult for his children and teaching can recognize these people and inform them about negative effects of child abuse behavior.

REFERENCES

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[3] Alexander, R.C., C.J. Levitt, W.L. Smith, 2001. Child abuse: Medical diagnosis and management. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

[4] Asadolahi, M., 1996. studying misbehavior of parents with children in primary schools of Tabriz, M.A. Thesis, Tabriz University.

[5] Banyard, V.L., 1999. Childhood maltreatment and the mental health of low-income women. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 69(2): 161-71.

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[7] Bartholomew, N.G., G.A. Rowan-Sza, J.A. Cohen, L.R. Chatham, 2000. Characteristics of women with sexual abuse histories who enter methadone treatment. Institute of Behavioral Research, Texas Christian University, 2000. Available from: URL: www.ibr.tcu.edu.

[8] Bartolomew, N.G., 2000. "Characteristics of Women with Sexual abuse histories who Enter Methadone Treatment," Institute of behavioral research, Texas Christian University, available at www.proquest.umi.com. P: 2.

[9] Blain, G.H., R.M. Bergner, M.L. Lewis, M.A. Goldstein, 1981. The use of objectively scorable House-Tree-Person indicators to establish child abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37(3): 667-73.

[10] Briere, J., D.M. Elliott, 2003. Prevalence and psychological sequelae of self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse in a general population sample of men and women Child Abuse & Neglect, 27: 1205-1222

[11] Brown, J. and J. Cohen, 1998. "A longitudinal Analysis of Risk Factor for Child Maltreatment", Child abuse & Neglect, 22(11): 1065-1078.

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ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 15 April 2014

Received in revised form 22 May 2014

Accepted 25 May 2014

Available online 15 June 2014

(1) Damira Habibi, (1) Maryam Gohari Moghadam, (3) Mohammad Hossein Fallah, (4) Masoud Amoopour

(1) M. A., Department of Education Technology, Payame Noor University (PNU), Siahkal Branch, Gil an, Iran.

(2) Member of faculty. Department of Education Managment, Islamic. lead University, Astaneh Ashrafieh Branch, Gil an, Iran.

(3) Assistant Professor, Member of Faculty, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yard, Iran.

(4) Assistant Professor, Member of Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Mod University, Rasht, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Samira Habibi, M. A., Department of Education Technology, Payame Noor University (PNU), Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran.

E-mail: s.habibi@iauyazd.ac.ir
Table 1-3: Pretest and posttest with control group.

                     Pre-test   Dependent   posttest
                                variable

Experimental group   T1         X           T2
Control group        T4         --          T3

Table 1.4: Testees' features.

group        index   age    Birth    Present
                            weight   birth

Experiment   Mean    6.35   2.31     14.36
al group     SD      0.77   1.61     6.12
             min     6      1.80     11
             max     7      3.5      20

group        index   age    Birth    Present
                            weight   birth

control      mean    6.41   2.61     15.77
group        SD      0.63   1.54     4.78
             min     6      2.21     12
             max     7      3.5      19

Table 4.2: Studying the interactional effect of
independent variable and pre-test.

Independent variable and pretest

            SS       df   MS      F       sig

physical    35.85    2    17.92   2.63    0.09
error       224.79   33   6.81
emotional   15.23    2    7.61    2.89    0.07
error       87.01    33   2.74
ignorance   0.087    2    0.043   0.016   0.98
erro        322.97   25   12.2

Table 4.3: Box Measure for studying Matric Equality

8.53     s MBox
  F      1.30
  6      Dfl
Df2        10472.9
  0.25   Sig

Table 4.4: Leven's test for studying variance equity

variable    t      dfl   df2   sig

physical    0.85   1     38    0.36
emotional   2.66   1     38    0.11
ignorance   3.01   1     38    0.09

Table 4.5: Test of effect size based on Wilk's Lambda.

Effect          Value   F        df2   dfl

Wilk's Lambda   0.099   100.34   3     33

Effect          sig     [??]   following

Wilk's Lambda   0.001   0.71   0.74
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Author:Habibi, Samira; Moghadam, Maryam Gohari; Fallah, Mohammad Hossein; Amoopour, Masoud
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 23, 2014
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