Printer Friendly

The effect of addition of whey on the acceptability of Tebeldi juice.


Tebeidi juice was prepared by using different concentrations of whey (25, 50, 75 and 100%) and the panelists evaluated the acceptability of the product. The whey used to prepare the juice contains 0.4, 1.10, 0.10, 12.04, and 6.25 lactose, proteins, fats, ash, and TSS respectively, and the whey's acidity as a lactic acid was 0.09%. Results indicates that the acceptability of the Tebeldi juice was not affected by the addition of the different concentrations of whey; except the juice prepared by 100% whey concentration, which had unacceptable flavor and odor, and this was solved by the addition of vanilla flavor and flower water to the product.


Whey is a by- product of cheese making process. It is formed when the curds separate from the milk or cream. After the cheese curds are formed, the remaining liquid is called whey; this liquid is watery and thin. It is composed of a group of organic matters that can be analyzed due to microorganisms exposure especially aerobic bacteria. Some of cheese factories refuse the whey in the water resource, which can be prone for microbial fermented processes. So that represents source of pollution to the nature and the human surroundings (Sagran, 2003). For these, hazards may result from whey disposal, some countries put regulations to prevent disposal in water and earth environment (Thernouth, 1969).

Whey is a high quality complete protein, with all the essential amino acids. Whey is also the richest known source of naturally occurring branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). These are important for active individuals who exercise and professional athletes (Whey Protein Institute, 2001). Whey can be quickly interring the body. It is an excellent source of protein, vitamins, minerals and lactose. Also it is the base of many protein drinks for an athletes or other wishing to build or repair muscle tissues and also it is important supplement for those who have limited mobility in the limbs. It can be an important addition to any one diet. Those who have difficulty finding the time to eat right or have other dietary concerns such as protein needs in a vegetarian diet. It is also common used in infant formula, protein supplements and medical formula (Yares, 2005).

As human age advance some changes takes place in the biological processes, which may lead in reduction of the ability in proteins digesting, calcium and phosphorous salts absorption. Also a reduction in secretions of digestion tract enzymes, and a decrease in the ability of liver and kidney to perform their functions efficiently. Also may lead to atherosclorosis for heart blood vessels. So to protect an elderly, special considerations are given to their nutritional needs and demands. The nutritional foods offered should be easily digested by them (Alhagrawi et al., 1975). There are no documented side effects provided a person doesn't have an allergy to dairy proteins or doesn't need to restrict product for medical reasons (Whey Protein Institute, 2001).

Many researchers think about how to utilize and benefits from the whey. They have planned methods for whey processing that by condensing and drying, then to be used in the nutritional, pharmaceutical, chemical and biotechnological manufactories. It can also be used in human and animal nutrition (Sagran, 2002 and Veisseyre, 1989).

Tebeldi is the baobab (Adansonia digitat L) which is a fruit-producing tree belonging to the family Bombacaceae. Tebeldi has an exceedingly wide range of uses ranging from food and beverages to medical uses (Gebauer et al., 2002). Tebeldi is important to the livelihood of the people in arid zone (Muok et al., 2001). Because of their great size and bizarre shapes, it is often the most prominent tree species (Becker, 1983).

Tebeldi is widespread through out the hot, drier regions of tropical Africa (El Amin, 1990). The fruit pulp has very high vitamin C content; almost ten times that of oranges. It Contains sugars but no starch and is rich in pectin (Sidibe et al., 1998). The constituents of the dry fruit pulp "dry weight basis" is 79.3% total soluble solids, 23.2% total sugars, 2.6% N protein, 0.2% fat, 5.7% crude fiber, 5.3% ash, 8.6 mg/100g iron, 6.7 moisture and pH 3.3 (Gebauer et al., 2002). The white powder surrounding the seeds may be eaten raw together with milk and porridge or milk alone and the pulp is served as a refreshing drink (Salih, 1991).

The objective of this study was to get the benefit from the high nutritive value of the whey by adding it to the Tebeldi juice, which is commonly consumed in Sudan without wide effect in its acceptability and sensory evaluation.

