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The economics of minority language identity.

ABSTRACT/RESUME

The debate about whether ethnic identity helps or hinders social mobility is inconclusive because of differences in conceptualizing and measuring "ethnic identity." This paper examines how minority language, as one dimension of ethnic minority identity, changes, and what market returns it brings. Using the 1996 census microdata, the study finds substantial variations of non-official mother tongues and home languages, especially among foreign-born Canadians. By and large, non-official home languages and mother tongues produce net market penalties. whereas English mother tongue or home language yields positive net returns for men and women. The market disincentives associated with non-official languages and the incentives associated with English mother tongue or home language probably explain why minority languages decline in Canada in favour of English language. Despite the findings, the debate regarding ethnic identity and social mobility cannot be resolved without further examining the multi-dimensions of et hnic identity and how each influences economic outcomes.

Le debat, a savoir si l'identite ethnique est benefique ou nefaste a la mobilite sociale, est concluant en raison des differences de la conceptualisation et des mesures de [much less than] l'identite ethnique [much greater than] L'auteur de l'article examine de quelle facon une langue minoritaire, en tant que dimension de l'identite minoritaire ethnique, change et quels en sont les effets. L'etude, qui repose sur des donnees du recensement de 1996, fait ressortir des ecarts considerables entre les langues maternelles non officielles et les langues parlees a la maison, surtout chez les Canadiens nes a l'etranger. Les langues maternelles non officielles et les langues parlees a la maison donnent certes lieu des penalites sur le marche alors que l'anglais comme langue maternelle ou langue parlee a la maison donne lieu a des avantages pour les hommes et les femmes. Les elements dissuasifs lies aux langues non officielles et les avantages lies a l'anglais comme langue maternelle ou utilisee a la maison expliquent pr obablement le declin des langues minoritaires au Canada en faveur de l'anglais. Malgre ces conclusions, le debat entourant l'identite ethnique et la mobilite sociale ne peut etre resolu sans examiner davantage les multiples dimensions de l'identite ethnique et de quelle facon chacune de ces dimension influe sur les resultats economiques.

Social scientists have used different approaches in defining and measuring ethnic identity, and have come to conflicting conclusions regarding whether ethnic identity is a resource or a penalty for social mobility in Canadian society (Isajiw, Sev'er and Driedger, 1993; Kalbach and Kalbach, 1995). The controversy stems partly from the complexity in capturing the multidimensionality of ethnic identity, and partly from generalizing narrow interpretations based on different measurements of ethnicity or ethnic identity. Nevertheless, claims about whether ethnic identity improves or retards economic performance have serious theoretical implications. If ethnic identity contributes to economic betterment, then economic improvement also provides the material incentives for strengthening the preservation of ethnic identity. Conversely, if ethnic identity produces negative economic outcomes, such outcomes serve as penalties for maintaining a distinct ethnic identity, and its future retention is likely to be weakened.

Rather than trying to study ethnic identity as an all-embracing concept in order to determine its multidimensional effects on an equally encompassing concept of social mobility, this paper examines a more focused dimension pertaining specifically to minority language identity in Canadian society. The purpose is to determine the extent to which non-official languages are being adopted as mother tongue and home language, and to examine the economic value of minority language identity in the labour market. To the extent that non-official language identity provides positive market returns, such returns can be seen as providing incentives for its maintenance in the home setting. Conversely, earning penalties of non-official language identity can be interpreted as disincentives that discourage its being preserved as mother tongue or home language. In this way, the market value of non-official languages provides an economic basis for strengthening or weakening minority language identity. Studying the economic return s of minority language identity represents one way of assessing whether a specific component of ethnic identity helps or hurts labour market performance. In turn, the economic value of minority language identity provides a basis for understanding why minority language identity prospers or declines over time in Canadian society.

ETHNICITY, ETHNIC IDENTITY, AND MINORITY LANGUAGE IDENTITY

The term "ethnicity" comes from the Greek word ethnikos, the adjective of ethnos, which means heathen nations or peoples not converted to Christianity. In the contemporary context, "ethnicity" is often used to designate the notion of a people of a similar heritage, the members of which have a sense of common origins and share some experiences of life, past and present (Cashmore, 1984:85-90). Thus, the concept of ethnicity implies an identity or a sentiment of likeness based on descent, language, religion, tradition, and other common experiences (Weber, 1968:385-398).

The internationalization of capital and labour under capitalism has greatly fractured the solidarity of ethnic identity that used to correspond more closely to nations and peoples. At the same time, increased international migration as a part of the trend of globalization has resulted in people moving across nation-states in large numbers: in doing so, destination societies have seen hybrids of ethnic identities emerge, often reflecting the exigencies of contemporary life and only nominally the endurance of cultural traditions (Yancey, Ericksen and Juliani, 1976). Today, modern states are likely to be polyethnic in the sense that many ethnic groups can be found within the same nation-state (Driedger. 1996:2-3; Kymlicka, 1995:11-26). As well, these states are witnessing what Krotki and Odynak (1990:415) call "the emergence of multiethnicities," that is, the mixing of origins of people.

In an immigrant society such as Canada. there is no simple and direct correspondence between "ethnicity" and "ethnic identity." A common ethnic label does not automatically imply a common identity because members of an ethnic origin are likely to have originated from many backgrounds and are exposed to different life experiences based on social class, gender, and other social features (Li, 1999:164-170). The end result is that there can be many identities even within the same ethnic group, with overlapping cultural and behavioural features. Thus, individual or group differences in attachment to various linguistic, social, and cultural components that delineate ethnic identity may reflect less the robustness of common past traditions than the viability of present conditions that nourish or stifle such components.

Ethnic identities, as Jenkins (1994:218) puts it, "are practical accomplishments rather than static forms." However, the conventional theoretical approach to ethnic identity tends to stress the collective internal definitions of distinctiveness at the expense of external definition and categorization (Jenkins, 1994). Ethnic identity cannot simply be a product of individual or group choices premised upon ascription and traditions, since unequal power relations exert substantial external pressures in the social construction of ethnic identity (Jenkins, 1994). As Gans (1997:882) points out, the retention and resurgence of ethnic identity can also be reactions to events in the larger society. Thus, the undue emphasis of ethnic identity as adherence to cultural tradition and internal solidarity has meant that external conditions and market forces are often overlooked as important sources in shaping ethnic identity.

Studies of ethnic identity are further complicated by the fact that there are substantial differences in how "ethnic identity" is framed and measured. For example, the debate over Porter's Vertical Mosaic Thesis regarding whether ethnic affiliation determines occupational opportunity in Canada is in fact premised upon the narrow empirical question of whether ethnic categories as indicated in Canadian censuses are related to the occupational distribution, and whether such a statistical association increases or decreases in strength over different censuses (Porter, 1965; Darroch, 1979; Lautard and Loree, 1984: Lautard and Guppy, 1999). While these studies may have implications on the theoretical debate about ethnic identity and social mobility, such implications can only be extrapolated, not inferred.

