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The effects of a parent-child paired reading program on reading abilities, phonological awareness and self-concept of at-risk pupils (1).

There is a body of literature suggesting that involving parents in their children's education is an effective strategy for children at risk of reading failure. In a pre-test/post-test control group design, parents in an experimental group received reading materials and were trained on techniques to stimulate their child during paired reading at home, while a control group only received materials. Reading and general academic abilities were pre- and post-tested, as well as phonological awareness and self-concept. The results show statistically significant gains in general academic abilities and phonological awareness in favor of the experimental group, while no significant gains were noted in reading abilities and self-concept. This report discusses the factors which could explain those results.

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The prevention of academic failure has become an increasing concern for those who aim to ensure the success of the greatest number of pupils possible (Leslie & McMillan, 1999; Snow, Burn, & Griffin, 1998; Torgesen, 2002). In many Western countries, the alarming number of pupils dropping out or failing has incited many researchers, educators and parents to mobilize their efforts to redress this concerning situation. Over the last few years, the increasing number of pupils experiencing difficulties in normal classes combined with budgetary cuts, which limit services available to students, have led policy makers and education specialists to put more emphasis on a better cooperation between schools and parents in order to prevent academic failure, particularly in reading (Cadieux & Boudreault, 2003). Reading is at the centre of learning activities at the beginning of a child's schooling. Among other things, reading permits access to culture and facilitates learning in many other school subjects. Early failure in reading often has disastrous impacts on the academic future of children. However, the number of children failing can be significantly reduced when parents cooperate actively in their children's school education right from the start (Purcell-Gates, 2000). Among other things, many researchers have highlighted the positive effects of parent-school cooperation programs on the performance of at-risk pupils, including those at risk of failure in reading (Fitton & Gredler, 1996; Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 1997; McCarthey, 2000; Sanacore, 1990; Vadasy, Jenkins & Pool, 2000; Wasik, 1998). Paired reading, which is one of those programs that necessitate an active cooperation between a child's family and school (Topping, 1995; Topping and Lindsay, 1991), was introduced in the 1970's and was based mostly on the research of K. J. Topping. This method is simple to learn and is effective with parents who do not have a high level of education or who have poor reading abilities. It includes essentially a simultaneous reading phase and an independent reading phase. In the first phase, the parent and the child read out loud together a short text previously chosen by the child. The parent follows the same reading speed as his/her child, acts principally as a model and pays attention to the child's pronunciation during reading. In the second phase, the child gives a certain signal which indicates to the parent that he/she is ready to continue reading on his/her own. The parent praises his/her child and lets him/her read alone until he/she makes a mistake or hesitates for more than four seconds. When this occurs, the parent reads the word with the child and starts reading simultaneously with his/her child again until the child signals that he/she is ready to start reading alone again, and so on (Topping, 1995).

Several literature reviews analyzed the results of primary studies that explored the effects of paired reading on reading ability (Fitton & Gredler, 1996; Toomey, 1993; Topping, 1995; Topping & Lindsay, 1991 ; Topping & Wolfendale, 1985). Topping (1995) identified 18 studies which focused on the effects of paired reading. In these studies, the age of participants varied between 5 and 13 years, with groups of 3 to 33 children participating in a 4- to 39week intervention. Twelve studies used the biological parents of the children, and six used peers or volunteer parents. The measures used as dependent variables included comprehension scale scores, such as the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability, or results obtained on other tests which generated a single reading accuracy score. Most studies obtained results expressed in 'reading age' and included an analysis of 'ratio gains', corresponding to the reading age gain achieved by a subject on a standardized reading test divided by the subject's chronological age (Topping, 1995). The ratio gains of participants varied from 0.94 to 9.75 in accuracy and from 0.96 to 9.27 in comprehension, while the ratio gains of control groups ranged from -0.43 to 4.88 in accuracy and from -0.13 to 7.11 in comprehension. In follow-up studies, the results varied generally from one child to another. Topping (1995) suggested that the duration of the intervention period and the acceleration of learning do not particularly affect the results, but that nothing indicated that the gains were not sustained.

Overett and Donald (1998) also provided data on the effects of paired reading. In six training sessions, they trained 29 parents from low socio-economic backgrounds to use the paired reading technique, then compared their results with those of a control group composed of 32 parents. The results indicated a statistically significant increase only for the experimental group in scores obtained on the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability for accuracy and comprehension. The authors also reported that the level of communication and enthusiasm of the education specialists during the training phase and the level of cooperation of parents had beneficial impacts. On the other hand, Law and Kratochwill (1993) as well as Miller and Kratochwill (1996) suggested that paired reading does not produce statistically significant gains in reading performance. It is worth noting, however, that Topping (1997) pointed out some inconsistencies, notably in the description of the paired reading method and the measurement of reading gains.