Materials and Methods

Whey of cow's milk was obtained from Faculty of Animal Production, Sudan University for Sciences and Technology, Koko, Sudan. Tebeldi (powder) was obtained from Omdourman local market.

Whey--Tebeldi Juice Preparation

Four treatments of juice were prepared by different concentrations of whey beside the control treatment, which is without whey addition. The treatments were prepared as follows:

A. The control with zero % whey.

B. Tebeldi juice with 25% whey.

C. Tebeldi juice with 50% whey.

D. Tebeldi juice with 75% whey.

E. Tebeldi juice with 100% whey.

Analysis of Whey

Physical Properties


The density of the whey was determined by the specific gravity bottle using the AOAC (1995) method.

Chemical Properties

Total Soluble Solids (TSS)

TSS was determined by refractometer, according to AOAC (1995).

Acidity as a Lactic Acid

The acidity of the whey as lactic acid was determined by the titration method using sodium hydroxide (0.1N) as described by the AOAC (1995).


The pH of the whey was determined by using a glass electrode pH meter (PUSL Munchen, Germany.

Protein Content

The protein content of the whey was determined by micro Kjeldahl method according to AOAC (1995).

Oil Content

Oil content of the whey was determined by Jerber method as described by AOAC (1995).

Lactose Content

The lactose content of the whey was determined at 540 nm using spectrophotometer.

Ash Content

Ash was determined according to the AOAC (1995) method.

Tebeldi Analysis

Moisture content

The moisture content of the Tebeldi powder was determined by drying in the dried oven at 105[degrees]C according to the AOAC (1995).


Ash was determined according to the AOAC (1995) method.


The protein content of the Tebaldi was determined by micro Kjeldahl method according to AOAC (1995) method.


Fibertic System was used to determine the fiber content according to the method of AOAC (1995).


The pH of the whey was determined by using a glass electrode pH meter (PUSL Munchen, Germany.


Calcium, Iron, Sodium, Potassium and Copper were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, model No. 3110 (Elemer, 1994)..

Organoliptie Evaluation

Ten panelists from Ahfad university staff and students were presented, with coded Whey--Tebeldi juice samples, the test was consisted of the five treatments (A, B, C, D, and E). Panelists were asked to evaluate color, taste, odor, flavor, texture and general acceptability.

Statistical Analysis

Each sample was analyzed in duplicate and the figures were then averaged. Data were assessed by Lowest Significant Difference (LSD) rank at the 5% level with a probability (p [less than or equal to] 0.05).

Results and Discussion


The physical properties of whey are related to the natural characters of each component alone. Whey has yellowish green color, which due to its enrichment in vitamin B and B complex, also whey contains fat soluble vitamin (A, D, E, K) (Alhagrawi et al., 1975).

Vitamins are one of the minor components of the whey. They work as co-enzymes in human bodies, which are important in metabolic processes, include biosynthesis of food and maintain a good health status. So, without vitamins all the biochemical reactions in the human body will stops cause fast syndrome diseases (Bullerman, 1986).

Results showed that whey has a slightly milk flavor and a sweet taste which is due to the presents of the soluble lactose which is very important in human nutrition as a unique source of glucose which found normally in the nerve tissues and the brain cells. Results showed that the whey has carbohydrates (lactose) 0.4%, proteins 1.10%, fats 0.10% and ash 12.04%. Sagran (2003) reported that whey contain lactose 0.4%, proteins

1.2%, fat 0.5% and ash 7.8% (Table 2). The nutritional needs of individuals depend on some factors such as age, work and profession field or the type of career and climate circumstance. Whey is considered to be more easily in digestion and absorption; and lactose has a low effect on the membranes that cover the. stomach wall in compared to the sucrose. Also it plays a role in the metabolism and absorption of calcium and in the improvement of the lactic acid bacteria needed in the human intestine, which is needed to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria in the intestine (Alhagrawi et al., 1975).