Since "ethnic identity" encompasses many elements and since there is no consensus in adopting a universal set of dimensions in studying "ethnic identity," there are substantial variations in theorizing the concept of ethnic identity (see Cornell and Hartmann, 1998: 153-194; Gans, 1997; Hutnik, 1986; Jenkins, 1994; Tilley, 1997), as well as its measurement (see Isajiw, 1974; Driedger, 1996:129-151; Kalin and Berry, 1995; Statistics Canada and US Bureau of the Census, 1993). Consequently, conclusions regarding "ethnic identity" are influenced by different elements being included or excluded in mapping out the composite concept. For example, a study of ethnic identity and social mobility among four European groups in Toronto used four dimensions to measure ethnic attachments to one's ethnic community, and found a small but significant correlation between the external/cultural dimension of ethnic identity and social mobility in several tests (Isajiw, Sev'er and Driedger, 1993). The external/cultural dimension inc ludes items which mainly measure ethnic language use and preference of ethnic food and ethnic media, while social mobility is constructed from occupational and educational differences between the respondent and his/her father (Isajiw et al., 1993). The authors concluded that ethnic identity can be as much a resource as a drawback to social mobility (Isajiw et al., 1993).

Kalbach and Kalbach (1995) analyzed data from the 1981 and 1991 Census to see if socio-economic status is related to what they call "ethnic connectedness" or "ethnic identity," as measured by the proportion of an ethno-religious group reporting the use of an ethnic language at home. They concluded that "individuals in the more traditional ethno-religious groups, who exhibit their greater ethnic commitment or connectedness through greater use of their ethnic language in the home, tend to report lower levels of educational and economic status attainment than those who are less ethnically connected..." and that, among immigrants in particular, those who are more ethnically connected tend to be more disadvantaged (Kalbach and Kalbach, 1995:31).

In another study, Pendakur and Pendakur (forthcoming) used the detailed microdata file of the 1991 Census to examine the returns of official languages and non-official languages, and found that while official language ability brings positive market returns, knowledge of non-official languages rarely improves, in fact it penalizes labour market outcomes. It is difficult to extrapolate from the study whether knowledge of non-official languages can be equated with ethnic identity since, as the authors pointed out, individuals may be endowed with a non-official language as mother tongue, or may acquire such language ability in later socialization. Nevertheless, the study by Pendakur and Pendakur (forthcoming) casts serious doubts on the general conclusion regarding the positive effects of ethnic identity on market performance.

The present analysis assesses the economic value of minority language identity using the 1996 Census in order to better understand the retention or demise of minority languages. Minority language identity is defined as the adoption of a nonofficial language as mother tongue or home language. This is not to say that those who adopt a non-official language as mother tongue or home language would necessarily have a strong sense of belonging to one's ethnic group. However, it is clear that the retention of a minority language as mother tongue or home language constitutes an added component in the construction of ethnic minority identity, and that people who retain such a mother tongue or home language have a stronger linguistic capacity to link themselves with their ethnic community than others who do not retain such language. Since the adoption of a minority language as mother tongue or home language represents an ethnic endowment or an ethnic language choice respectively, it can be described as a phenomenon of minority language identity.

DATA AND METHOD

The analysis uses the 1996 Census to see the extent to which non-official languages are being adopted as mother tongue and home language among immigrants and native-born Canadians of various ethnic origins. The market value of minority languages is then assessed in terms of the returns of non-official languages as mother tongue and home language, while controlling for variations in other individual and labour market features.

This analysis is based on the Public Use Microdata File on Individuals of the 1996 Census of Canada, which is a 2.8 percent probability sample of the population enumerated in the census. The file contains 792,448 records of individuals. (1) For the purpose of this analysis, only permanent residents of Canada. including landed immigrants and native-born Canadians, are included. (2) A further restriction is applies to the analysis of the market value of mother tongue and home language. Those who were less than 15 years of age and those who did not work in 1995, as well as those with no wages, salaries, or self-employment income are excluded. The resulting file has 401,653 cases, including 215,839 men and 185,814 women, at least 15 years of age, who worked in 1995 and had earnings from employment or self-employment.

The dependent variable is "annual earnings from employment and self employment," which is the sum of gross wages and salaries, and net self-employment income before paying individual income taxes. Statistics Canada applies upper and lower limits to individual earnings to ensure confidentiality. (3) Wages and salaries are always positive, but net self-employment income can have a negative value. Earnings from employment and self-employment are used here to indicate labour market outcomes, and some individuals had earnings from both sources. Actual earnings are retained for easy interpretation.

The independent variables measuring individual variations in human capital and work-related features include: years of schooling, experience estimated by subtracting from age the years of schooling and the six years before schooling began, experience squared, knowledge of the official languages, mother tongue or home language, the number of weeks worked in 1995 (1 to 52). the nature of work in terms of whether the weeks worked were full-time or part-time, (4) occupation (14 categories), (5) and the industry of work (14 categories). (6) In addition, a variable -- "years since landing in Canada" -- is used as a proxy of Canadian experience for immigrants. The variable is measured as the number of years since an immigrant has immigrated to Canada, and native-born Canadians are coded as 0. The "years of schooling" is constructed from several variables. For individuals with post-secondary education, the variable "years of schooling" is the sum of years of university or non-university education, whichever is higher , and 12 years of elementary and secondary grades. For those with secondary school graduation certificate, it is coded as 12. For those with less than secondary school graduation certificate, the highest grade coded is 11 even though higher completed grades may have been reported. Individuals with only "grade 5-8" education are coded as having an average of 6.5 years of schooling, and those with "less than grade 5," an average of 2 years of schooling. In addition, two other variables measuring the characteristics of the local market are used in the analysis; they pertain to the unemployment rate and the percentage of immigrant population in the CMA as calculated from the 1996 census microdata file.

The inclusion of occupation and industry of work as independent variables reduces the magnitude of income differences that can be attributed to language ability and language identity. Indeed, language capacity and identity can be seen as exogenous factors that determine the type of industry in which a person works and the type of job a person holds. In turn, the job type and industry of work affect the level of earnings. Thus, after variations in industry of work and job type are taken into account, earning differences associated with language characteristics may be seen as direct net effects of language characteristics on earnings, as opposed to their indirect effects on earnings which operate via the influence of job type and industry of work. In other words, the inclusion of occupation and industry creates a more restrictive condition for assessing the impact of language characteristics on earnings.

Multiple Classification Analysis (Andrews et al., 1976) is used to analyze the gross and net differences in earnings which can be attributed to language abilities, including mother tongue or home language and knowledge of the official languages. The statistical procedure is essentially a least-squares solution which treats the dependent variable as a linear combination of a set of categorical and interval variables. For each interval variable in the equation, Multiple Classification Analysis calculates the unstandardized multiple regression coefficient; for categorical variables, it produces a regression coefficient for each category and expresses it as a deviation from the grand mean of the dependent variable. The gross deviations measure the effects when variations in other independent variables have not been adjusted; the net deviations are effects when inter-group variations in other independent variables have been taken into account.

PATTERNS OF MINORITY LANGUAGE IDENTITY

The extent to which Canadians adopt a non-official language as mother tongue or home language reflects the linguistic diversity in Canada as well as the degree of commitment or identity toward non-official languages. Findings from previous Canadian censuses indicate that (1) linguistic diversity in Canada has increased in more recent censuses largely as a result of more immigrants coming to Canada from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds; and that (2) the pull toward adopting English as mother tongue and home language has been strong over time. For example, Richmond and Kalbach (1980: 435) showed from the data of the 1971 Census that more recent immigrants were more likely to speak a home language similar to their mother tongue, but as succeeding cohorts of immigrants increased their period of residence in Canada, there was a corresponding increase in the use of English as home language by those whose mother tongue was not English. Also using the 1971 Census, de Vries and Vallee (1980:109) found that there was a strong tendency for those not of British or French origin to shift to English mother tongue, especially among those born in Canada. An analysis of language data of the 1986 Census also indicates that Canada's linguistic diversity, most notable in metropolitan centres, has been increasing as a result of changing immigration patterns, but at the same time, there has been a strong pressure to convert to English mother tongue and home language (Bourbeau, 1989).

Data from the 1996 Census reveal that there is substantial linguistic diversity among foreign-born Canadians, in terms of adopting a non-official language as mother tongue or home language; however, this diversity declines dramatically among native-born Canadians. In other words, a large proportion of those born outside of Canada adopts a mother tongue or home language other than English or French, but this pattern is not sustained among those born in Canada. For example, those with a non-official language mother tongue account for 67 percent of foreign-born Canadians, while those with a non-official home language account for 45 percent (Table 1). However, only 6.2 per cent of native-born Canadians speak a non-official language mother tongue and only 2.8 per cent speak a home language other than English or French.

Comparing foreign-born Canadians to native-born Canadians, the decline in percentage of people with a non-official language mother tongue or home language for the same ethnic group may be viewed as the rate of loss of minority language identity. Table 1 shows that the loss of minority language identity is more severe among those not of visible minority origins, and less so among those of visible minority origin. For example, 26 percent of those of German origin born outside of Canada, compared with only 7.8 percent of the same origin born in Canada, adopt a home language other than English or French. The rate of minority language loss in home language for those of Italian origin is from 60 percent among those born outside of Canada to 12 per cent among those native-born. In contrast, the decline is from 67 percent among foreign-born Arab Canadians to 43 percent among native-born Arab Canadians, and from 84 percent foreign-born Chinese Canadians to 38 percent native-born Chinese Canadians. These differences pa rtly reflect the changing patterns of immigration.

Since Europeans have been immigrating to Canada for a longer period of time due to the past bias in favour of European immigration, and since immigrants from Asia, Africa, and other non-European source countries only began to enter Canada in large numbers beginning in the late 1960s, there is a difference in the duration in Canada for European Canadians and for visible minority Canadians. Thus, native-born Canadians of European origin are more likely to have been in Canada for several generations than native-born visible minorities. Consequently, there is a longer timeframe for non-English and non-French speaking European Canadians to lose their ethnic language identity and to convert to official languages than for visible minority Canadians. These differences would explain why the rate of minority language identity loss varies substantially among Canadians of different origins. No doubt, there are also other differences in ethnic groups in that some groups have developed a stronger sense of distinct communit y in enabling their members to preserve their identity. However, differences in these factors are insufficient to explain why, over time, all non-official language groups tend to lose the ethnic language and convert to official languages.

MARKET VALUE OF OFFICIAL LANGUAGE AND MINORITY LANGUAGE IDENTITY

Why official languages in Canada -- especially the English language -- have such a strong pull in attracting newcomers to convert to them over time can perhaps be explained by the labour market returns official languages yield (Beaujot. Basavarajappa, and Verma, 1988; Shapiro and Stelcner, 1997). In contrast, knowledge of non-official languages has been shown to carry an income penalty, based on an analysis of the 1991 Census (Pendakur and Pendakur, forthcoming).

Table 2 calculates the market returns of knowledge of the official languages" as well as "mother tongue," based on the 1996 Census. The data show that for male and female Canadians, there are positive returns associated with bilingualism in English and French, and with unilingualism in English. However, there are penalties for those who speak only French, and even greater penalties for those who speak neither official language. When variations in schooling, experience, job characteristics, nativity, years of residence in Canada, and labour market features are taken into account, male Canadians who only speak English earn about $199 below the average ($31,792) yearly, as compared to those who speak only French earning $1,101 below the average. Bilingual male Canadians have a definite income advantage, but those who speak neither official language suffer the largest income penalty. The pattern is essentially the same for female Canadians, although the magnitudes of income difference that can be attributed to kn owledge of official languages tend to be smaller.

The effect of the mother tongue on earnings is unequivocal. For males, those who speak English as mother tongue have a definite earning advantage, and this advantage is maintained in the magnitude of $911 above the mean even after controlling for other variables. However, those who speak French as mother tongue and those who speak English and French as mother tongues suffer an income disadvantage. Most male speakers of mother tongues in non-official languages also suffer an earning penalty, except those who speak German, Netherlandic languages, and Italian. However, even male speakers of these mother tongues have an earning disadvantage when variations in other factors have been taken into account. The only speakers of a non-official mother tongue who do not suffer an income penalty are those who speak Portuguese as mother tongue, and their net earnings remain $838 above the average every year. Among the speakers of non-official mother tongues, those who speak Greek suffer the most, followed by Chinese, then by Ukrainian and by other Indo-Iranian languages.

For female Canadians, the income advantage of those who speak English as mother tongue is also maintained after variations in other factors are taken into account, but their advantage tends to be smaller than their male counterparts. Similarly, the income penalty for those female Canadians who speak French only, or both French and English, as mother tongue tends to be smaller than their male counterparts. Like male Canadians, all female speakers of a non-official language as mother tongue suffer an income penalty, except for those who speak an Arabic mother tongue, and those who speak a Portuguese mother tongue. (7) The magnitudes of earning disparity among those who speak a non-official language as mother tongue tend to be smaller among females than among males. Women who speak Spanish as mother tongue suffer substantially, with earnings approximately $1,423 below the average ($20,400) yearly. Women who speak Polish or Greek as mother tongue suffer a penalty of $993 and $858 respectively.

The data on official languages and mother tongue indicate that those who speak the official languages have an income advantage over those who do not. When all the mother tongues are considered with other variables, English mother tongue has an income advantage for both male and female Canadians, whereas speakers of most non-official mother tongues suffer a net income penalty.

When the effect of home language is considered with knowledge to speak the official languages and other variables, the data show that men and women who speak both official languages have a net yearly income gain that is above the average, while those who speak only English have a nominal income disadvantage marginally below the mean (Table 3). Male Canadians who only know French suffer the greatest net earning disadvantage, about $1,066 a year below the mean, whereas those who speak neither official languages suffer a net income penalty of $781 a year. For female Canadians, the pattern is much the same, with those unilingual in French suffering the largest income disadvantage, followed by those who speak neither official language.

The pattern of returns associated with home language is similar to that associated with mother tongue. Male Canadians who speak English as home language have a net income advantage of about $776 a year. Male speakers of all other languages suffer a net income penalty. The penalty is most severe for speakers of Chinese home language (-$5,702), followed by other Indo-Iranian languages (-$4,660), then Austro-Asiatic languages (-$4,206), and then by Spanish (-$3,612).

Female speakers of English home language also maintained a net income advantage similar to their male counterparts, but the gain is only $247 a year. Most female speakers of a non-official home language also suffer a net income penalty, except for those who speak Aboriginal languages, German, and Portuguese. Again it is not clear why female speakers of these languages do not suffer an income penalty like their male counterparts. But in general the income disparity among female Canadians tends to be much smaller.

The data on home language also show that English home language carries a definite market advantage, whereas most speakers of a non-official home language suffer an income penalty. The penalty tends to be particularly severe for male speakers of Chinese and other Asian languages.

IMPLICATIONS OF MARKET DISINCENTIVES ON MINORITY LANGUAGE RETENTION

The analysis of the 1996 Census pertaining to mother tongue and home language confirms a general finding. The adoption of a non-official language as mother tongue or home language brings no earning advantage, but rather a net income penalty (except for a few language groups among women), whereas having English as mother tongue or home language yields a consistent income gain for both men and women. Pendakur and Pendakur (forthcoming) found a similar pattern when they analyzed the ability to speak official languages and non-official languages, using the 1991 Census. They concluded that non-official language knowledge rarely improves labour market outcome. They also suspected that the ability to speak non-official languages is closely associated with immigrant communities and such penalties may not necessarily reflect returns to non-official languages but rather penalties for other cultural features.

The present analysis finds that people who adhere to a non-English mother tongue or home language suffer an earning penalty. It does not really matter whether the income disadvantage is reflecting the true value of non-official languages or what non-official languages symbolize. As far as speakers of non-official mother tongue or home language are concerned, there are negative returns attributed to non-official languages or to features associated with non-official languages. Examples of such features include a foreign accent, a foreign image, and in some instances, a foreign (non-white) race. These features often associate with non-official mother tongue and home language to serve as social markers in discounting the earnings of those identified with such unfavourable characteristics.

Overtime, as most non-official language mother tongues and home languages are repeatedly paired with income penalties, speakers of minority languages learn to dissociate themselves with such "foreign" languages and with characteristics associated with such languages. In short, the market disincentives associated with nonofficial mother tongue and home language serve to discourage the retention of minority languages. At the same time, the rewards of the English language in the labour market become incentives to encourage Canadians, especially immigrants and their children, to convert to English as mother tongue and home language. Thus, the combination of market disincentives associated with non-official languages and the net income advantage of English mother tongue and home language probably explains why minority language identity declines dramatically over time, especially among native-born Canadians.

CONCLUSION

The literature is inconclusive about whether ethnic identity is a resource or a penalty for social mobility. The unresolved debate has to do with the complexity in conceptualizing and measuring ethnic identity. Studies differ in conclusions largely because there is a lack of consensus regarding how ethnic identity should be framed and gauged.

This study examines the use of minority languages as an aspect of ethnic minority identity, to see how such language use varies, and whether minority languages carry differential returns in the labour market. Minority language identity is only one component of ethnic minority identity. However, it is clear that ethnic minority members who adopt a language similar to their origin as mother tongue or home language have a greater linguistic capacity in maintaining a sense of attachment to their ethnic group than those who do not adopt such a language as mother tongue or home language. At the very least, the study of non-official mother tongues and home languages yields a more refined approach to assessing the relationship between minority language identity and labour market returns.

The analysis of the 1996 Census shows that there is a substantial variation in linguistic diversity in Canada, in terms of Canadians adopting a non-official language as mother tongue or home language, although such diversity tends to be much stronger among foreign-born Canadians than native-born Canadians. The decline of non-official languages as mother tongue or home language among native-born Canadians, compared to those born outside the country, is an indication that over time, there is a loss of minority language identity in Canada. Neither demographic configuration associated with the immigration pattern nor cultural variations of ethnic groups is sufficient to explain why minority language identity systematically declines over time.

The analysis of the market returns of official languages and non-official mother tongue or home language indicates that those who have knowledge of the official languages have an income advantage over those who do not have such knowledge, and that English mother tongue or home language yields an income gain for both men and women when variations in other factors have been taken into account. In contrast, most non-official language mother tongues or home languages result in a net earnings penalty; the negative returns vary, however, depending on the language and the gender. In general the income disadvantage tends to be larger for male speakers of non-official languages than for their female counterparts.

The prevailing pattern of net income disadvantage associated with non-official mother tongue or home language means that there are substantial market disincentives that can be attributed to non-official languages. At the same time, the net income gain associated with English mother tongue or home language serves as incentives to attract non-English speakers to convert to English mother tongue or home language. Over time, these market disincentives and incentives probably encourage Canadians to abandon non-official languages as mother tongue and home language in favour of the English language. These market forces would explain why linguistic diversity is a social feature associated mainly with the immigrant population and why there is a substantial decline in minority language identity among native-born Canadians.

The analysis in the paper merely shows that different market values are associated with minority languages and the official languages, and further research is needed to empirically establish the causal relationship between market value and minority language loss. The analysis strongly suggests that market forces probably play an important role in the maintenance or loss of minority language identity. However, cultural and social variations among ethnic groups probably also influence the rate of minority language decline. (8) In the long run, it is doubtful that cultural factors alone would succeed in slowing down or reversing the process of minority language identity loss. Naturally, minority language identity represents only one component of ethnic minority identity. It is possible that despite the decline of minority language identity, there can be revivals of other aspects of ethnic identity, perhaps more of a symbolic nature as suggested by Gans (1979). But as far as language diversity in Canada is concer ned, it appears that there is not much economic basis to sustain it beyond the first generation of immigrants; conversely, there are sufficient market conditions which favour the English language.

Regarding the debate about the effect of ethnic identity on social mobility, the present analysis merely suggests that minority language identity, as an aspect of ethnic minority identity, jeopardizes economic performance in the Canadian labour market. Whether other dimensions of ethnic identity produce similar market outcomes cannot be ascertained in this study. Too little is known at the present time about how different aspects of ethnic identity affect economic performance. Until more is known about ethnic identity as a multidimensional concept and about how its various dimensions influence market outcomes, claims regarding whether ethnic identity helps or hurts social mobility can only be partial and tentative.
Appendix 1

Gross and Net Effects of Ethnic Origin, Official Language Ability, and
Mother Tongue on Earnings, Canada, 1996 Census

 Male

 Gross
 Number Earnings

 ($,
 deviation
 from Mean)



Racial and Ethnic Groups:
Not Visible Minorities
 British, British Isles, 49,633 3,873
 British & Canadian
 French, French and Canadian 25,957 16
 Dutch 2,837 2,874
 German 6,263 1,791
 Other West European 747 3,750
 Hungarian 820 1,081
 Polish 2,007 514
 Ukrainian 2,637 3,036
 Balkan 1,301 -241
 Greek 1,314 -7,100
 Italian 6,178 1,837
 Portugal 2,039 -3,543
 Spanish 218 -117
 Jewish 1,481 18,249
 Other European 3,240 3,071
 Other British multiple origins 19,082 249
 Other French multiple origins 3,517 184
 British & French, British & 11,228 -1,325
 French & other
 Other single & multiple origins 12,228 1,671
 Canadian 38,297 -2,623

 Visible Minorities
 Arab 895 -5,838
 West Asian 463 -9,271
 South Asian 4,709 -3,942
 Chinese 5,510 -4,177
 Filipino 1,275 -7,698
 Vietnamese 706 -6,820
 Other Ease/South East Asian 980 -2,420
 Latin/Central/South American 612 -10,740
 Black 3,305 -8,166

 Aboriginal People 4,209 -11,878

Knowledge of Official Languages:
 English only 147,123 462
 French only 23,074 -5,959
 Both English and French 44,377 1,922
 Neither English nor French 1,265 -12,436

Mother Tongue:
 English single response 129,954 1,166
 French single response 49,880 -1,423
 English and French 636 -3,904
 Aboriginal languages 1,049 -14,231
 German 3,382 2,842
 Netherlandic languages 1,241 5,730
 Italian 4,181 2,728
 Spanish 1,457 -6,369
 Portuguese 1,788 -2,830
 Polish 1,503 -490
 Ukrainian 916 2,204
 Greek 1,089 -7,950
 Chinese 4,594 -4,699
 Austro-Asiatic languages 864 -7,435
 Arabic 1,028 -4,276
 Punjabi 1,486 -6,859
 Other Indo-Iranian languages 1,632 -3,811
 Other non-official languages 8,766 -2,330
 Other non-official languages- 393 -918
 (Atlantic and Territories only)

Nativity:

 Native-born 174,772 -277
 Foreign-born 41,067 1,177

Full/Part Time Work:

 Full time 184,580 3,910
 Part time 31,259 -23,087

Industry of Work:

 Agriculture & primary 16,146 -4,665
 Manufacturing 40,243 4,030
 Construction 20,165 -5,972
 Transportation & storage 13,405 1,595
 Communication & utility 7,965 9,763
 Wholesale trade 13,618 2,344
 Retail trade 23,985 -10,684
 Finance/insurance/real estate 8,307 12,123
 Business services 14,230 7,313
 Government services 15,0l0 8,257
 Educational services 10,494 8,472
 Health/social services 7,451 12,669
 Accommodation/ 11,301 -17,767
 food & beverage services
 Other services 13,519 -11,276

Occupation:

 Senior managers 3,151 38,466
 Middle & other managers 21,063 14,496
 Professionals 27,372 17,080
 Semi-professionals & technicians 12,866 242
 Supervisors: clerical/sales services 2,346 3,645
 Supervisors: crafts/trades 11,791 -112
 Administrative & 3,340 6,980
 senior clerical personnel
 Skilled sales & service personnel 10,673 293
 Skilled crafts & trades workers 28,354 -688
 Clerical personnel 12,670 -7,471
 Intermediate sales & service 15,603 -7,193
 Semi-skilled manual workers 36,378 -6,114
 Other sales & service personnel 18,135 -17,857
 Other manual workers 12,097 -13,074


Cencus Metropolitan Area (CMA):

 Not CMA 84,520 -3,322
 CMA less than 500,000 24,904 1,486
 CMA 5000,000 to less than 1 28,690 1,016
 million
 CMA 1 million and over 77,725 2,761

Years of Schooling:

Work Experience:

Work Experience Squared:

Number of Weeks Worked:

Years since Landing in Canada:

Percent Immigrant in CMA:

Percent Unemployed in CMA:

[R.sup.2]

 Male Female

 Net
 Earnings Number

 ($,
 deviation
 from Mean)

 F-Test

Racial and Ethnic Groups:
Not Visible Minorities
 British, British Isles, 788 41,960
 British & Canadian
 French, French and Canadian 380 21,077
 Dutch 203 2,170
 German -357 4,794
 Other West European 348 522
 Hungarian -691 567
 Polish -778 1,671
 Ukrainian 280 2,220
 Balkan 751 1,040
 Greek -1,382 983
 Italian -693 4,809
 Portugal -647 1,592
 Spanish -664 158
 Jewish 8,738 1,240
 Other European 708 2,457
 Other British multiple origins 607 18,760
 Other French multiple origins 576 3,422
 British & French, British & 263 11,565
 French & other
 Other single & multiple origins 728 11,042
 Canadian -243 31,659

 Visible Minorities
 Arab -1,261 450
 West Asian -4,558 271
 South Asian -2,164 3,618
 Chinese -2,313 5,113
 Filipino -2,817 1,901
 Vietnamese -2,567 488
 Other Ease/South East Asian -1,505 870
 Latin/Central/South American -3,160 460
 Black -5,087 3,353

 Aboriginal People -3,067 3,629
 22 *
Knowledge of Official Languages:
 English only -199 124,673
 French only -1,101 21,110
 Both English and French 1,278 38,715
 Neither English nor French -1,621 1,316
 68 *
Mother Tongue:
 English single response 911 114,440
 French single response -807 42,109
 English and French -1,488 562
 Aboriginal languages -1,943 761
 German -1,385 2,609
 Netherlandic languages -1,811 937
 Italian -833 3,123
 Spanish -1,271 1,171
 Portuguese 838 1,408
 Polish -1,137 1,330
 Ukrainian -2,965 819
 Greek -4,995 847
 Chinese -3,747 4,302
 Austro-Asiatic languages -2,835 587
 Arabic -1,895 477
 Punjabi -754 1,218
 Other Indo-Iranian languages -2,703 1,085
 Other non-official languages -3,094 7,763
 Other non-official languages- -523 266
 (Atlantic and Territories only)
 17 *
Nativity:

 Native-born 1,166 151,555
 Foreign-born 4,963 34,259
 421 *
Full/Part Time Work:

 Full time 1,220 125,189
 Part time -7,204 60,625
 3023 *
Industry of Work:

 Agriculture & primary 2,068 5,749
 Manufacturing 4,318 16,565
 Construction -2,072 2,745
 Transportation & storage 2,946 3,332
 Communication & utility 5,830 4,604
 Wholesale trade 517 6,097
 Retail trade -6,562 25,965
 Finance/insurance/real estate 3,897 13,515
 Business services -366 11,864
 Government services 2,630 11,105
 Educational services -2,400 18,379
 Health/social services 6,340 32,240
 Accommodation/ -8,565 16,547
 food & beverage services
 Other services -6,868 17,107
 592 *
Occupation:

 Senior managers 29,047 814
 Middle & other managers 9,336 10,543
 Professionals 11,298 30,389
 Semi-professionals & technicians -1,075 10,559
 Supervisors: clerical/sales services 202 2,821
 Supervisors: crafts/trades -4,285 2,109
 Administrative & -124 18,882
 senior clerical personnel
 Skilled sales & service personnel 1,456 7,832
 Skilled crafts & trades workers -1,025 1,459
 Clerical personnel -7,750 31,994
 Intermediate sales & service -3,227 33,993
 Semi-skilled manual workers -6,244 9,306
 Other sales & service personnel -4,167 21,441
 Other manual workers -5,651 3,672
 1431 *

Cencus Metropolitan Area (CMA):

 Not CMA -56 68,972
 CMA less than 500,000 1,019 22,452
 CMA 5000,000 to less than 1 138 25,164
 million
 CMA 1 million and over -317 69,226
 15 *
Years of Schooling: 805 1001 *

Work Experience: 1106 7435 *

Work Experience Squared: -17 4684 *

Number of Weeks Worked: 444 14400 *

Years since Landing in Canada: 230 555 *

Percent Immigrant in CMA: 175 407 *

Percent Unemployed in CMA: -64 1

[R.sup.2] 0.40 1602 *

 Female

 Gross Net
 Earnings Earnings

 ($,
 deviation
 from Mean)



Racial and Ethnic Groups:
Not Visible Minorities
 British, British Isles, 1,664 835
 British & Canadian
 French, French and Canadian 678 374
 Dutch -819 -409
 German 66 -133
 Other West European 1,747 248
 Hungarian 1,821 279
 Polish 387 720
 Ukrainian 1,591 56
 Balkan -201 -87
 Greek -1,733 -579
 Italian 1,613 -271
 Portugal -2,150 -927
 Spanish 1,537 516
 Jewish 7,297 2,789
 Other European 2,244 917
 Other British multiple origins -214 131
 Other French multiple origins -38 -21
 British & French, British & -223 47
 French & other
 Other single & multiple origins 334 164
 Canadian -1,777 -203

 Visible Minorities
 Arab -3,425 -1,261
 West Asian -3,720 1,008
 South Asian -2,561 -183
 Chinese -57 59
 Filipino -950 -255
 Vietnamese -3,558 -473
 Other Ease/South East Asian -172 796
 Latin/Central/South American -5,865 -271
 Black -1,295 -1,451

 Aboriginal People -5,279 -1,522

Knowledge of Official Languages:
 English only 161 -118
 French only -2,906 -668
 Both English and French 1,327 774
 Neither English nor French -7,668 -831

Mother Tongue:
 English single response 307 267
 French single response -328 -236
 English and French -798 -847
 Aboriginal languages -4,139 -93
 German 565 -366
 Netherlandic languages 168 -730
 Italian 2,036 -223
 Spanish -3,878 -1,423
 Portuguese -1,837 450
 Polish -244 -993
 Ukrainian 2,267 -541
 Greek -1,844 -858
 Chinese -393 -766
 Austro-Asiatic languages -4,271 -750
 Arabic -2,014 760
 Punjabi -6,032 -1,142
 Other Indo-Iranian languages -2,330 -1,910
 Other non-official languages -424 -995
 Other non-official languages- -1,025 1,429
 (Atlantic and Territories only)

Nativity:

 Native-born -173 772
 Foreign-born 765 -3,413

Full/Part Time Work:

 Full time 5,077 2,783
 Part time -10,484 -5,746

Industry of Work:

 Agriculture & primary -5,155 145
 Manufacturing 876 2,156
 Construction -1,690 366
 Transportation & storage 2,299 3,017
 Communication & utility 9,333 6,340
 Wholesale trade 2,301 1,294
 Retail trade -7,219 -2,946
 Finance/insurance/real estate 5,244 1,980
 Business services 2,732 167
 Government services 7,524 3,997
 Educational services 7,792 1,175
 Health/social services 3,560 715
 Accommodation/ -10,701 -3,729
 food & beverage services
 Other services -7,318 -3,756

Occupation:

 Senior managers 22,515 15,575
 Middle & other managers 11,204 6,749
 Professionals 12,948 8,666
 Semi-professionals & technicians 1,496 1,197
 Supervisors: clerical/sales services 4,888 1,146
 Supervisors: crafts/trades -2,712 -4,874
 Administrative & 3,076 -919
 senior clerical personnel
 Skilled sales & service personnel -2,578 -1,033
 Skilled crafts & trades workers -4,380 -2,754
 Clerical personnel -194 -3,121
 Intermediate sales & service -8,209 -3,206
 Semi-skilled manual workers -5,367 -5,143
 Other sales & service personnel -10,381 -2312
 Other manual workers -7,501 -4,637


Cencus Metropolitan Area (CMA):

 Not CMA -3,133 -155
 CMA less than 500,000 -14 -1
 CMA 5000,000 to less than 1 -98 -500
 million
 CMA 1 million and over 3,162 337

Years of Schooling: 694

Work Experience: 510

Work Experience Squared: -8

Number of Weeks Worked: 325

Years since Landing in Canada: 151

Percent Immigrant in CMA: 121

Percent Unemployed in CMA: -144

[R.sup.2] 0.49

 Female








 F-Test

Racial and Ethnic Groups:
Not Visible Minorities
 British, British Isles,
 British & Canadian
 French, French and Canadian
 Dutch
 German
 Other West European
 Hungarian
 Polish
 Ukrainian
 Balkan
 Greek
 Italian
 Portugal
 Spanish
 Jewish
 Other European
 Other British multiple origins
 Other French multiple origins
 British & French, British &
 French & other
 Other single & multiple origins
 Canadian

 Visible Minorities
 Arab
 West Asian
 South Asian
 Chinese
 Filipino
 Vietnamese
 Other Ease/South East Asian
 Latin/Central/South American
 Black

