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The effect of interval aerobic exercises on some dynamic pulmonary volumes of non-athlete female students.

Introduction

Respiration is an indispensable part of every human being's life that is conducted through coordinated function of pulmonary and blood circulation systems. Pulmonary system is one of the most significant vital systems in body that in company with cardio-vascular system is considered as one of the main components for supplying muscles and other parts of body with oxygen [7]. Buffalo health study concluded that pulmonary function is a long term predictor of overall survival rates in both genders and could be used as a tool in general health assessment [8]. Exercise is a stressful condition which produces a marked change in body functions and lungs are no exception. Sedentary life styles could be associated with less efficient pulmonary functions. There are several studies that have shown significant improvement in pulmonary functions is a result of the effect of exercise. [17]. The role of pulmonary system in physical activities and various sport fields especially endurance field is of high importance [7]. However, the idea that "normal capacity for pulmonary ventilation does not limit the exercise performance and the larger-than-normal lung volumes and breathing capacities in some athletes can probably be attributed to genetic endowment" [13] has brought about being negligent of improving pulmonary function. In general most of the researches on pulmonary system in medicine (medical) discipline have been about obstructive and restrictive diseases in patients. In sport physiology domain the studies about effect of physical activity on pulmonary ventilation have been mainly done on athletes [25, 16, 23, ...] by using continual exercise programs from which the researches on women have been a few numbers. Additionally studies about the effect of regular aerobic exercise on spirometry and lung volumes have produced mixed results. For instance, a small cross-sectional study found spirometry and lung volumes did not differ in young trained vs. untrained individuals, but older endurance athletes had higher pulmonary function test values than their sedentary older counterparts [5]. In one study after a period of aerobic swimming exercises, the results showed dynamic volumes and capacities (forced expiratory volume in one second, %[FEV.sub.1 sec] maximal voluntary ventilation and % MVV) of female swimmers in experimental group were higher than that of control group [11]. While in another study after aerobic exercises in non-athlete students, the results indicated exercise had no significant influence on forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one sec, forced expiratory volume in one sec as % of vital capacity and forced mid-expiratory flow (PEF %25-%75 1 sec) [10]. As the results derived from the studies on pulmonary system have only been partially in accordance with each other, presenting a decisive and comprehensive view concerning the effects of physical activity on pulmonary capacities and function has been of doubt [4, 10, and 11]. Thus the researcher would like to study the effects of interval aerobic exercises on some dynamic pulmonary volumes among non-athlete female students so as to address the stated problem.

Materials and Methods

The method of this study was quasi-experimental with two experimental & two control groups. The statistical sample for the present research was obtained from the population of female students aged 18 to 24 years from one of the branches of IA University in Iran. 100 non-athlete female students initially volunteered to participate in this study out of them 88 female students were randomly selected as sample. During the course of the study, 8 subjects dropped out due to schedule conflicts (N = 4), injuries and pregnancy (N = 2), and illness (N = 2). Thus the total number of subjects in the present study consisted of 80 non athlete female students without cardio-vascular and pulmonary diseases, physical deformity, visible vertebral column deviation, and smoking experience. Then they were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (Flow-Volume test=20, Maximal Voluntary Ventilation test = 20) and two control groups (Flow-Volume test = 20, Maximal Voluntary Ventilation test = 20). The subjects of the experimental group who took part in the interval aerobic exercise program attended the workouts regularly. During the experiment they did not participate in any organized physical activities. The subjects of the control group, apart from their everyday activities, did not take part in any organized physical exercise.

Measurement Tools:

In order to measure dynamic volumes, LUNG TEST 1000 spirometr which is a static and modifier system designed for pulmonary function test, was applied. Pulmonary function tests were done in four stages: before starting exercise plan, after 18th, 24th and 36th sessions of exercise program. All subjects performed the tests in standing position. At the first stage of testing each subject performed the manoeuvre 3 or 4 times and the best performance was recorded and the data was analyzed. Standing height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using SECA Stadiometer (Seca model 220 GmbH, Hamburg, Germany). Weight was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg using the SECA Scale (Seca model 220 GmbH, Hamburg, Germany).