Whey's fat contains unsaturated fatty acids, which consider as an important source of energy productions in human body and spread as an emulsion form to be easier in its absorption (Alhagrawi et al., 1975).

Whey's protein composed of lacto albumin and lacto globulin, those consider as a complete protein with high .nutritive value, this related to it's rich in amino acid such as lysine and tryptophan, which found in a very small amount in the food seeds. Lacto albumin is considered as a good source of amino acid contains sulpher such as methionin and cystine (Alhagrawi et al., 1975). Also the protein is important for elderly people because it's more easily absorption four times than the bread protein and the yield remains can't cause any harm for kidneys and livers (Genvrain, 1968).

The ash found in the whey is easiest form of absorption. Whey consider as a good source of calcium, phosphorous which plays an important role in the growth of teeth and bones structure and they help in protection, of it good health. Also the whey consists of sodium, potassium, and magnesium, which are organizing many biochemical processes especially in acid base balance process, pH constant and osmotic pressure for blood tissues. On other side the trace elements in whey are important for all biological processes is human body (Alhagrawi et al., 1975).


Tebeldi is a good source of calcium and vitamin C according to FAO (1988). It is used as a soft drink with sugar and its juice used in starch processing. The fruit can be eating with salt and as spices and coffee (Salih, 1991).

Results showed that Tebeldi has ash content 16.5%, moisture content 8.6%, protein content 6.131%, crude fiber content 14.0% and pH 3.69 (Table 3). The minerals content (Na, K, Ca, Feand Cu) of the Tebeldi powder are 0.18, 27.0, 2.36, 4.534 and 0.325 mg/100g, respectively. Salih (1991) reported that Tebeldi powder contain ash 5.8%, protein 3.1%, fiber 9.2%, sodium 0.01mg/L, potassium 2.57mg/L, calcium 0.36mg/L, iron 17mg/L and cupper 8 mg/L.

Organoliptic Evaluation of Whey Tebeldi Juice

Table (4) showed that the-addition of whey for the preparation of Tebeldi juice had a significant effect on the acceptability Of the product for the different additions comparing with the control at the level of 5% (P [less than or equal to] 0.05), while 100% whey had lower odor acceptability and 50% had lower texture acceptability.


Alhagrawi, I., Amin, I., Abu Dina, S. Abd Elmoneim, H., Yousif, A. and Salama, F. (1975). Principles of Dairy Technology (in Arabic). New Publications Home, Alexandria, Egypt.

AOAC (1995). Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Official Methods of Analysis. 12th ed, Washington. D.C.

Becker, B. (1983). The contribution of wide plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal). Agroforestry Systems, 1, 252-267.

Bullerman L. (1986). Use of cheese whey for vitamin [B.sub.12] production. Applied Microbiology, 14, 353-355.

El Amin, H.M. (1990). Trees and Shrubs of the Sudan. Ithaca Press, UK.

FAO (1988). Traditional Food Plants. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 42, 63-67.

Elemer, P. (1994). Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Perkin Elmer, London.

Gebauer, J; El-Siddig, K. and Ebert, G. (2002). Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) A Review on a multipurpose tree with promising future in the Sudan. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 67, 155-160,

Genvrain, S. A. (1968). Extraction des proteines du lactoserum. Dairy Science Abstracts, 31, 310.

Muok, B.O; Owuor, B.; Dawson, I. and Were, J. (2001). The potential of indigenous fruit trees: Results of a survey in Kitui District, Kenya. Agroforestiy Today, 12, 13-16.

Sagran, A..H (2003). Proposal for the Establishment of Dairy Industry in Lahg Province, Yemen Republic (in Arabic). Scientific Workshop for Food Standards in Yemen Republic, Faculty of Agriculture, Lahg, Yemen, pp 35.

Sagran, A..H. (2002). Development Technology of Yemeni Smoked Cheese Technology Aspects. Sciences Conferences, 2002, Taiz, 11-13/10/2002. Yemen.

