The effect of patellar taping on some landing characteristics during counter movement jumps in healthy subjects.
Taping has been observed to be effective in the prevention and rehabilitation of lower limb injuries (Brandon, 2011; Burns and Lowery, 2011; Cools et al., 2002; Engstrom and Renstrom, 1998; Halseth et al., 2004). Furthermore, it has been shown to reduce pain (Aminaka and Gribble, 2008; Halseth et al., 2004; Hinman et al., 2003; Mostamand et al., 2010, 2011; Salsich et al., 2002). As a result, taping is widely used among athletes (Brandon, 2011). Nevertheless, given the observed association between patellar taping (PT) and decreased neuromuscular activity (Ng and Cheng, 2002; Ng and Wong, 2009), it has been suggested that PT may hinder performance (Ng and Wong, 2009). Because counter movement jumps (CMJs) are associated with performance in ground-based sports and are usually evaluated to assess athletic ability (Bobbert et al., 1996; Harman et al., 1991; Sayers et al., 1999), it would be of practical interest to determine the effect of PT on flight time during a CMJ.
Sports, particularly those that involve lower limb impacts, can potentially lead to overuse injuries (Lequesne et al., 1997; Molloy and Molloy, 2011; Thelin et al., 2006). Lower limb impacts during sports and exercise mainly occur during the landing phase of a jump, and they are characterized by a vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) that comprises two distinct peaks corresponding to forefoot and rearfoot contact with the ground (Dufek and Bates, 1990; 1991; Rojano et al., 2010). The magnitude of these peaks is associated with the production of injuries (Dufek and Bates, 1991; Lian et al., 1996; Richards et al., 1996). Jumps are very common in ball sports, and it has been observed that athletes competing in handball, volleyball, basketball, and soccer are prone to developing lower limb injuries (Lequesne et al., 1997; Vrezas et al., 2010). Gymnasts, due to the high magnitude impacts that occur during the landing phase, are also susceptible to lower limb injuries (Caine and Golightly, 2011). Furthermore, elite athletes seem to be more prone to developing lower limb injuries than recreational athletes (Lequesne et al., 1997). PT has been observed to reduce the magnitude of the first peak of the VGRF during fast walking (Bennell et al., 2006). Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have analyzed the effect of PT on the VGRF during the landing phase of a jump. Because high magnitude forces acting on the body can be deleterious (Dufek and Bates, 1991), using PT to decrease the VGRF during the landing phase could be beneficial in terms of injury prevention. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of PT on landing characteristics of the VGRF and on flight time during a CMJ.
Eleven healthy male subjects (mean [+ or -] SD age = 31.1 [+ or -] 4.2 yr; height = 1.74 [+ or -] 0.07 m; body mass = 73.6 [+ or -] 5.9 kg) took part in the study. All of them were physically active and had no history of musculoskeletal injuries. Prior to their involvement in the research, all of the subjects provided informed consent, as outlined by the declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Ethics Committe of the Hospital of Basurto and meets the ethical standards described by Harriss and Atkinson (2009).
Two days before the testing session, the subjects underwent 30 min of technical training on how to perform CMJs correctly. During the takeoff phase of the jump participants were instructed to perform a knee flexion of approximately 90[degrees]. The hands were placed on the hips during the takeoff, flight, and landing phases of the CMJ, and a minimal flexion of the trunk during the takeoff phase was permitted, as described by Komi and Bosco (1978). On the testing day, the subjects performed a standardized warm up prior to data collection (Canavan, 2004). The trials consisted of six CMJs performed under two different jumping conditions: with PT (BodyArmor; DARCO International, USA) and WPT. Medial glide taping of the patella was applied as described by McConnell (1986). The resting time between jumps was 45-60 s (Berthoin et al., 2001; Krol and Mynarski, 2010). The order of the two jumping conditions was randomized.
VGRF data at 1,000 Hz were collected using a force platform (Dinascan/IBV 8.2; Instituto de Biomecanica de Valencia, Spain) embedded in the ground. Jumps were excluded if the feet did not land entirely on the force platform, or if the jumping technique was incorrect.