Topping (1995) indicated that the results of many studies are somewhat limited, for example at the level of the reading process, which pertains to how parent tutors controlled their behaviors following their training on paired reading. In studies which experimentally assess paired reading, it is imperative to ensure that the tutors make their behaviors compliant with the paired reading method in order to reduce any variation when the independent variable is introduced. Topping (1997) noted that only few studies reported detailed information on the behaviors of tutors following their training. Among those few studies who did, Bushnell, Miller and Robson (1982) evaluated the behaviors of tutors during home visits with the parents using a checklist which included items pertaining directly to paired reading and other independent items. The results revealed that only four aspects of the paired reading technique were significantly correlated, but only slightly, with the gains observed in reading accuracy. In addition, Winter (1988) conducted a study of tutor behaviors with audio recordings. His results suggested that full and rigorous compliance with the paired reading technique had little direct impact on the tutees' reading outcomes. Winter also concluded that when participants received home visits, the degree of compliance with the technique increased.

Few studies assessed the effects of paired reading on self-concept and phonological awareness and their results are inconsistent (Topping, 1995). In a longitudinal study, Chapman, Tunmer and Prochnow (2000) found that young children with negative self-concepts at the beginning of their schooling had poorer phonological awareness and performed at a lower level in reading compared to children with positive self-concepts. Since the relationship between negative self-concept and poor reading achievement is established early and is maintained over the first years of schooling, Chapman et al. (2000) suggested that it is crucial to reverse this process in order to avoid long-term negative effects on reading performance.

In short, paired reading appears to be an effective means of improving reading performance, and nothing proves that reading gains cannot be sustained over time. Those studies which examined processes demonstrated variable levels of compliance with the paired reading technique, but this factor does not seem to be closely linked with reading gains. More studies are needed to further describe the sources of variation associated with the individual characteristics of participants, the measurement method and the treatment. Accordingly, the hypothesis that we attempted to verify through our research project was whether a parent-child paired reading intervention would increase general academic skills and, more specifically, reading skills. Moreover, we analyzed the effects of paired reading on phonological awareness and self-concept on an exploratory basis.

Methodology

Our research methodology consisted in using a nonequivalent control group quasi-experimental design. The goal of our research program was to reduce the risks of reading delay among children who were identified as at-risk pupils in kindergarten. The experimental group received all the necessary materials and preparatory reading training over the school year (10 months) and was supervised by research assistants, while the control group only received the materials and received attention from members of the research group, without any instruction or specific training.

Participants

The participants were selected among 632 kindergarten pupils attending schools which were part of the same school board in the Outaouais region of the province of Quebec. They were identified in May 2000 using screening tools which were proven by several studies to predict school delays (Boudreault, Laberge, Cadieux & Rodrigue, 1996; Cadieux & Boudreault, 2002; Cadieux, Boudreault & Laberge, 1997). These tools included the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test [OLSAT], Level 1, as well as a checklist completed by teachers. This checklist was developed and validated with effective predictors of school delays in reading (Cadieux & Boudreault, 2002). In a Cadieux et al. (1997) study, the predictive value of the OLSAT in relation with general school performance was of 0.49 for the first grade and of 0.50 for the second and third grades. In addition, Cadieux and Boudreault (2002) reported the results of a validation of the checklist completed by kindergarten teachers to predict later school performance in French (reading and writing) of their pupils. These results indicated correlations of 0.63 and 0.66 between the total score of the checklist and later performance in the first and second grades, respectively.

The scores of the OLSAT and the checklist were integrated into a single score. Each measure was weighed based on its predictive value as reported

in previous validation studies (Cadieux & Boudreault, in press). The critical threshold applied to select the students was based on statistics from the Education Ministry of Quebec with regard to the percentage of pupils experiencing difficulties in the Outaouais, i.e. children among the 13.9% of students who are deemed to have the poorest performance. After considering the number of parents who accepted to participate during the entire experimentation period and for whom complete and valid data could be gathered, the final total number of participants was 54 pupils. In order to divide them between the experimental and control groups, the participating schools were assigned at random to one of these two groups. Therefore, pupils in one particular school all received the same treatment condition. The number of pupils in the experimental group was 32 while 22 pupils were assigned to the control group.

With regard to the gender variable, the experimental group had 17 boys and 15 girls, whereas the control group included 15 boys and 7 girls. At the beginning of the project, the average age of the pupils was 71.0 months (S.D.: 3.7) and there was no statistically significant difference ([F.sub.(1,52)] = 2.18; n.s.) between pupils of the experimental and control groups. The socio-economic level of participants was assessed based on the father's occupation or the education level of the parents on a scale of one to five (1 = unemployed or without any diplomas; 2 = manual or unskilled worker or secondary/professional diploma; 3 = technical job or CEGEP diploma (pre-university level); 4 = professional or undergraduate university degree; 5 = senior executive or graduate university degree). The results indicated that the socio-economic level of participants was generally low (average = 2.3; standard deviation = 1.0), but did not indicate a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups (F(1,52) = 0.2; n.s.). Approximately 70% of pupils lived in urban areas while 30% lived in rural communities. Also, at the beginning of the project, none of the students had received any formal teaching in reading and most of them (92.6%) were in kindergarten for the first time.

With regard to maternal language, 41 children used French at home while 13 spoke another language (English, Spanish or Arabic). The students whose maternal language was not French were divided almost equally among the experimental (n = 6) and control groups (n = 7); a [Khi.sup.2] test did not reveal any statistically significant difference between the two groups ([chi square] = 0.81; n.s.).

Dependent variables

Academic ability. The OLSAT--Level 1 (Otis-Lennon, 1995), which was used to screen students, was also administered during the post-test phase. This instrument measures several general academic abilities, such as the ability to follow instructions, attention, discrimination and number representation. The version used was a translated and adapted French language version with adequate psychometric properties (Sarrazin, Vaillancourt & McInnis, 1986). An analysis of internal consistency among participants of the research study revealed Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.80 at the pre-test and 0.82 at the post-test.

Reading ability. Reading ability was measured with five reading development scales from the Brigance Inventory of Early Development (for children aged between 0 and 7 years) (Brigance, 1995), that is: color naming, number naming, reading common signposts, auditory discrimination and initial consonant sounds. The metrological qualities, assessed with a group of francophones from the Outaouais region, indicated acceptable properties. With regards to internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha coefficients from 0.79 to 0.85 were found. As for validity, a correlation of 0.79 was noted between the total score at the post-test (average of the five Brigance scales) and the reading accuracy scale measured by the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability. Since the results from the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability were taken only at the post-test, they were not included under this pre test/post-test design.

Phonological awareness. Phonological awareness was assessed with the French Auditory Analysis Test (Test d'analyse auditive en francais, TAAF) proposed by Rosner and Simon (1971). The test was translated and adapted by Gignac (1997) with the collaboration of Cormier from the University of Moncton. This is a test administered exclusively orally where the pupil is invited to play with sounds. Generally, the test consisted in making a child repeat a word, then asking him/her to say it again by removing a particular sound (omission of a syllable or phoneme). For example, the examiner asked the child to repeat the word 'flying', then asked him to repeat it again but without the 'ing' sound at the end of the word. The child then had to say the word 'fly' in order to pass that item. The test was divided in eight categories in which the pupil had to repeat a word by eliminating a syllable or phoneme either at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the word. In the first, second and seventh categories, the child had to remove a syllable at the end, at the beginning and in the middle of a word, respectively. In the third category, the pupil had to remove a phoneme at the end of a word, whereas in the fourth and fifth categories, he/she had to remove a phoneme at the beginning of a word. Finally, for the sixth and eighth categories, the child had to remove a phoneme placed in the middle of a word. The test ended when two consecutive categories were entirely failed. Each category included eight items and scores ranged from 0 to 8. The total score was the average of the eight categories.

An analysis of internal consistency for each category indicated Cronbach's alpha coefficients from 0.77 to 0.83. These results were fairly similar to those reported by Cormier, MacDonald, Grandmaison and Ouellette-Lebel (1995) who validated a similar version of the TAAE In their study, Cronbach's alpha coefficients varied from 0.68 to 0.91. As for validity, Cormier et al. (1995) found statistically significant links between scores on the TAAF and performance on reading and spelling sub-tests, which is consistent with the results of other studies on the relations between phonological awareness and academic performance (Blachman, 2000).

Self-concept. Self-concept was measured with a translated and adapted version of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA) (Harter & Pike, 1983). Even though the original instrument includes four dimensions, only three of them were used for our study: school self-concept, social self-concept and physical self-concept. These dimensions were translated and adapted in French. Their factorial structure and other psychometric data are reported in Cadieux (1996). The instrument includes a total of 18 pairs of images, and a short story is told to the child for each of those pairs. One of the images describes an ability in positive terms while the other describes this same ability in negative terms. The pupil must choose which image is the most like him/her, and must write an 'X' in one of two circles: in the small circle if the image is 'a little like him/her' or in the big circle is the image is 'really like him/her'. A four-point measurement scale was used (1 being the most negative and 4 being the most positive). The metrological qualities of the instrument were tested with learning disabled students and proved to be adequate (Cadieux, 1995, 1996). In this study, Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.71 to 0.93 were obtained for the three self-concept dimensions at the pre-test and post-test phases.

Independent variable

Wasik (1998) identified eight components to ensure the effectiveness of tutoring program. These components were integrated in the control of the independent variable.

1) Training of the tutors by a specialist. Two research assistants who were completing their final year in a remedial teaching program acted as reading specialists for this research project. They received thorough instructions on how to train parents on using the paired reading technique and on how to supervise them. The assistants' training included learning the principles and features of the paired reading technique, practical training sessions to allow them to experiment the technique and integrate its particularities, and assessment of the tutors and tutees. Three two hour theoretical training sessions and four or five practical training sessions with a child allowed the assistants to master perfectly all the elements of the program. In order to evaluate their competencies, a checklist inspired by Bushnell et al. (1982) was used. The two assistants both had scores of 5 out of 5 on all items of the list. The assistants were supervised throughout the entire year to ensure that they maintained a proper level of knowledge of the paired reading technique.

2) Supervision of the tutors. The tutors were trained and received regularly feedback from the research assistants. To ensure that parents properly applied the method, particular emphasis was put on the following instructions. First, when the child made a mistake, the parent had to wait four seconds to allow the child to correct himself/herself. If after four seconds the child was not able to read the word, the parent was instructed not to let the child struggle any longer with the word but to simply read it, then ask the child to repeat the word. Second, the parent was instructed not to give the right answer when the child went silent, but wait four seconds to allow the child to find the answer. Third, when the child was reading well, the parent had to reinforce his/her efforts by smiling or giving praise. Fourth, if the child skipped some words, the parent was encouraged to point out each word while reading. Fifth, when the child showed signs of being tired or lacking attention, the parent was invited to stop the session and to show that he/she was proud of the child's efforts.

3) Structure of the program. Tutoring sessions were structured and used rich reading materials. Paired reading is a simple method for non-professionals which can be adapted and takes into consideration the interests of the pupils. This technique is divided in two stages: simultaneous reading and independent reading. Before beginning the reading session, the child chooses a book and discusses the story or the subject with his/her parent. Then, the child and the parent begin with simultaneous reading. During this phase, the child reads out loud at the same time as the parent. The parent corrects the child's mistakes only by modeling. During the independent reading phase, the child gives a signal to the parent to indicate that he/she is ready to read alone. The parent praises the child for taking this initiative and encourages him/her regularly. When the child makes a mistakes, the parent corrects him/her, making sure that the child repeats exactly the same thing, then starts reading out loud with the child again.

4) Consistency and intensity of the program. Tutoring is intensive and consistent. During each reading activity, the child chose by himself/herself the material before beginning reading with one of his/her parents. The length of the reading session was at least five minutes each day, five days a week. The parents were instructed not go beyond 15 minutes per day unless the child stated that he/she wanted to continue. The location chosen for reading varied from one child to another (bedroom, kitchen table, living room), but had to be a calm and comfortable location. Parents were instructed to turn off the television or the radio. It was also suggested to parents and children to read in close physical proximity to make the experience more intimate and enjoyable.

5) Quality of the material. Good quality materials were used with all subjects to ensure a certain uniformity and enjoyment of reading. Since the reading materials available to each child at home were different, we gave a standard material package to all participants. This package included 50 flash cards (26 letters, 16 consonant-vowel syllables and 8 consonant-vowel-consonant syllables) and 32 small first grade books from a popular series of child literature in Quebec. The flash cards were used for letter reading and syllable recognition activities, while the small books were introduced to practice reading with prose-like materials. The stories included in the books were adapted to the reading level of the pupils and followed the progression of materials received in school. The children received two or three books at each tutoring session. These books contained illustrations and were interesting from the children's perspective. They were adapted to the level of the reading abilities of the child and parent.

6) Assessment of the students on a regular basis. The progress made by each child was assessed regularly. Within each home visit, the parent and the research assistant discussed the progress of the tutee by evaluating the number of errors made during reading sessions. This discussion helped the research assistant adapt the material and the parent's behavior with their child.

7) Assessment of the tutors on a regular basis. To verify the frequency of reading sessions, a calendar was provided to parents and their children. Each reading session was recorded by putting an 'X' or the number of a book in the space corresponding to a particular day on the calendar following each session. Moreover, a short reading activity was proposed to parents and children for each day of the calendar. Parents could do this activity with their child in an informal way in order to have fun while reading. Also, a booklet was provided to parents for them to write down any question or comment. However, most parents did not use this booklet. Since there were regular follow-up visits, parents preferred to ask their questions as the weeks went along, without noting the difficulties they may have had in-between visits. Moreover, the goal of the home visits was to assess compliance with the paired reading technique and correct the parents to ensure they achieved an acceptable level of understanding. During these visits, the parent and the child practiced reading while the assistant observed them. Afterwards, the assistant made comments by focusing first on positive aspects, then by discussing other aspects that needed improvement. With a checklist inspired by Bushnell et al. (1982), the parents had to obtain a score of 4/5 or 5/5 on all items of the list. During all home visits, the parents were evaluated and corrected immediately until all the criteria that applied to simultaneous reading and independent reading were mastered. At the beginning of the parents' training, most visits lasted about an hour, and in some cases even required two hours. After one or two visits, the assistants rarely needed to correct the parents anymore since most of them mastered the features of the technique. From time to time, however, it was necessary to remind parents that they needed to praise their child during reading.

8) Coordination of tutoring with classroom instruction and materials. A questionnaire was completed by the teachers of all participating children to assess the reading materials and instruction received in school. The results revealed that the reading program and materials used in the paired reading study were similar to those used in school.

Results

Table 1 presents the means, standard deviations and two-tailed t-tests of the pre-and post-test scores for all dependant variables. The results indicate that pupils from the experimental group made gains which were statistically more significant compared to children of the control group in their general academic abilities and phonological awareness. With regard to reading abilities, the results indicate that pupils of both the experimental and control group made important gains between the pre-test and post-test, but differences between scores of the experimental and control group were not statistically significant. The experimental group reached the level of 0.05 (t = 2.04; d.f. = 52, p < .05) only on Brigance's fourth sub-test, the auditory discrimination test. With regard to self concept, the three scales did not reveal any significant differences between pre-test and post-test scores obtained by the experimental and control groups.

Discussion and conclusion

The results obtained following this study are consistent with follow-up studies conducted by Topping (1995), who noted positive gains when the paired reading technique was used. The results are also consistent with other research studies that demonstrated the positive impact of tutoring programs on reading (Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes & Moody, 2000; Burns, Senesac & Symington, 2004). However, while some results are statistically significant, the extent of the gains made was not very considerable and further research must be conducted among groups of at-risk pupils.

With regard to the OLSAT, results suggest that pupils of the experimental group improved slightly compared to pupils of the control group. Since this tool measures general academic abilities, the results suggest that paired reading produces effects on areas other than reading ability. Thus, it is possible that implicating the parent in this process had radiating effects that were generalized in other learning areas. These results suggest that the active cooperation of parents in paired reading produces gains at the level of school adaptation in general. As an example of ratio gains, represented by the standardized OLSAT age divided by the chronological age multiply by 100, participants of the experimental group went from 77 to 95, while participants in the control group went from 75 to 84. These results suggest that the academic abilities of at-risk pupils who received the paired reading treatment were able to reach normal levels (e.g. 88-111), like other pupils who were not at risk or did not experience any particular difficulty.

The results on the auditory discrimination sub-test and the phonological awareness test suggest that paired reading has a positive impact on the degree of awareness that the pupils possessed regarding the sounds that make up their language. These results can be explained by the fact that during simultaneous reading, the child has to make an association between a letter or a group of letter and the corresponding sound. During simultaneous reading, the child can compare the sounds that his/her parent makes with the sounds that he/she produces and can make letter-sound associations. This aspect becomes a sort of 'sonority game' between the child and the parent. In addition, when the child was reading independently, he/she could practice and be corrected rapidly when he/she had difficulties.

Another factor which might explain these results is the characteristics of the participants. In fact, in most studies reviewed, children who did not have any major difficulty with regard to their readiness to learn were among the participants. Our study included only children at risk of school delays who showed very little pre-reading abilities at the end of kindergarten. When they started the first grade, most of these pupils did not yet know the alphabetical system. This situation created some difficulties when it came to reading books made up of complete sentences. Thus, it was difficult to apply rigorously the paired reading technique during the first four months of the intervention due to the difficulties that the children were experiencing. However, the activities carried out with the flash cards were organized in a way to respect the principles of the paired reading technique as well as the specific behaviors tutors had to display during paired reading sessions. For example, the parent laid out on a table ten 'letter' flash cards and ten 'syllable' flash cards. The child and the parent then started by naming the letters together from left to right, and from top to bottom, until the child signaled that he/she was ready to continue alone. When a mistake was made followed by a four-second delay, the parent provided the right answer, made the child repeat the name of the letter or syllable, then started naming the next letters with the child, and so on. Consequently, the fact that phonological awareness gains were more significant than reading ability gains can be explained in part by the fact that participants made improvements according to their own characteristics, that is at the level of pre-reading.

The use of parents as tutors is also a factor that may explain the size of the effect. None of the parents were reading specialists. The research staff was instructed to train and help parents to master only one technique (paired reading). We deliberately chose only one technique because one of the purposes of the study was to make all parents comfortable with the use of paired reading. Other gains that were not reported in this study include the increased motivation and satisfaction of parent that were trained to help their child. They were feeling more competent and were more receptive in school situations that dealt with learning difficulties.

As for self-concept, the absence of gains is not surprising since children of that age do not differentiate their own self-concept with the perception of others and see themselves more in an absolute manner than in a relative manner (Harter, 1986; Cadieux, 1996). Moreover, a ceiling effect due to the measurement instrument was noted for participants, which made it virtually impossible to observe any differences.

This study has certain limits. One of those pertains to the behaviors of tutors. While we employed control mechanisms and made regular home visits, we cannot certify that all parents rigorously followed instructions given with the original technique devised by Topping (1995) outside of those visits. Also, the small number of participants limits our ability to make generalizations with the results. Finally, the data obtained on the psychometric properties of the reading abilities tested with the Brigance Development Inventory were limited to a population of at-risk pupils and results must be interpreted with caution. The correlation of 0.79 obtained between scores of reading accuracy from the Neale Reading Analysis of Ability and the total scores of the five subscales of the Brigance Development Inventory indicated a satisfactory but medium-low level of validity. Data regarding test and re-test coefficient were not available. Other reading and pre-reading ability tests would have been necessary to verify more accurately the effects of the paired reading program on reading ability.

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(1) The report research was performed pursuant to a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research council of Canada (SSHRC-Grant no. 410-98-1129).

ALAIN CADIEUX, PH.D.

PAUL BOUDREAULT, Ph.D.

Universite du Quebec en Outaouais
Table 1
Pre- and post-test means of all dependent variables

Dependant Pre-test Post-test
variables Mean SD Mean SD

OLSAT
Experimental (a) 19.9 4.6 38.5 8.0

Control (b) 18.1 5.9 32.8 11.9

Phonological
awareness

Experimental 2.5 1.3 4.5 1.8

Control 1.8 1.4 2.5 1.5

Reading

Experimental 65.9 16.6 84.1 12.3

Control 67.9 15.8 80.2 17.9

School Self-
concept

Experimental 3.4 0.6 3.6 0.6

Control 3.5 0.5 3.7 0.5

Social Self-
concept

Experimental 3.7 0.6 3.6 0.6

Control 3.7 0.5 3.8 0.4

Physical Self-
concept

Experimental 3.7 0.4 3.8 0.3

Control 3.4 0.5 3.6 0.4

Dependant Mean diff.
variables Mean SD t p

OLSAT
Experimental (a) 18.6 7.6
 2.1 <.05
Control (b) 14.7 9.8

Phonological
awareness

Experimental 2.0 1.8
 4.3 <.001
Control 0.7 0.9

Reading

Experimental 18.2 15.8
 0.9 n.s.
Control 12.3 9.7

School Self-
concept

Experimental 0.2 0.6
 -0.4 n.s.
Control 0.2 0.4

Social Self-
concept

Experimental 0.0 0.7
 -0.8 n.s.
Control 0.1 0.5

Physical Self-
concept

Experimental 0.1 0.3
 1.4 n.s.
Control 0.2 0.4

Note : Score range : Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) (0-60);
Phonological awareness (0-8) ; Reading (0-100) ; Self-concept (1-4).
Degree of freedom for all t value is 52.

(a) n = 32

(b) n = 22
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