Salih, O.M (1991). Biochemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Famine Foods of the Sudan. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Sidibe, M; Scheuring, J. F.; Kone, M.; Schierle, J.. and Frigg, M. (1998). A and C for Africa: The baobab tree as a source of vitamins. Agroforestry Today, 10, 7-9.

Thernouth, J.H. (1969). Les traitments et utilization du Lactoserum: aspects nutritionnels. Seminiar F.I.L., Allemagne Federale.

Veisseyre, R. (1989). Technology du lait. Librairie Agricole. La Maison Rustiqe. Paris, France, p.741.

Yares, K. (2005). What is Whey?

Whey Protein Institute (2001). Whey Protein Free Asking Questions.

Abd Almoneim Osman Elkhalifa, Hanadi Ibrahim El Khateim and Nahla Abdulla Ali--School of Health Sciences, Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan.
Table (1) The Amounts and Ingredients of the Whey-Tebeldi Juice

 Water Tebeldi
Sample Product /ml Whey/ml powder/g Sugar/g

A. Tebeldi juice Zero% 200 Zero 15.64 4
 whey (control)

B. Tebeldi juice 25% 150 50 15.64 4

C. Tebeldi juice 50 % 100 100 15.64 4

D. Tebeldi juice 75 % 50 150 15.64 4

E. Tebeldi juice 100 Zero 200 15.64 4

Table (2) Physical and Chemical Properties of Whey

Density Acidity
g/[cm.sup.3] TSS % (lactic acid %)

88.37 6.25 0.09
([+ or -] 0.01) ([+ or -] 0.00) ([+ or -] 0.01)

Protein pH Fat
% % %

1.10 5.18 0.10
([+ or -] 0.01) ([+ or -] 0.04) ([+ or -] 0.04)

Lactose Ash
% %

0.40 12.04
([+ or -] 0.00) ([+ or -] 0.00)

Values are means [+ or -] SD

Table (3) Physical and Chemical Properties of Tebeldi

Moisture % Ash %

8.60 ([+ or -] 1.13) 16.50 ([+ or -] 6.36)

Protein % Crude fiber pH

6.131 ([+ or -] 0.00) 14.0 ([+ or -] 0.00) 3.69 ([+ or -] 0.00)

Values are means [+ or -] SD

Table (4) Organoliptic Evaluation of Whey Tebeldi Juice

code Color Taste Odor

A [22.sup.b] [28.sup.b] [34.sup.b]
B [30.sup.b] [38.sup.b] [38.sup.b]
C [28.sup.b] [28.sup.b] [24.sup.b]
D [39.sup.b] [35.sup.b] [35.sup.b]
E [33.sup.b] [21.sup.b] [16.sup.b]


Sample Flower Overall
code water Vanilla Texture quality

A [30.sup.b] [26.sup.b] [25.sup.b] [26.sup.b]
B [24.sup.b] [40.sup.b] [28.sup.b] [36.sup.b]
C [34.sup.b] [25.sup.b] [41.sup.b] [34.sup.b]
D [31.sup.b] [32.sup.b] [30.sup.b] [29.sup.b]
E [35.sup.b] [23.sup.b] [26.sup.b] [25.sup.b]

Ranks not having common superscripts in a column are significantly
different at
p [less than or equal to] 5 0.05.
COPYRIGHT 2007 Ahfad University for Women
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Elkhalifa, Abd Almoneim Osman; Khateim, Hanadi Ibrahim El; Ali, Nahla Abdulla
Publication:Ahfad Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6SUDA
Date:Dec 1, 2007
Previous Article:Nutritional evaluation of Moringa Oleifera leaves and extract.
Next Article:Nutritional Knowledge of the Final Year Students of the Medical Schools in Khartoum State.

Related Articles
Consider extruded whey protein meat extender as alternative.
Consider extruded whey protein meat extender.
Design a thirst-quenching beverage from whey permeate.
Whey protein off-flavors affect product applications.
Editors note.
Therapeutic applications of whey protein.
Astringency of whey protein beverages caused by their acidity.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters