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The effect of daily consumption of 2 liters of electrolyzed water for 2 months on body composition and several physiological parameters in four obese subjects: a preliminary report.

I - Introduction

Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water ([H.sub.2] O) into oxygen ([O.sub.2]) and hydrogen ([H.sub.2]) by passing an electrical current through the water using two electrodes connected to D.C regulated power supply. The electrodes inserted into the water consist of an anode and a cathode, usually made of platinum-coated titanium plates on both sides. The equation for the overall decomposition of water is: 2 [H.sub.2] O [right arrow] 2 [H.sub.2] (gaz) + [O.sub.2] (gaz). Twice as many moles of hydrogen ([H.sub.2]) are produced at the cathode than the amount of oxygen ([O.sub.2]) at the anode. Further, the water collected on the anode side is acidic whereas on the cathode side, it is alkaline1". The pH changes of electrolyzed water at the electrodes are due to the fact that when water is dissociated at the cathode, hydrogen (H.sub.2) and OH" ions are generated, with the O [H.sup.-]-ions increasing the pH. At the anode, oxygen ([O.sub.2]) and H+ ions are produced, with the H+ ions decreasing the pH.

Because of the low solubility of [O.sub.2] and 11: in water at room temperature, the concentration of [O.sub.2] and [H.sub.2] in electrolyzed water are in the PPM range. Saturated solution of H2 and [O.sub.2] contains a concentration of 1.5PPM for [H.sub.2] and 300PPM for [O.sub.2]. A non-charged membrane is used to separate the two electrodes, if one wishes to collect cathodic water and anodic water separately. (1) The degree of electrolysis depends on the current, not the voltage. Water electrolysis requires a voltage of only 1.23 volts. The more conductive the water due to presence of electrolytes, the lower the voltage required to achieve the same current.

When a non-charged membrane is used between the electrodes, it is possible to collect and test electrolyzed water generated at the anode (oxidized acidic water) and the cathode (reduced alkaline water) (1). The antibactericidal activity of electrolyzed acidic water has been widely demonstrated, (2 and wide infra). Alkaline reduced water containing [H.sub.2] produced by electrolysis has been reported to have powerful antioxidant effects. (3) Natural reduced water from Germany (4) and Japan" (5) were reported to have similar effects, improving diabetes. The concentration of [H.sub.2] required for these benefits is very low, that is 0.08 PPM [H.sub.2], water becoming saturated with 1.5ppm [H.sub.2] (6).

One of us (GEA) has experimented with electrolyzed water for the past 20 years. However, the electrolysis apparatus used in our experiments is very simple: Both electrodes are placed in the same water container without separation. The positive output of the regulated power supply is connected to the anode (platinum) and the negative output to the cathode (titanium). Because of the high cost of platinum, for larger batches of 5 gallons of water or more, the platinum plate is replaced with a platinum coated titanium plate. The value of separating the two sides of the reaction with a non-charged membrane for generating alkaline water is questionable since the pH measured following our present procedure without separation of the electrodes results in alkaline water, with the pH increasing up to 3 units, for example from a pH =7.4 before to 10.4 after 12-16 hours of electrolysis using 0.5 to 1 of ampere of current. The Redox Potential before electrolysis is usually between +250 to +300 mV and after electrolysis for 12-16 hours, -250 to-350 mV (unpublished observation). The voltage of the power supply is adjusted to generate 0.5 to 1 amp of current. Obviously, the purer the water the higher voltage required to achieve this current. Distilled water, reverse osmosis water and tap water below 100 microSiemens (uS) conductivity were used successfully to achieve the above pH and Redox Potential.

Preliminary results using electrolyzed water by our procedure for drinking and cooking suggest that it possesses a powerful diuretic effect in normal subjects with normal body weight. Some subjects reported weight loss over a period of 3-6 months on this regimen, which could be due to the diuretic effect. We have observed increased urinary excretion of calcium in the subjects tested with our electrolyzed water. The source of this increased urinary calcium following consumption of our electrolyzed water is unknown. Since some subjects reported increased flexibility and joint mobility following ingestion of this treated water, we assume that it was due to extrasqueletal mobilization of calcium. In the present study, we included some parameters of bone metabolism in order to investigate the source of this increased urinary calcium.

Because of the increased incidence of obesity in our population, we decided to test the effects of our electrolyzed water at 2 liters/day for 2 months on several physiological parameters in four obese subjects. I f electrolyzed water has a lypolytic effect resulting in weight loss, this would be a safe procedure to add in a weight loss program. Statistical evaluation of the results of the present study suggests that electrolyzed water prepared by our procedure resulted in near significant weight loss and a significant loss of body fat in obese subjects. It also has a sparing effect on antioxidants, and possesses detoxifying effects against some heavy metals by increasing their urinary excretion. These changes were statistically significant for some parameters; and, near significant for others.

II - Research Subjects

Four obese adult volunteers (2 men and 2 women) In overall good health, ambulatory were recruited by one of us (J.D.F) from friends. They ate an omnivorous diet without any restrictions and they were not on dietary supplements. All four subjects were on beta blockers for high blood pressure and anti-inflammatory drugs for arthritis. The subjects did not alter their dietary habits and medication during the study period. The anthropometric data, medical problems and therapy on these four subjects are displayed in Table I. The mean age was 52.5 years with a range of 42 to 64 years. The body mass index (BMI) is the ratio of body weight divided by height squared, using metric units of kilogram (kg) for weigh and meter (m) for height. The normal range is 18.5-24.9 kg/ [m.sup.2], with less 18.5 as underweight; between 25-29.9 as overweight and 30 and above as obese. Based on this classification, all four subjects were obese, with BMI ranging from 33 to 50 with a mean of 39.8.
Table I Anthropometric data and clinical conditions of the
4 obese subjects

SS#   Sex    Age     Height    Weight      BMI*            Clinical
           (years)  (inches)  (pounds)     (Kg/          conditions and
                                          [m.sup.2])     medications

1       F       42        67       270          42       Arthritis of
                                                         the knee
                                                         Rx-Advil Hitih
                                                         Blood Pressure
                                                         RX-Beta
                                                         Blocker

2       F       53        62       274          50       Arthritis
                                                         Rx-Mobic High
                                                         Blood Pressure
                                                         Rx-Beta
                                                         Blocker

3       M       64        71       233          33       Headache /
                                                         Back Ache
                                                         Rx-Mobic High
                                                         Blood Pressure
                                                         Rx-Beta
                                                         Blocker

4       M       51        71       243          34       Arthritis
                                                         Rx-Mobic High
                                                         Blood Pressure
                                                         Rx-Beta
                                                         Blocker

Mean         52.50     67.75    255.00       39.75

S.D           9.04      4.27     20.12        7.93

*BMI = Body Mass Index. Normal: 18.5-24.9; Overweight:
25-29.9; Obese = 30 and over.


III - Preparation of the electrolyzed water

A titanium plate 1"X24" was used as the cathode. A platinum coated titanium plate PX24" served as the anode. Nylon spacers, screws and nuts were used to keep the two electrodes from shorting out, while keeping the electrodes as close as possible for best flow of current. This combined electrodes apparatus was inserted in a 5 gallon Lexan bottle containing tap water, with conductivities from 60 to 80 micro Siemens. Some 20" of the electrode were immersed in the water when 5 gallons of water was used. So, the effective surface of the electrodes was 20 square inches. The electrodes were connected to a regulated D.C power supply (Elenco Model XP-752-A) and the voltage adjusted to achieve a current of 0.5 to 1 ampere. The purpose of limiting the current to 1 ampere was to prevent overheating the water during the procedure. In principle, the higher the current, the greater the rate of electrolysis, but for practical purposes, an overnight treatment schedule was best suited for our experiment. The pH and Redox potential of the electrolyzed water reached a plateau at 12 to 16 hrs of electrolysis. The pH of the treated water increased to 3 pH units, usually from 7.2 to 7.6 before, and 10.2 to 10.6 after electrolysis. The redox potential from a baseline of 250 to 300 mV decreased to reach 250 to 350mV.