Exercise training protocol:

Exercise program involved 12 weeks of interval aerobic running, three 45 minute sessions a week each contained 10 minutes warm up, 4 sets of 5-minute interval running with %65-%80 heart rate reserve, 2.5 minutes rest between sets and 7.5 minutes recovery. Heart rate and exercise intensity were controlled by using polar pulse meter sets on subjects' wrists.

Data analysis:

After recording of data by use of SPSS version 16.5, the means, standard error of means and standard deviation of data were calculated. After making sure about natural distribution of data by use of t-test and leven's tests, General Linear Model (GLM)-repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were applied for comparison of variance within the groups, interactional (groups x phases) and between groups effects. The level of significance was set at P< 0.05.

Results:

Table 1 and 2 shows the mean difference of age, height, weight and BMI in flow volume and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) manoeuvre in experimental group and control group. The result of Independent Samples t-test revealed that the means difference of age, height, weight and BMI between experimental and control groups were not significant from statistical viewpoint (P>0/05). Therefore experimental and control groups were homogenous in terms of age, height, weight and BMI variables.

According to table 4 the results of ANOVA using a repeated measure design for showed that there is significance difference in mean scores of FEV1sec, MEF75%1 sec, MEF50%1 sec and MVV between experimental and control groups (P<0.05). There is no significance difference in mean scores of MEF25%1 sec between experimental and control groups (P>0.05).

Discussion:

According to table 4 in the present study, [FEV.sub.1sec] (a dynamic lung volume that indicates any impairment of airway resistance) increased significantly in the experimental group after 12 weeks of interval aerobic exercise plan. This finding is consistent with researches conducted by Watson (1995), Joshi (1998), Huang chuang (2006), Candy Sodhi (2009), Shilpa S. Gupta and et al (2012) and Vimal Singh (2012). Cheng YJ& et al (2003) in their cross sectional study showed that men who regularly did dynamic exercises had higher forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) than the sedentary groups. However this finding was not consistent with the finding of Shojaie Ardakani's study.

Higher values of [FEV1.sub.sec] in experimental group could be explained due to better strengthening of respiratory muscles especially expiratory muscles as a result of physical training. [FEV1.sub.sec] is related to maximum expiratory pressure which is a representation of respiratory muscle strength. Exercise training increases the FEV1sec because of an increase in respiratory muscle strength. Skeletal muscle control many crucial elements of aerobic conditioning including lung ventilation [14]. During training there is adaptation to frequently higher ventilatory load which might bring about some structural changes that may lead to less compression of airways at lower lung volumes [10].

According to table 4, in the present study MEF75%1 sec increased significantly in the experimental group after 12 weeks of interval aerobic exercise plan. It can be explained as both groups had similar conditions at the beginning of the study, interval aerobic exercise caused the increase in the experimental group. In fact the difference between experimental and control groups were significant in second (18th session), third (24th session) and forth (36th session) stages of pulmonary function testing. This indicates that 18 sessions of interval aerobic exercise is sufficient to bring about adaptations leading to improvement of pulmonary function. Thus an association between interval aerobic exercise training and improvement of lung function was supported by the data. This finding is consistent with research conducted by Attarzadeh et.al (2011). MEF75%1 sec is the maximal expiratory flow at 75% of expiratory forced vital capacity before end of expiration. Hence significant increase of FVC EX which may be resulted from increase in the maximal shortening of the respiratory muscles and their strengthening as an effect of training can be the probable reason for significant increment of MEF75%1 sec.

According to table 4 in the present study, MEF50%1 sec increased significantly in the experimental group after 12 weeks of interval aerobic exercise plan. It can be explained that as both groups had similar conditions at the beginning of the study, interval aerobic exercise caused the increase in the experimental group. The difference between experimental and control groups were significant in second (6th week test), third (8th week test) and forth (12th week test) stages of pulmonary function testing. This also implies that 18 sessions of interval aerobic exercise is sufficient to bring about adaptations leading to improvement of pulmonary function including MEF50%1 sec. Thus an association between interval aerobic exercise training and improvement of lung function was supported by the data. This finding is consistent with research conducted by Attarzadeh (2011). MEF50%1 sec is the maximal expiratory flow at 50% of FVC EX before end of expiration. Hence significant increase of FVC EX can be the probable reason for significant increment of MEF50%1 sec, too.

According to table 4 within group changes of MEF 25%1 sec scores (p = 0.000) and interactional changes of MEF 25%1 sec scores (p = 0.000) were significant (p<0.05), but between group changes of MEF 25%1 sec scores (p>0.05) were not significant. Results of general Linear Model (GLM)-repeated measures ANOVA indicated there is no significant difference in the scores of Max Exp Flow 25 %FVC (MEF 25%1 sec) between experimental and control groups. However it seems that exercise training protocol has strengthened respiratory muscles, because MEF 25%1 sec has increased to some extent, but this increment is not significant statistically. Except a significant difference between two groups at the 12th week test of pulmonary function there was no significant difference between experimental and control groups in pre-exercise test, 6th week test (18th session) and 8th week test (24th session). It can be explained that as both groups had similar conditions at the beginning of the study, and there was no significant increase in mean scores of MEF 25%1 sec in post exercise tests; hence interval aerobic exercise was not able to influence MEF 25%1 sec significantly.

MEF 25%1 sec is the maximal expiratory flow at 25% FVC Ex before the end of expiration i.e when 25% of expiratory flow remains to be expired. It seems that interval interval aerobic exercise could not affect the speed or velocity of air flow at the end of expiration, although it has strengthened respiratory muscles. Speed of air flow is higher at the beginning of forced expiration implying that exercise has increased speed of shortening of muscles and their strength. This is supported by significant increases of MEF 50%1 sec and MEF 75%1 sec discussed earlier.

This finding was in accordance with the finding of Attarzadeh research. However to our knowledge only few studies assessing this parameter in response to exercise are available, therefore it seems more studies are necessary in order to investigate actual effect of training on this parameter.

According to table 4 there is a significant difference in MVV scores between experimental and control group. Maximum voluntary ventilation which depend both on the patency of airways and strength of respiratory musculature, increased significantly in the experimental group after 12 weeks of interval aerobic exercise plan. In fact this increase occurred after 6 weeks of training protocol bringing about a significant increase of MVV between subjects of experimental and control groups in 6th week test, 8th week test and 12th week test. It can be explained that as both groups had similar conditions at the beginning of the study, interval aerobic exercise caused the increase in the experimental group. Thus an association between interval aerobic exercise training and improvement of lung function was supported by our data. This finding is consistent with researches conducted by Shojaie Ardakani (1995), Soltani (2003), Farid (2005), Carrie Chueiri (2007), Attarzadeh(2011) Shilpa S. Gupta et al (2012) and in contrast with finding of Yerg and Hagberg (1985).In the present study MVV demonstrated a significant increase in its values soon after 6 weeks of the protocol. The higher values of MVV, is in accordance to findings of Shapiro et al who observed that athletes have larger mean vital capacity and MVV. MVV is important because it reflects severity of airway obstruction as well as the patients' respiratory reserves, muscle strength and motivation [15]. It has been stated that training of respiratory muscles can significantly increase MVV as prolonged intense constant intensity exercises, reduce blood lactate concentration and improve lactate uptake by these trained muscles as fuel for their own activity [22]. MVV can indicate the function of respiratory muscles since it depends on the capacity that they have to generate force and, in response to the use of exercises with increased load, can be elevated. Therefore, the values of MVV increased on account of improved strength of respiratory muscles [12]. In long-term training programs, improvement of strength is related to increase in synthesis of the contractile proteins actin and myosin, yet improvement of endurance of the skeletal muscles is associated with improvement in their oxidative capacity through increase in levels of oxidative enzymes, of reserves of lipids and glycogen and of the number of capillaries [12].

Conclusion:

The results of the present study showed interval aerobic exercise improved the dynamic pulmonary volumes. This may be due to Improvement in mechanical efficiency of respiratory muscles especially expiratory muscles which play a passive role during rest time and work actively during exercise activity. Different types of exercises affect body systems in variable manner. So pursuing an interval aerobic exercise or physical activity which could help in achieving efficient pulmonary function especially dynamic pulmonary volumes is an essential preventive strategy in this busy age when prevalence of sedentary life style is increasing and so are the associated lifestyle disorders.

References

[1.] Attarzadeh Hosseini, S.R., et al., 2011. Changes in Pulmonary Function and Peak Oxygen Consumption in Response to Interval Aerobic Training in Sedentary Girls. Quarterly Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, 19(1): 42-51.

[2.] Candy sodhi, 2009. The effect of yoga training on pulmonary function in patients with bronchial asthma. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol., 53(2): 169-17437.

[3.] Cheng, Y.J., C.A. Macera, C.L. Addy, F.S. Sy, D. Wieland, S.N. Blair, 2003. Effects of physical activity on exercise tests and respiratory function. Br J Sports Med., 37(6): 521-8. [PMID: 14665592].

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[9.] Joshi, L.N., V.D., 1998. Effect of forced breathing on ventilatory functions of the lung. J Postgrad Med., 44(3): 67-69.

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[17.] Richa Ghay Thaman, Anterpreet Arora and Rachna Bachhel, 2010. Effect of physical training on pulmonary function tests in border security force trainees of India. Kamla-Raj J Life Sci., 2(1): 11-15.

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[19.] Shilpa S Gupta and Manish V. Sawane, 2012. A comparative study of the effects of yoga and swimming on pulmonary functions in sedentary subjects. Int J Yoga, 5(2): 128-133.

[20.] Shojaei, A.A., 1375. Assessment Of Pulmonary Function Relation With Cardio-vascular Fitness In Young Athletes. Ms thesis. Tarbiat Modares University. Physical education department.

[21.] Soltani, Hossien, 1383. The Influence Of Selected Aerobic Exercise On Pulmonary Volumes And Capacities of Non-athlete Male Students. Ms thesis. Islamic Azad University. Mashad Branch.

[22.] Spengler, C.M., C. Lenzin, C. Stussi and Mrkov, 1998. Decreased perceived respiratory exertion during exercise after respiratory endurance training. Am J Respir Crit Care Med., 157: 7823-788.

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(1) Zahra Hojati and (2) Rajesh Kumar

(1) Ph.D scholar, Department of Physical Education, Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, India

(2) Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education, Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, India

Zahra Hojati and Rajesh Kumar; The Effect of Interval Aerobic Exercises on Some Dynamic Pulmonary Volumes of Non-athlete Female Students

Corresponding Author

Zahra Hojati, Ph.D Scholar, Department of Physical Education, Osmania University, Hyderabad, A.P, India

E-mail: hojjati_z@yahoo.com
Table 1: Mean difference of age, height, weight and BMI in Flow
Volume manoeuvre in experimental groups and control groups.