We recorded the first (F1) and second (F2) peaks of the VGRF during the landing phase (Figure 1). From the temporal data, the time to the production of F1 (T1), the time to the production of F2 (T2), the flight time (FT), and the time to stabilization (TTS) were obtained (Figure 1). The TTS was determined during the landing phase, beginning with the first contact of the feet with the ground and ending when the VGRF reached and stayed within 5% of the subjects' body weight (Colby et al., 1999; McKinley and Pedotti, 1992) (Figure 1). We also calculated the loading rates of the first and second peaks of the landing phase (LR1 and LR2, respectively) determined by the ratio between the magnitudes of F1 and F2 and the time elapsed from the initial contact of the feet with the ground at the landing phase to the production of these peaks (Decker et al., 2002). F1 and F2 were normalized according to the subjects' body weight (BW).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
For descriptive purposes, the variables are reported as-means [+ or -] standard deviation (SD), SD). Paired sample t-tests were used to compare the magnitude of the parameters during PT and WPT jumping. We used the Shapiro-Wilk test to test the null hypothesis that the sample came from a normally distributed population. The inferential statistics Levene's test was conducted to assess the equality of variances. We determined the trial-to-trial reliability of the parameters using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Differences were considered significant when p < 0.05. Statistical power (1-[beta]), or failing to reject a false null hypothesis, was calculated for each statistical analysis. The power was estimated using a two-tailed t-test design with [alpha]=0.05, the sample size and the effect size index ([d.sub.z]). [d.sub.z] was calculated from the means and SDs of two random variables and the correlation between them. The results of statistical power for each dependent t-test for paired samples ranged from 0.85 to 0.91 for F1 and LR1, respectively. The rest of the t-tests showed a power lower than 0.80 and consequently, a high probability of making a type II error. In these cases, the sample size should be increased accordingly in following studies to test this relationship further. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 15.0; SPSS Inc., USA) was used for statistical analysis.
As shown in Table 1, the parameters that characterize the landing phase (F1, F2, T1, T2, LR1, LR2, and TTS), demonstrated fair reliability (ICC > 0.75). The FT demonstrated good reliability (PT: ICC = 0.97; WPT: ICC = 0.98). The highest reliability under PT condition was obtained in T2 and under WPT condition in F2. The lowest reliability in both conditions was obtained in TTS.
The mean values of the parameters characterizing the VGRF during the landing phase and the FT are presented in Table 2. Although LR1 and F1 with PT were respectively 13.12% and 12.36% lower than WPT, no significant differences were obtained between both jumping conditions.
In the present study, we observed that the landing characteristics of the VGRF during CMJs with the application of PT were not significantly different compared to WPT landing characteristics. Furthermore, the FT with PT was not significantly different from the FT WPT.
Hard landings, characterized by high magnitude forces acting on the body and short times leading to the production of these forces, have been associated with injuries in the lower limbs (Dufek and Bates, 1991; McNair et al., 2000). Landing techniques that increase T1, T2, and TTS and decrease F1 and F2 have been observed to soften the impact, diminishing the probability of injury (Wikstrom, 2003). One such technique was adopted by subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, who were compared with uninjured subjects (Decker et al., 2002). The authors noted longer times to the production of F1 (T1: 13.70 [+ or -] 2.68 ms vs. 9.15 [+ or -] 3.60 ms) and F2 (T2: 51.80 [+ or -] 8.32 ms vs. 36.42 [+ or -] 10.21 ms), and lower magnitudes of LR1 (114.12 [+ or -] 35.26 BW x [s.sup.-1] vs. 192.50 [+ or -] 88.25 BW x [s.sup.-1]) and LR2 (70.97 [+ or -] 36.66 BW x [s.sup.-1] vs. 134.04 [+ or -] 71.53 BW x [s.sup.-1]) in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
The lack of any significant effect of PT on the landing characteristics of the VGRF suggests that the decreased risk of injuries associated with the use of taping is due to factors other than softening of the VGRF during landing. Among these factors, increased joint stability and knee joint proprioception have been mentioned (Callaghan et al., 2002; Larsen et al., 1995; Stoffel et al., 2010; Wilkerson, 1991). The results of the present study do not exclude the possibility that other knee taping techniques may have a significant influence on the VGRF.
In the present study, T1 and T2 were higher compared to the times reported by previous authors (Decker et al., 2002). Furthermore, F1 and F2 were lower compared to the results obtained in a study of 30 semiprofessional football players (Rojano et al., 2010). Jump height (JH) is positively related to the magnitude of F1 and F2 and negatively related to T1 and T2 (Seegmiller and McCaw, 2003). Thus, the lower JH of our subjects (PT: 0.28 [+ or -] 0.06 m and WPT: 0.27 [+ or -] 0.05 m vs. 0.33 [+ or -] 0.03 m (Rojano et al., 2010) and 0.60 m (Decker et al., 2002)) may explain the lower F1 and F2 and the longer T1 and T2 in the present study. The mean TTS under PT and WPT conditions in the present study was also markedly different compared to the TTS reported in a previous study (PT: 0.433 [+ or -] 0.082 s and WPT: 0.435 [+ or -] 0.083 s vs. 2.059 [+ or -] 0.056 s (Wikstrom, 2003)). The shorter TTS that we observed is likely due to differences in the protocol; in the present study, the subjects performed two-legged landings, while in Wikstrom's study, single-leg landings were performed.
A previous study investigated the influence of PT on FT and found that due to a decrease in the relative activity of the vastus medialis obliquus with PT, the subjects' performance appeared to be hampered (Ng and Cheng, 2002). We observed similar FTs with PT and WPT (Table 2), suggesting that PT does not jeopardize performance. Our results are consistent with the findings of a previous study, which found that PT of subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome had no influence on FT (Ernst et al., 1999).
According to the results of the present study, the mean flight time during counter movement jumps did not change with the application of patellar tape. Furthermore, we did not observe any effect of patellar taping on the landing characteristics of the vertical ground reaction force. These results suggest that although patellar taping does not actually soften the landing phase, it also does not appear to jeopardize performance during counter movement jumps.
* We investigated whether patellar taping interferes with athletic performance, as has been suggested by previous studies.
* We also explored the effect of patellar taping on the forces generated during the landing phase of counter movement jumps.
* Patellar taping had no effect on the flight time during counter movement jumps.
* Patellar taping also had no effect on the vertical ground reaction force variables measured during the landing phase of counter movement jumps.
* This information may be relevant to athletes and trainers who are concerned about the effects of patellar taping on performance.
The authors wish to thank the participants of this study for their cooperation.
Received: 26 July 2011 / Accepted: 29 September 2011 / Published (online): 01 December 2011
Aminaka, N. and Gribble, P.A. (2008) Patellar taping, patellofemoral pain syndrome, lower extremity kinematics, and dynamic postural control. Journal of Athletic Training 43, 21-28.
Bennell, K., Ducan, M. and Cowan, S. (2006) Effect of patellar taping on vasti onset timing, knee kinematics, and kinetics in asymptomatic individuals with a delayed onset of vastus medialis oblique. Journal of Orthopaedics Research 24, 1854-1860.
Berthoin, S., Dupont, G., Mary, P. and Gebeaux, M. (2001) Predicting sprint kinematic parameters from anaerobic field tests in physical education students. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 15, 75-80.
Bobbert, M.F., Gerritsen, K.G.M., Litjens, M.C.A. and Van Soest, A.J. (1996). Why is countermovement jump height greater than squat jump height?. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28, 1402-1412.
Brandon, R. (2011) Taped for recovery: exploring therapeutic taping for treatment of sports injuries. Rehab Management 24, 28-29.
Burns, P.R. and Lowery, N. (2011). Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Most Common Injuries of the Lower Extremity in the Athlete. Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery 28, 1-18.
Caine, D.J. and Golightly, Y.M. (2011) Osteoarthritis as an outcome of paediatric sport: an epidemiological perspective. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45, 298-303.
Canavan, P.K. and Vescovi, J.D. (2004) Evaluation of power prediction equations: peak vertical jumping power in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 36, 1589-1593.
Callaghan, M.J., Selfe, J., Bagley, P.J. and Oldham, J.A. (2002) The effects of patellar taping on knee joint proprioception. Journal of Athletic Training 37, 19-24.
Colby, S.M., Hintermeister, R.A., Torry, M.R. and Steadman, J.R. (1999) Lower limb stability with ACL impairment. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 29, 444-454.
Cools, A.M., Witvrouw, E.E. and Danneels, L.A. (2002) Does taping influence electromyographic muscle activity in the scapular rotators in healthy shoulders? Manual Therapy 7, 154-162.
Decker, M.J., Torry, M.R., Noonan, T.J., Riviere, A. and Sterett, W.I. (2002) Landing adaptations after ACL reconstruction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 34, 1408-1413.
Dufek, J.S. and Bates, B.T. (1990) The evaluation and prediction of impact force during landings. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22, 370-376.
Dufek, J.S. and Bates, B.T. (1991) Biomechanical factors associated with injury during landing in jump sports. Sports Medicine 12, 326-337.
Engstrom, B.K. and Renstrom, P.A. (1998) How can injuries be prevented in the world cup soccer athlete?. Clinics in Sports Medicine 17, 755-768.
Ernst, G.P., Kawaguchi, J. and Saliba, E. (1999) Effect of patellar taping on knee kinetics of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Theraphy 29, 661-667.
Halseth, T., McChesney, J., De-Beliso, M., Vaughn, R. and Lien, J. (2004) The effects of kinesio taping on proprioception at the ankle. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 3, 1-7.
Harman, E.A., Rosenstein, M.T., Frykman, P.N., Rosenstein, R.M. and Kraemer, W.J. (1991) Estimation of human power output from vertical jump. Journal of Applied Sports Sciences 5, 116-120.
Harris, D.J. and Atkinson, G. (2009) Ethical standards in sport and exercise science research. International Journal of Sports Medicine 30, 701-702.
Hinman, R.S., Bennell, K.L., Crossley, K.M. and McConnell, J. (2003) Immediate effects of adhesive tape on pain and disability in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatology 42, 865-869.
Hori, N., Newton, R.U., Kawamori, N., McGuigan, M.R., Kraemer, W.J. and Nosaka, K. (2009) Reliability of performance measurements derived from ground reaction force data during countermovement jump and the influence of sampling frequency. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 23, 874-882.
Komi, P.V. and Bosco, C. (1978) Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women. Medicine and Science in Sports 10, 261-265.
Krol, H. and Mynarski, W. (2010) Effect of increased load on vertical jump mechanical characteristics in acrobats. Acta Bioengineeing and Biomechanics 12, 33-37.
Larsen, B., Andreasen, E., Urfer, A., Mickelson, M.R. and Newhouse, K.E. (1995) Patellar taping: a radiographic examination of the medial glide technique. American Journal of Sports Medicine 23, 465-471.
Lequesne, M.G., Dang, N. and Lane, N.E. (1997) Sport practice and osteoarthritis of the limbs. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 5, 75-86.
Lian, O., Engebretsen, L., Ovebro, R.V. and Bahr, R. (1996) Characteristics of leg extensors in male volleyball players with jumper's knee. American Journal of Sports Medicine 24, 380-385.
McConnell, J. (1986) The management of chondromalacia patellae: a long-term solution. The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 32, 215-223.
McKinley, P. and Pedotti, A. (1992) Motor strategies in landing from a jump: the role of skill in task execution. Experimental Brain Research 90, 427-440.
McNair, P.J., Prapavessis, H. and Callender, K. (2000) Decreasing landing forces: effect of instruction. British Journal of Sports Medicine 34, 293-296.
Molloy, M.G. and Molloy, C.B. (2011) Contact sport and osteoarthritis. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45, 275-277.
Mostamand, J., Bader, D.L. and Hudson, Z. (2010) The effect of patellar taping on joint reaction forces during squatting in subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS). Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 14, 375-381.
Mostamand, J., Bader, D.L. and Hudson, Z. (2011) The effect of patellar taping on EMG activity of vasti muscles during squatting in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Journal of Sports Sciences 29, 197-205.
Ng, G.Y. and Cheng, J.M. (2002) The effects of patellar taping on pain and neuromuscular performance in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Clinical Rehabilitation 16, 821-827.
Ng, G.Y. and Wong, P.Y. (2009) Patellar taping affects vastus medialis obliquus activation in subjects with patellofemoral pain before and after quadriceps muscle fatigue. Clinical Rehabilitation 23, 705-713.
Richards, J., Ajemain, S.V., Wiley, J.P. and Zernicke, R.F. (1996) Knee joint dynamics predict patellar tendonitis in elite volleyball players. American Journal of Sports Medicine 24, 676-683.
Robbins, S. and Waked, E. (1998) Factors associated with ankle injuries. Preventive measures. Sports Medicine 25, 63-72.
Rojano, D., Rodriguez, E. and Berral de la Rosa, F.J. (2010) Analysis of the vertical ground reaction forces and temporal factors in the landing phase of a countermovement jump. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 9, 282-287.
Salsich, G.B., Brechter, J.H., Farwell, D. and Powers, C.M. (2002) The effects of patellar taping on knee kinetics, kinematics, and vastus lateralis muscle activity during stair ambulation in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Theraphy 32, 3-10.
Sayers, S.P., Harackiewicz, D.V., Harman, E.A., Frykman, P.N. and Rosenstein, M.T. (1999) Cross-validation of three jump power equations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, 572-577.