IV - Research Protocol

This study was performed at the Flechas Family Practice (FFP) Clinic in Hendersonville, NC and supported by a grant from Optimox Corporation. After informed consent, the subjects underwent a complete history and physical examination prior to intervention and after 2 months on electrolyzed water. After initial evaluation, each subject was supplied with a 5 gallon bottle with spigot of electrolyzed water and instructed to consume 2 liters a day and to report any adverse effects. Every week, the subjects received a new 5 gallon container of electrolyzed water. The tests performed on these subjects are listed in Table II. Statistical analysis was performed with paired data comparison (8). There was no change in the diet and medications during the study period.
Table II Clinical Evaluation, and Laboratory tests Performed
on the 4 obese subjects

Procedure &       Facility  Pre-Intervention  Post 1  Post 2
Tests             Where                       Month   Month
Performed        Tests Were
                 Performed

Physical Exam +  FTP         X                         X
Vital Signs

Body             FFP         X                 X       X
Composition

Basal Metabolic  FFP         X                 X       X
Rate

Thyroid          FFP         X                         X
Ultrasonometry

CBC              Lab Corp    X                 X       X

Blood Chemistry  Lab Corp    X                 X       X
& Lipid
Profile

Serum            Lab Corp    X                 X       X
Osteocalcin

Urine            Lab Corp    X                 X       X
N-Telopytidc
cross links

Thvroid          Lab Corp    X                 X       X
Function Tests
+ TPO Ab

Red Cell         Doctor's    X                 X       X
Elemental        Data
Analysis

Urine analysis   Doctor's    X                 X       X
of essential     Data
elements and
toxic metals


* The Bio Impedance Analyzer, Model BIA-450 from Biodynamics, Seattle, WA was purchased by Optimox Corporation and made available to the FFP clinic for measurement of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body composition.

* Thyroid ultrasonometry was computed by a registered sonographer using a portable Biosound Esaote Megas System unit with a frequency of 7.5MHz.

* Complete blood count (CBC), the metabolic panel, blood lipid profile, serum osteo calcium and urine N-telopeptide crosslinks, thyroid profile, were all performed by Lab Corp.

* Red Blood Cells (RBC) elemental analysis was performed at Doctor's Data, which supplied the kits for sample collection. Heparinized blood was collected before intervention; after one month and 2 months post-electrolyzed water. After centrifugation, packed red blood cells (RBC) were separated from the plasma and mailed to Doctor's Data, St. Charles, IL. The analysis of essential and toxic metals in a 24 hour urine collection were also performed at Doctor's Data using ICP Mass Spec.

V - Results

Bioimpedance Analysis

There was a near significant decrease in the mean body weight with values of 255 [+ or -] 20Ibs pre intervention; 249 [+ or -] 131bs after one month (p=0.09) and 243 [+ or -] 121bs post two months of intervention (p=0.05) (Table III). Fat mass decreased significantly following electrolysed water with mean values [+ or -] SD of 108 [+ or -] 261bs before intervention; 102 [+ or -] 25 post 1 month (p=0.02) and 101.8 [+ or -] 23 post two months (p=0.02) on electrolyzed water. Intracellular water increased from 29.5 [+ or -] 4.5 liters pre; to 33 [+ or -] 5.4 (p=0.01) liters post 1 month of intervention, but by two months, mean value decreased to 28.9 [+ or -] 5.2 liters. Extracellular water decreased to reach near significance (p=0.07) following 1 month; but by two months of intervention, the mean value became nonsignificant. The mean [+ or -] SD for extracellular water were: pre=19 [+ or -] 3.6 Liters; post 1 month 14.5 [+ or -] 6 liters and post 2 months 16.9 [+ or -] 6 liters.
Table III Effects of Electrolyzed Water Consumed at 2
Liters/day for 2 Months on Body Weight, Body Composition, and
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) in 4 obese subjects.

               Pre      Post 1 Mo.     Post 2    P value 1   p value 2
               mean [+  mean [+ or -]  Mo. mean  Mo          Mo
               or -]    S.D.           [+ or
               SD                      -] S.D.

Body Weight     255.00   249 [+ or -]    243 [+  (P = 0.09)       (p =
(lbs)            [+ or             13     or -]                  0.05)
                  -]20                     11.6

Basal           2109 +   2076.2 [+ or   2005 [+  (P = 0.33)       (P =
Metabolic          94         -] 199     or -]                  0.17)
Rate (cal/                                  998
day)

Fat Mass        108 [+   102.00 [+ or   101.8[+        (p =       (P =
(lbs)               or           -]25   or -]23      0.02)*     0.02)*
                  -]26

Lean Mass        147.8    146.8 [+ or  141.7 [+  (P = 0.41)       (P =
(lbs)            [+ or       -] 13.94     or -]                  0.4l)
                   -]9                    16.99

Total Body
Water
(liters)        48.8[+    48 [+ or -]   45.8 [+  (P = 0.40)       (P =
                 or -]           6.22     or -]                  0.43)
                  2.22                      7.6

Intracellular    29.50    33.00 [+ or   28.9 [+        (P =       (P =
Water            [+ or         -] 5.4     or -]      0.01)*      0.13)
(Liters)            -]                      5.2
                  4.51

Extracellular    19.00  14.5 [+ or -]  16.90 [+  (P = 0.07)       (P =
Water            [+ or              6   or -] 6                  0.48)
(Liters)        -] 3.6


Thyroid ultrasound and thyroid function tests

Consumption of electrolyzed water showed no significant effect thyroid ultrasonometery, and TPO antibody Titer (results not shown). All thyroid function tests, that is serum TSH, total T4, Free T4, total T3 and free T3 were all within the reference range (Table IV). The only significant effect of electrolyzed water was on free T3 with a decrease from 3.5 [+ or -] 0.36 pg/ml to 3.15 [+ or -] 10.24pg/ml after 1 month of intervention (p=0.02) and increased to reach 3.28 [+ or -] 0.24 pg/ml after 2 months (p=0.1).

Hematology

All values pre and post intervention for hematology were remained within the reference ranee and the differences between the mean values pre and post electrolyzed water were not significant at p < 0.05 (Table V).

Blood Chemistry

Table VI displays the mean [+ or -] SD of several blood chemistry measurements. Although none of the four subjects were treated for diabetes, the mean serum glucose values pre and post intervention were slightly above the new reference range from Lab Corp, that is 65 to 99 mg/L compared to the previous range of 65 to 109 mg/L. Although not statistically significant there is a trend of decreasing mean glucose values; pre=102.25 [+ or -] 109; post 1 month=101.25 [+ or -] 10.1; and post 2 month =100.75 [+ or -] 10.9 mg/L. There was a near significant increase in serum creatinine levels from a mean [+ or -] SD of 1.015 [+ or -] 0.11 pre to 1.14mg/L post 2 months intervention (p=0.05). However, serum BUN levels did not change significantly during the 2 month follow up, suggesting the slight increase in serum creatinine levels were probably due to a slight increased lean body mass. Serum C [O.sub.2] levels increased significantly after one month of electrolyzed water with mean values [+ or -] SD of: Pre=21.75 [+ or -] 1.7 and post 1 month=24 [+ or -] 1.6 in mM/L (p=0.01). Electrolyzed water consumption did not have a significant effect on the other parameters of blood chemistry.

Urinary excretion of essential elements

The elements phosphorus and calcium were affected significantly by the electrolyzed water, but in opposite direction (Table VII). Urinary excretion of phosphorus decreased significantly with mean [+ or -] SD values of 1315 [+ or -] 74 micrograms/24hr pre intervention; 933 [+ or -] 324 post 1 month (p=0.02); and 841 [+ or -] 462 post 2 months (p=0.03). Urine calcium increased significantly with mean [+ or -] SD of 238 [+ or -] 135 (pre); 308 [+ or -] 170 post 1 month (p=0.02 and 266 [+ or -] 154 micrograms/24hr post 2 months (p=.01). Urinary chromium showed a trend of decreasing excretion which was not significant. The mean [+ or -] SD was: pre=0.0028; post 1 month=0.002 (p=0.1); and post 2 months=0.0019 (p=0.11).
Table VII Effect of electrolysed water consumed at 2
liters/dav for 2 months on the urinarv excretion of
essential elements (expressed as micrograms/24hr collection)76

Elements     Reference     Pre      Post-   Post-      p      p
              Range        mean     1 Mo     2 Mo     Value  Value
                            [+      mean     mean    1 Mo    2 Mo
                           or -]    [+ or   [+ or
                            SD      -] SD   -] SD

Sodium          39-217   208 [+     170 [+   145.85 [+     0.28    0.27
                          or -]      or -]       or -]
                             27         85       80.94

Potassium        19-77    58 [+    71.5 [+    55.18 [+     0.17    0.41
                          or -]      or -]       or -]
                             27       21.6       30.82

Phosphorus    200-1000  1315 [+     933 [+      841 [+   0.02 *  0.03 *
                          or -]      or -]       or -]
                            274        324        462

Calcium         30-250   238 [+     308 [+   265.74 [+   0.02 *  0.01 *
                          or -]      or -]       or -]
                            135        170         154

Magnesium       20-230   109.00     148 [+   114.81 [+     0.05    0.13
                          [+ or      or -]       or -]
                          -] 42         67       62.41

Zinc           0.1-1.5  0.67 [+   0.825 [+     0.69 [+     0.09    0.18
                          or -]      or -]       or -]
                           0.34       0.34        0.37

Copper      0.007-0.07  0.02 [+  0.0173 [+     0.04 [+     0.37    0.28
                          or -]      or -]       or -]
                           0.01       0.01        0.10

Sulfur        275-1210  1033 [+    1103 [+      887 [+     0.28    0.41
                          or -]      or -]       or -]
                            309        335         467

Chromium   0.0005-0.01   0.0028      0.002      0.0019     0.10    0.11
                          [+ or      [+ or       [+ or
                             -]         -]          -]
                           0.00     0.0003      0.0003

Selenium     0.03-0.26    0.104      0.096        0.08   0.02 *    0.39
                          [+ or      [+ or       [+ or
                             -]      -] 11      -]0.05
                           0.07

Iron               < 2     0.39       0.63        0.59     0.07     0.06
                             [+         [+          [+
                          or -]      or -]       or -]
                           0.26       0.33        0.28


There was a significant decreased excretion of selenium in urine with mean values of 0.104 (pre); 0.096 post 1 month (p=0.02); and 0,08 post 2 months (p=0.02). Urinary excretion of iron increased following intervention to reach near significance. The mean values were=0.39 (pre); 0.63 (post 1 month) and 0.59 (post 2 month) with p values of 0.07 and 0.06 respectively for 1 month and 2 months of intervention.

Urinary excretion of toxic metals

Barium, lead, mercury, nickel, and tin increased in the 24 hour urine collection following electrolyzed water. but only barium and mercury reached significance below p0.05 (Table VIII). The mean values were: for barium 4.4 pre and 5.1 post 1 month (p=0.02); for mercury: pre intervention values were below the detection limit; post 1 month=0.88 (p=0.06) and post 2 months=l. 18 (p=0.04). Urinary excretion of nickel increased to reach near significance at 2 months of intervention with mean values of 7.1 (pre), 10.1 (post 1 month) and 10.65 (post 2 months) with p value of 0.09 (Table VIII).
Table VIII Effect of electrolyzed water consumed at 2
liters/day for 2 months on the urinary excretion of
toxic metals expressed as micrograms/24hr collection)

Elements  Reference Range    Pre mean     Post- 1 Mo mean
                            [+ or -] SD       [+ or -] SD

Aluminum         < 25  32.25 [+ or -] 19.50     20 [+ or -] 6.9 8

Arsenic         < 108  18.08 [+ or -] 12.29    7.58 [+ or -] 5.75

Barium            < 7    4.40 [+ or -] 4.16    5.10 [+ or -] 4.44

Cadmium         < 0.8    0.73 [+ or -] 0.40    0.73 [+ or -] 0.38

Cesium            < 9   12.63 [+ or -] 9.91  11.975 [+ or -] 8.53

Lead              < 2    1.13 [+ or -] 1.23    1.20 [+ or -] 0.83

Mercury           < 3               ** < dl    0.88 [+ or -] 0.83

Nickel           < 10    7.10 [+ or -] 2.09    10.1 [+ or -] 7.60

Thallium        < 0.5   0.325 [+ or -] 0.21   0.300 [+ or -] 0.12

Tin               < 9    0.85 [+ or -] 0.44     2.1 [+ or -] 2.87

Elements      Post-1 Mo mean          p Value 1 Mo   p Value 2 Mo
              [+ or -] SD

Aluminum    23.25 [+ or -] 11.67    0.12         0.19

Arsenic     27.25 [+ or -] 26.27    0.05         0.18

Barium        4.48 [+ or -] 3.37  0.02 *         0.44

Cadmium       1.10 [+ or -] 0.92    0.50         0.20

Cesium       11.00 [+ or -] 6.68    0.32         0.24

Lead           1.23 [+ or -] 1.2    0.40         0.38

Mercury       1.18 [+ or -] 0.90    0.06       0.04 *

Nickel       10.65 [+ or -] 4.54    0.20         0.09

Thallium      0.35 [+ or -] 0.17   0.312         0.35

Tin           1.28 [+ or -] 1.11    0.19         0.15

*=p < 0.05

**<= below detection limit


Red blood cell elemental concentrations (Table IX)
IX Effect of Electrolyzed Water Consumed at 2
Liters/day for 2 months on red blood cell elemental
concentrations in four obese subjects (expressed as PPM)

             Reference    Pre Mean [+  Post 1 Mo    Post 2 Mo
            Range (PPM)     or -] SD     Mean[+ or   Mean [+ or
                                           -]SD (p       -] SD (p
                                           Value)      Value)

Calcium             8-31  24.17 [+ or    23.33 [+  24.17 [+ or
                              -] 5.49  or -] 4.80       -]4.07
                                           (0.33)       (0.50)

Magnesium          36-64   45.5 [+ or  45.5 [+ or  45.00 [+ or
                              -] 4.54     -] 3.83      -] 3.90
                                           (0.50)       (0.36)

Potassium          65-95  81.17 [+ or  79.5 [+ or  77.67 [+ or
                              -] 5.91   -] 1.87 1      -] 2.66
                                           (0.25)       (0.12)

Phosphate        480-745    561.67 [+    582.5 [+    553.83 [+
                                or -]       or -]  or -] 40.74
                                67.10       36.62       (0.28)
                                           (0.21)

Copper         0.52-0.89   0.67 [+ or  0.67 [+ or   0.69 [+ or
                              -] 0.08     -] 0.08      -] 0.09
                                           (0.45)       (0.10)

Zinc              8-14.5  10.15 [+ or    10.45 [+  10.17 [+ or
                              -] 0.80  or -] 1.11      -] 1.02
                                           (0.19)       (0.47)

Iron            745-1050    824.17 [+   804 [+ or    884 [+ or
                                or -]          -]      -] 52 *
                                38.08          72       (0.03)
                                           (0.28)

Manganese    0.007-0.030    0.0173 [+   0.0177 [+   0.02 [+ or
                           or -] 0.01  or -] 0.01      -] 0.01
                                           (0.31)       (0.40)

Chromium   0.0003-0.0060    0.0005 [+   0.0005 [+    0.0006 [+
                           or -] 0.00  or -] 0.00   or -] 0.00
                                           (0.37)       (0.41)

Selenium       0.19-0.38  0.218 [+ or    0.228 [+  0.232 [+ or
                              -] 0.05  or -] 0.15     -] 0.04*
                                           (0.14)       (0.04)

* = p<-0.05


The only statistically significant effect of electrolyzed water on RBC elemental concentrations was observed for RBC selenium and iron. For selenium the mean values [+ or -] SD. Pre=0.218 [+ or -] 0.05; post 1 month=0.228 [+ or -] 0.15 (p=.14); and post 2 months=0.232 [+ or -] 0.04 (p=0.04). For iron, pre=0.824 [+ or -] 38; post 1 month=804.5 [+ or -] 72; and post 2 months=884 [+ or -] 52 (p=0.03). The values for all elements in RBC were within the reference range.

Lipid profile (Table X)
X Effect of Electrolyzed Water Consumed at 2
Liters/day for 2 months on lipid profile in four obese subjects

               Unit   Reference  Pre Mean   Post 1 Mo     Post 2
                      Range      [+ or -]   Mean [+ or   Mo Mean
                                    SD        -] SD (p  [+ or -]
                                              Value)       SD
                                                        (p Value)

                                                             Value)
Total          mg/dl    100-199  197 [+ or    191 [+ or   180 [+ or
Cholesterol                          -] 33         -]30       -] 34
                                                 (0.35)      (0.07)

Triglycerides  mg/dl      0-149  110 [+ or    103 [+ or  87.2 [+ or
                                     -] 27        -] 38       -] 25
                                                 (0.34)      (0.05)

HDL-C          mg/dl        >39   60 [+ or  61 [+ or -]    58 [+ or
                                     -] 16    14 (0.45)       -] 15
                                                             (0.33)

VLDL-C         mg/dl       5-40    22.2 [+  20 [+ or -]  17.5 [+ or
                                     or -]         7.50      -] 5.1
                                       5.3       (0.30)      (0.05)

LDL-C          mg/dl       0-99  110 [+ or    110 [+ or   104 [+ or
                                     -] 35        -] 32       -] 30
                                                 (0.50)      (0.28)


There was a trend of decreasing concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDC, reaching near significance after 2 months on electrolyzed water. For cholesterol pre=197 [+ or -] 33: post 1 month=191 [+ or -] 30 (p=0.35) and post 2 months-180 [+ or -] 34 (p=0.07). Serum triglycerides dropped by 23mg/dl after 2 months with mean values of pre=l 10; 1 month post=l 03 and 2 months post=87.2 (p=0.05). Mean values for VLDL-C were pre=22.20; post I month=20; and post 2 months=l7.5 (p=0.05).