Indicator Groups Mean SD Std. t p-
 Error value
 of Mean

Age Experimental 21.05 2.163 0.483 -0.449 0.656
 Control 21.35 2.059 0.460
Height Experimental 159.82 4.266 0.954 -0.305 0.762
 Control 160.30 5.573 1.24
Weight Experimental 55.90 11.973 2.67 -0.534 0.596
 Control 57.75 9.818 2.19
BMI Experimental 21.81 4.131 0.923 -0.503 0.618
 Control 22.38 2.938 0.561

Table 2: Mean difference of age, height, weight and BMI in maximal
voluntary ventilation (MVV) in experimental groups and control

Indicator Groups Mean SD Std.Error t P-
 of Mean value

Age Experimental 20.90 1.586 0.354 -.054 0.957
 Control 20.95 3.845 0.859
Height Experimental 162.30 4.485 1.00 1.128 0.266
 Control 160.35 6.293 1.40
Weight Experimental 59.05 6.939 1.55 0.602 0.551
 Control 57.90 4.993 1.11
BMI Experimental 22.46 2.938 0.657 -0.103 0.918
 Control 22.54 1.832 0.409

Table 3: Mean values and standard deviation of dynamic
pulmonary volumes of experimental and control groups
in four stages.

Variables Group Pre-test

 Mean [+ or -] S.D

FEV1 Experimental 2.18 [+ or -] 0.73
 Control 2.16 [+ or -] 0.65
MEF75 Experimental 3.71 [+ or -] 1.04
 Control 3.50 [+ or -] 0.85
MEF50 Experimental 2.34 [+ or -] 0.63
 Control 2.38 [+ or -] 0.54
MEF25 Experimental 1.37 [+ or -] 0.38
 Control 1.42 [+ or -] 0.51
MVV Experimental 96.94 [+ or -] 18.34
 Control 95.66 [+ or -] 16.29

Variables Group 6th week test

 Mean [+ or -] S.D

FEV1 Experimental 2.69 [+ or -] 0.58
 Control 2.26 [+ or -] 0.63
MEF75 Experimental 4.78 [+ or -] 0.90
 Control 3.62 [+ or -] 0.76
MEF50 Experimental 2.97 [+ or -] 0.71
 Control 2.44 [+ or -] 0.58
MEF25 Experimental 1.61 [+ or -] 0.51
 Control 1.37 [+ or -] 0.41
MVV Experimental 119.93 [+ or -] 26.67
 Control 98.01 [+ or -] 14.02

Variables Group 8th week test

 Mean [+ or -] S.D

FEV1 Experimental 3.01 [+ or -] 0.60
 Control 2.35 [+ or -] 0.56
MEF75 Experimental 5.08 [+ or -] 1.03
 Control 3.66 [+ or -] 0.71
MEF50 Experimental 3.18 [+ or -] 0.80
 Control 2.61 [+ or -] 0.59
MEF25 Experimental 1.73 [+ or -] 0.58
 Control 1.41 [+ or -] 0.43
MVV Experimental 128.8 [+ or -] 24.48
 Control 99.51 [+ or -] 12.41

Variables Group 12th week test

 Mean [+ or -] S.D

FEV1 Experimental 3.13 [+ or -] 0.54
 Control 2.28 [+ or -] 0.62
MEF75 Experimental 5.26 [+ or -] 0.92
 Control 3.45 [+ or -] 0.76
MEF50 Experimental 3.56 [+ or -] 0.65
 Control 2.59 [+ or -] 0.60
MEF25 Experimental 1.99 [+ or -] 0.90
 Control 1.38 [+ or -] 0.35
MVV Experimental 141.37 [+ or -] 24.56
 Control 103.46 [+ or -] 15.9

Table 4: Repeated measures mean of dynamic pulmonary volumes in
experimental and control groups in four stages.

Variables Tests

 Within-Subjects Effect Between-Subjects
 Effect

 Stage Stage * Group

 F P-value F P-value F P-value

FEV1 40.28 0.000 21.39 0.000 6.95 0.002 *
MEF75 61.61 0.000 54.48 0.000 18.45 0.000 *
MEF50 44.47 0.000 20.38 0.000 7.30 0.010 *
MEF25 7.89 0.000 9.65 0.000 3.40 0.073
MVV 52.78 0.000 29.73 0.000 15.39 0.000 *
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Hojati, Zahra; Kumar, Rajesh
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jul 1, 2013
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