Seegmiller, J. and McCaw, S. (2003) Ground reaction forces among gymnasts and recreational athletes in drop landings. Journal of Athletic Training 38, 311-314.
Stoffel, K.K., Nicholls, R.L., Winata, A.R., Dempsey, A.R., Boyle, J.J. and Lloyd, D.G. (2010) Effect of ankle taping on knee and ankle joint biomechanics in sporting tasks. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 42, 2089-2097.
Thelin, N., Holmberg, S. and Thelin, A. (2006) Knee injuries account for the sports-related increased risk of knee osteoarthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 16, 329-333.
Vrezas, I., Elsner, G., Bolm-Audorff, U., Abolmaali, N. and Seidler, A. (2010) Case-control study of knee osteoarthritis and lifestyle factors considering their interaction with physical workload. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 83, 291-300.
Wikstrom, E.A. (2003) Functional vs Isokinetic Fatigue Protocol: Effects on time to stabilization, peak vertical ground reaction forces, and joint kinematics in jump lading. Doctoral thesis, University of Florida, Florida. 78.
Wilkerson, G.B. (1991) Comparative biomechanical effects of the standard method of ankle taping and a taping method designed to enhance subtalar stability. American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 588-595.
Jesus Camara (1) [mail], Francisco Diaz (2), Maria Soledad Anza (2), Gaizka Mejuto (1), Asier Puente (1), Gorka Iturriaga (1),Juan-Ramon Fernandez (3)
(1) Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, (2) Department of Rehabilitation. Hospital of Basurto. Bilbao, Spain, (3) Kirolene, Durango, Spain
[mail] Jesus Camara
Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV)
Biomechanics, cycling performance
Basurto's Hospital, Rehabilitation Department.
Biomechanics, rehabilitation, sports medicine.
Maria Soledad ANZA
Basurto's Hospital, Rehabilitation Department.
Biomechanics, rehabilitation, clinical analysis.
University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV)
Biomechanics, physiology and high altitude training.
University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV)
Biomechanics and soccer analysis.
University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV)
Biomechanics, health studies.
Kirolene, Durango, Spain
Biomechanics, antropometry, statistics.
Table 1. Intraclass correlation coefficients of variables measured during the landing phase of counter movement jumps. Parameter ICC value PT WPT F1 .81 .76 F2 .81 .86 T1 .78 .85 T2 .88 .77 LR1 .78 .77 LR2 .82 .76 TTS .76 .75 Legend: ICC: intraclass correlation coefficient, F1: magnitude of first peak, F2: magnitude of second peak, T1: time to production of F1, T2: time to production of F2, LR1: loading rate of F1, LR2: loading rate of F2, TTS: time to stabilization. Table 2. Effect of patellar taping on mean values of vertical ground reaction force parameters Parameters Mean (SD) PT WPT FT (s) .475 (.046) .474 (.056) F1 (BW) 3.482 (.571) 3.053 (.855) F2 (BW) 5.701 (1.994) 5.386 (1.812) T1 (s) .027 (.004) .026 (.002) T2 (s) .053 (.022) .060 (.021) LR1 ([BW x [s.sup.-1]) 117.932 (36.112) 135.753 (29.953) LR2 ([BW x [s.sup.-1]) 98.622 (84.245) 112.143 (76.531) TTS (s) .433 (.082) .435 (.083) Parameters Sig. Dif. % Change FT (s) n.s. .22 F1 (BW) n.s. 12.36 F2 (BW) n.s. 5.62 T1 (s) n.s. 3.71 T2 (s) n.s. 11.67 LR1 ([BW x [s.sup.-1]) n.s. 13.12 LR2 ([BW x [s.sup.-1]) n.s. 12.06 TTS (s) n.s. 4.61 Legend: PT: patellar taping, WPT: without patellar taping, sig. dif: significant difference, FT: flight time, F1: magnitude of first peak, F2: magnitude of second peak, T1: time to production of F1, T2: time to production of F2, LR1: loading rate of F1, LR2: loading rate of F2, TTS: time to stabilization, n.s.: not significant.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Research article|
|Author:||Camara, Jesus; Diaz, Francisco; Anza, Maria Soledad; Mejuto, Gaizka; Puente, Asier; Iturriaga, Gorka|
|Publication:||Journal of Sports Science and Medicine|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2011|
|Previous Article:||The effect of mild symptomatic patellar tendinopathy on the quadriceps contractions and the Fente motion in elite fencers.|
|Next Article:||Development of a field test for evaluating aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults: validity of a 15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test.|