Bone metabolism (Table XI)
XI Effect of Electrolyzed Water Consumed at
2 Liters/day on parameters of Bone Metabolism in 4 obese subjects

                    Pre Mean [+   Post 1 Mo Mean [+    Post 2 Mo
                     or -] SD         or -] SD       Mean [+ or -]
                                      (p Value)       SD (p Value)

Urine Calcium        202.4 [+ or   268 [+ or -]171 *   241 [+ or -]
(PPM)                   -] 140.5              (0.01)    150* (0.01)

Urine Phosphorus   1240 [+ or -]  936 [+ or -] 281 *   858 [+ or -]
(PPM)                        291              (0.03)    440* (0.04)

Urine               492 [+ or -]     452.17 [+ or -]       313[+ or
N-Telopeptides               250       504.79 (0.38)        -]310 *
(nMole BCE)                                                 (0.034)

NTx**                26 [+ or -]     22 [+ or -] 5.8  23.5 [+ or -]
                             7.9              (0.08)     7.8 (0.24)

Serum              20.2 [+ or -]   19 [+ or -] 10.43    20.30 [+ or
Osteocalcin (ng            12.53              (0.24)         -] 9.7
/ml)                                                         (0.47)

*p= < 0.05

**= Telopeptide/creatinine ratio


There was a significant increase in urine calcium excretion, whereas urine phosphorus levels dropped significantly in the 24hr collection. For calcium, the mean values were 202 before intervention; 268 post I month (p=0.01) and 241 post 2 months (p=0.01). Urine phosphorus levels dropped by almost 400ppm after 2 months on electrolyzed water with mean concentrations of pre=1240; post 1 month=936 (p=0.03) and post 2 months 858 (p=0.04). Urine N-Telopeptides decreased significantly after 2 months with mean values of pre=492 nMole BCE; 452 after 1 month; and 313 after 2 months (p=0.03). There was no significant change in serum osteocalcin levels following electrolyzed water.

VI. Discussion

Although there is a lot of promotional material on alkalinized water, very little information is available on the validity of separating the two electrodes to collect water from the anode and cathode separately. Separation of anodic acidic oxidized water from cathodic alkaline reduced water in order to achieve antibacterial and antioxidant properties may not be necessary and both effects may be present in our nonseparated electrolyzed water. For example, consumption of our electrolyzed reduced water for several years prevented the reoccurrence of urinary tract infections in women predisposed to this condition.

Although our literature review on ERW is by no mean exhaustive we have been able to loeate a few recent publications (1-7) which contain useful in vivo and in vitro data on Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW), showing beneficial effects on some clinical conditions. Lee et al, (2) in 2006 published extensive in vitro studies showing a protective effect of ERW against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA and proteins in human lymphocytes. There investigators demonstrated that this effect was not due to the alkalinity of the reduced water since water alkalinized with NaOH to achieve the same pH as the ERW had no significant protective effect on the parameters studied. The results of our pilot study are very encouraging and require further research on a larger group of normal and obese subjects to substantiate these beneficial effects. The most important findings in our pilot study are:

A) Electrolyzed water resulted in weight loss and decreased body fat (Table III). In the four obese subjects consuming the treated water, mean body weight decreased by 121bs, in 2 months, from 255 [+ or -] 201bs pre to 2431bs post 2 months, reaching near significance (p=0.05). Fat mass decreased by some 61bs over the same period of time from 108 [+ or -] 26IbS pre to 102 and 101.81bs post 1 month and 2 months on electrolyzed water. These differences were significant at p=0.02. Consumption of electrolyzed reduced water is a safe addendum to a weight loss program.

B) Electrolyzed reduced water increases urinary excretion of extrasqueletal calcium. This is evidence by the combined hypercalciuria with a conservation of body phosphorous. This was further confirmed by the decreased levels of N-telopeptide cross links and NTX, combined with stable levels of osteocalcin. Bone density and strength depend on the balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by the osteoclasts. In our short term study, bone density measurement was not considered. Instead, we use two markers of bone metabolism: serum osteocalcin, as index of bone formation by osteoblasts; N-telopeptides and NTx as index as of bone resorption by osteoclasts (9), (10). There was no significant change in bone formation assessed by serum osteocalcin, but there was a significant suppression of bone resorption evidenced by the marked decrease in N-telopeptidc levels, and to a lesser extent in the NTx levels. The mechanism of such effect of electrolyzed water on bone metabolism is unknown at present.

C) Electrolyzed reduced water has a sparing effect on antioxidants. The significant increase in Red Blood cell selenium (Table IX) combined the significant decrease in urinary levels of selenium (Table VII) indicate a conserving effect on this naturally occurring antioxidant.

D) Electrolyzed reduced water improves lipid profile. Consumption of electrolyzed reduced water in four obese subjects resulted in near significant trend of decreasing serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDC (Table X). The small number of subjects prevented these trends to become significant at p< 0.05.

E) Electrolyzed reduced water increased urinary excretion of toxic metals. Two months of ( intervention with ERW resulted in increased urinary excretion of barium, mercury, lead and nickel with barium and mercury reaching significance (Table VIII).

The mechanism of action of ERW to produce the above effects is currently being investigated by mainly Japanese scientists. The alkalinity of ERW has been over emphasized, since recent data suggest that the pH of the ERW does not play a significant role (2). The [H.sub.2]] present in ERW plays a partial role (6), (7) but does not explain some of the antioxidant effects, such the catalase effect on hydrogen peroxide1. The properties of water are complex and sometimes unpredictable (11), (12). Honaoka et al, (1) used the expression "activated hydrogen" to identify the element responsible for the catalase effect of ERW. The identity of this elusive "activated hydrogen" may be a form of stabilized hydrides in micro clusters of water dinners, timers in cooperative interaction as explained by F. Frank. (13) However, there is no need to wait for a full explanation of the mechanisms involved in order to benefit from the health enhancing effects of ERW.

Acknowledgements: The author wish to thank Regina Jauregui for excellent secretarial assistance in tabulating the data and typing the manuscript; and the four subjects whose collaboration was essential for initiating this study and bringing it to completion.

References:

(1.) K. HANAOKA et al; Antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions - Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 31: 1307-1313, 2001.

(2.) Mi Young Lee et al; Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology vol. 135, 2006

(3.) Sanetaka Shirahata el al; Electrolyzed, Reduced Water Scavenges Active Oxygen Species and Protects DNA from Oxidative Damage; Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication 234, 269-274 (1997)

(4.) Zbigniew Gadek et al; "Nordenau Phenomenon"-Application of Natural Reduced Water to Therapy, Animal Cell Technology: Basic and Applied Aspects Vol 15 Springer Netherlands 265-271 (2009)

(5.) Y.P.Li et al; Effect of Reduced Water On The Apoptotic Cell Death Triggered By Oxidative Stress In Pancreatic B Hit-T15 Cell, Animal Cell Technology meets Genomics, 121 -124 (2005) Springer

(6.) Kyota Fujita et al; Hydrogen in Drinking Water Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss in the 1-mcthy1-4-phcnyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease, Vol 4, Issue 9 e7247 (2009)

(7.) Ikuroh Obsawa et al; Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals; Nat Med Vol 13 pgs 688-694, 2007

(8.) Goldstein A Biostatistics, MacMillilan, 1965: pg 61

(9.) Gemero P, et al; Increased bone turnover in late postmenopausal woman is a major determinant of osteoporosis, J Bone Miner Res, 1996 11(3):337-49.

(10.) Junqueira PA et al; Comparison of bone remodeling indicators in climacteric women; J Fertil womens hied, 2002, 47(4): 174-81

(11.) D. Eisenberg et al; The structure and properties of water; Oxford University Press 1969

(12.) Edwin J. Hart et al; The hydratcd Electron; Stanford Research Institute 1970

(13.) Felix Franks; Water; Royal Society of Chemistry, 1984: pgl5

By: Guy E. Abrabam, MD and Jorge D. Flecbas, MD
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