 Aboriginal People
 7 *
Knowledge of Official Languages:
 English only
 French only
 Both English and French
 Neither English nor French
 66 *
Mother Tongue:
 English single response
 French single response
 English and French
 Aboriginal languages
 German
 Netherlandic languages
 Italian
 Spanish
 Portuguese
 Polish
 Ukrainian
 Greek
 Chinese
 Austro-Asiatic languages
 Arabic
 Punjabi
 Other Indo-Iranian languages
 Other non-official languages
 Other non-official languages-
 (Atlantic and Territories only)
 5 *
Nativity:

 Native-born
 Foreign-born
 498 *
Full/Part Time Work:

 Full time
 Part time
 15687 *
Industry of Work:

 Agriculture & primary
 Manufacturing
 Construction
 Transportation & storage
 Communication & utility
 Wholesale trade
 Retail trade
 Finance/insurance/real estate
 Business services
 Government services
 Educational services
 Health/social services
 Accommodation/
 food & beverage services
 Other services
 438 *
Occupation:

 Senior managers
 Middle & other managers
 Professionals
 Semi-professionals & technicians
 Supervisors: clerical/sales services
 Supervisors: crafts/trades
 Administrative &
 senior clerical personnel
 Skilled sales & service personnel
 Skilled crafts & trades workers
 Clerical personnel
 Intermediate sales & service
 Semi-skilled manual workers
 Other sales & service personnel
 Other manual workers
 1494 *

Cencus Metropolitan Area (CMA):

 Not CMA
 CMA less than 500,000
 CMA 5000,000 to less than 1
 million
 CMA 1 million and over
 14 *
Years of Schooling: 1638 *

Work Experience: 4166 *

Work Experience Squared: 2426 *

Number of Weeks Worked: 23818 *

Years since Landing in Canada: 552 *

Percent Immigrant in CMA: 518 *

Percent Unemployed in CMA: 9 *

[R.sup.2] 1976 *

Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada, 1996 Census of Canada, Public
Use Microdata File on Individuals.
Appendix 2

Gross and Net Effects of Ethnic Origin, Official Language Ability, and
Home Language on Earnings, Canada, 1996 Census

 Male

 Gross Net
 Number Earnings Earnings

 ($,
 deviation
 from Mean)



Racial and Ethnic Groups:
 Not Visible Minorities
 Britist, British Isles, British & 49,633 3,873 975
 Canadian
 French, French and Canadian 25,957 16 369
 Dutch 2,837 2,874 -437
 German 6,263 1,791 -751
 Other West European 747 3,750 0
 Hungarian 820 1,081 -1,981
 Polish 2,007 514 -437
 Ukrainian 2,637 3,036 -465
 Balkan 1,301 -241 -417
 Greek 1,314 -7,100 -3,758
 Italian 6,178 1,837 -682
 Portugal 2,039 -3,543 -842
 Spanish 218 -117 -460
 Jewish 1,481 18,249 8,513
 Other European 3,240 3,071 -208
 Other British multiple origins 19,082 249 756
 Other French multiple origins 3,517 184 554
 British & French, British & 11,228 -1,325 356
 French & other
 Other single and multiple origins 12,228 1,671 612
 Canadian 38,297 -2,263 -147
Visible Minorities

 Arab 895 -5,838 -6
 West Asian 463 -9.271 -4.964
 South Asian 4,709 -3.942 -2,190
 Chinese 5,510 -4,177 -2,051
 Filipino 1,275 -7,698 -3,519
 Vietnamese 706 -6,820 -2,123
 Other East/South East Asian 980 -2.420 -2,003
 Latin/Central/South American 612 -10,740 -2,217
 Black 3,305 -8,166 -5,330
 Other single and multiple origins 2,151 -6,983 -2,930
 Aboriginal People 4,209 -11.878 -3,276

Knowledge of Official Languages:

 English only 147.123 462 -184
 French only 23,074 -5.959 -1,066
 Both English and French 44,377 1.922 1,187
 Neither English nor French 1,265 -12.436 -781

Home Language:

 English single response 148,968 1.467 776
 French single response 47,354 -1,740 -944
 English and French 751 -1,957 -2,198
 Aboriginal languages 610 -16.095 -1,837
 German 511 -6.762 -2.914
 Italian 1,233 -4,235 -2.851
 Spanish 849 8.968 -3,612
 Portuguese 940 -4,330 -1.611
 Polish 829 4,913 -3,242
 Chinese 3,578 -6.856 -5,702
 Austro-Asiatic languages 711 -7.496 -4.206
 Arabic 490 -11.741 -7.351
 Punjabi 1,064 -8,939 -1,784
 Other Indo-Iranian languages 888 -7,443 -4,660
 Other non-official languages 6,897 -6,926 -3,737
 Other non-official languages 166 -5,788 -791
 (Atlantic and Territories only)

Nativity:

 Native born 174,772 -277 1,018
 Foreign born 41,067 1,177 -4.332

Full/Part Time Work:

 Full time 184,580 3,910 1,224
 Part time 31,259 -23,087 -7.229

Industry of Work:

 Agriculture & primary 16,146 -4,665 2,046
 Manufacturing 40,243 4,030 4,340
 Construction 20.165 -5,972 .2,098
 Transportation & storage 13.405 1,595 2,928
 Communication & utility 7,965 9,763 5.833
 Wholesale trade 13,618 2,344 532
 Retail trade 23,985 -10,684 -6.551
 Finance/insurance/real escate 8.307 12,123 3.871
 Business services 14,230 7,313 -380
 Government services 15,010 8,257 2,606
 Educational services 10,494 8,472 -2,384
 Health/social services 7,451 12,669 6,328
 Accommodation/food & beverage 11,301 -17,767 -8,529
 services
 Other services 13,519 -11,276 -6,865

Occupation:

 Senior managers 3,151 38,466 29,029
 Middle & other managers 21,063 14,496 9,294
 professionals 27,372 17,080 11,257
 Semi-professionals & technicians 12,866 242 -1,080
 Supervisors: clerical/sales 2,346 3,645 184
 services
 Supervisors: crafts/trades 11,791 -112 -4,311
 Administrative & senior clerical 3,340 6,980 -126
 personnel
 Skilled sales & sevice personnel 10,673 293 1,482
 Skilled crafts & trades workers 28,354 -688 -1,018
 Clerical personnel 12,670 -7,471 -7,755
 Intermedicate sales & service 15,603 7,193 -3,235
 personnel
 Semi-skilled manual workers 36,378 -6,114 -6,209
 Other sales & service personnel 18,135 -17,857 -4,142
 Other manual workers 12,097 -13,074 -5,612

Census Metropolitan Area (CMA):

 Not CMA 84,520 -3,322 -181
 CMA less than 500,000 24,904 1,486 1,017
 CMA 5000,000 to less than 28,690 1,016 194
 1 million
 CMA 1 million and over 77,725 2,761 -201

Years of Schooling: 792

Work Experience: 1104

Work Experience Squared: -17

Number of Weeks Worked: 444

Years since Landing in Canada: 193

Percent Immigrant in CMA: 171

Percent Unemployed in CMA: -20

[R.sub.2] 0.40

 Male Female

 Gross
 Number Earnins

 ($,
 deviation
 from Mean)

 F-Test

Racial and Ethnic Groups:
 Not Visible Minorities
 Britist, British Isles, British & 41,960 1,664
 Canadian
 French, French and Canadian 21,077 678
 Dutch 2,170 -819
 German 4,794 66
 Other West European 522 1,747
 Hungarian 567 1,821
 Polish 1,671 387
 Ukrainian 2,220 1,591
 Balkan 1,040 -201
 Greek 983 -1,733
 Italian 4,809 1,613
 Portugal 1,592 -2,150
 Spanish 158 1,537
 Jewish 1,240 7,297
 Other European 2,457 2,244
 Other British multiple origins 18,760 -214
 Other French multiple origins 3,422 -38
 British & French, British & 11,565 -223
 French & other
 Other single and multiple origins 11,042 334
 Canadian 31,659 -1,777
Visible Minorities

 Arab 450 -3,425
 West Asian 271 -3.720
 South Asian 3.618 -2.561
 Chinese 5.113 -57
 Filipino 1,901 -950
 Vietnamese 488 -3,558
 Other East/South East Asian 870 -172
 Latin/Central/South American 460 -5,865
 Black 3,353 -1.295
 Other single and multiple origins 1,953 -2.414
 Aboriginal People 3.629 -5,279
 26 *
Knowledge of Official Languages:

 English only 124,673 161
 French only 21.110 -2.906
 Both English and French 38.715 1,327
 Neither English nor French 1,316 -7,668
 59 *
Home Language:

 English single response 130,512 558
 French single response 39,633 -543
 English and French 737 1,425
 Aboriginal languages 387 -6,000
 German 351 -3,602
 Italian 887 -1,900
 Spanish 647 -5,346
 Portuguese 647 -4,052
 Polish 704 -3,763
 Chinese 3,243 -2,184
 Austro-Asiatic languages 479 -4,454
 Arabic 237 -5,670
 Punjabi 874 -7,332
 Other Indo-Iranian languages 575 -4,654
 Other non-official languages 5,786 -3,146
 Other non-official languages 115 -4,951
 (Atlantic and Territories only)
 30 *
Nativity:

 Native born 151.555 -173
 Foreign born 34.259 765
 312 *
Full/Part Time Work:

 Full time 125.189 5,077
 Part time 60,625 -10,484
 3046 *
Industry of Work:

 Agriculture & primary 5,749 -5,155
 Manufacturing 16,565 876
 Construction 2,745 -1,690
 Transportation & storage 3,332 2,299
 Communication & utility 4,604 9,333
 Wholesale trade 6,097 2,301
 Retail trade 25,965 -7,219
 Finance/insurance/real escate 13,515 5,244
 Business services 11,864 2,732
 Government services 11,105 7,524
 Educational services 18,379 7,792
 Health/social services 32,240 3,560
 Accommodation/food & beverage 16,547 -10,701
 services
 Other services 17,107 -7,318
 591 *
Occupation:

 Senior managers 814 22,515
 Middle & other managers 10,543 11,204
 professionals 30,389 12,948
 Semi-professionals & technicians 10,559 1,496
 Supervisors: clerical/sales 2,821 4,888
 services
 Supervisors: crafts/trades 2,109 -2,712
 Administrative & senior clerical 18,882 3,076
 personnel
 Skilled sales & sevice personnel 7,832 -2,578
 Skilled crafts & trades workers 1,459 -4,380
 Clerical personnel 31,994 -194
 Intermedicate sales & service 33,993 -8,209
 personnel
 Semi-skilled manual workers 9,306 -5,367
 Other sales & service personnel 21,441 -10,381
 Other manual workers 3,672 -7,501
 1424 *
Census Metropolitan Area (CMA):

 Not CMA 68,972 -3,133
 CMA less than 500,000 22,452 -14
 CMA 5000,000 to less than 25,164 -98
 1 million
 CMA 1 million and over 69,226 3,162
 15 *
Years of Schooling: 963 *

Work Experience: 7417 *

Work Experience Squared: 4675 *

Number of Weeks Worked: 14384 *

Years since Landing in Canada: 373 *

Percent Immigrant in CMA: 388 *

Percent Unemployed in CMA: 0.069

[R.sub.2] 1660 *

 Female

 Net
 Earnings

 ($,
 deviation
 from
 Mean)

 F-Test

Racial and Ethnic Groups:
 Not Visible Minorities
 Britist, British Isles, British & 119
 Canadian
 French, French and Canadian 318
 Dutch -666
 German -322
 Other West European -3
 Hungarian -110
 Polish 915
 Ukrainian -62
 Balkan -338
 Greek -539
 Italian -256
 Portugal -689
 Spanish -112
 Jewish 2,731
 Other European 708
 Other British multiple origins 165
 Other French multiple origins -46
 British & French, British & 58
 French & other
 Other single and multiple origins 108
 Canadian -213
Visible Minorities

 Arab 310
 West Asian 583
 South Asian -610
 Chinese 950
 Filipino -451
 Vietnamese -126
 Other East/South East Asian 623
 Latin/Central/South American -695
 Black -1,564
 Other single and multiple origins -649
 Aboriginal People -1,580
 8 *
Knowledge of Official Languages:

 English only -98
 French only -728
 Both English and French 720
 Neither English nor French -272
 61 *
Home Language:

 English single response 247
 French single response -133
 English and French -533
 Aboriginal languages 486
 German 610
 Italian -786
 Spanish -1,666
 Portuguese 15
 Polish -2,619
 Chinese -2,851
 Austro-Asiatic languages -1,673
 Arabic -2,883
 Punjabi -1,241
 Other Indo-Iranian languages -1,884
 Other non-official languages -1,809
 Other non-official languages 289
 (Atlantic and Territories only)
 13 *
Nativity:

 Native born 680
 Foreign born -3.009
 374 *
Full/Part Time Work:

 Full time 2,785
 Part time -5.750
 15721 *
Industry of Work:

 Agriculture & primary 104
 Manufacturing 2,178
 Construction 339
 Transportation & storage 3,000
 Communication & utility 6,325
 Wholesale trade 1,299
 Retail trade -2,945
 Finance/insurance/real escate 1,967
 Business services 157
 Government services 3,989
 Educational services 1,176
 Health/social services 715
 Accommodation/food & beverage -3,707
 services
 Other services -3,755
 437 *
Occupation:

 Senior managers 15,564
 Middle & other managers 6,736
 professionals 8,650
 Semi-professionals & technicians 1,187
 Supervisors: clerical/sales 1,122
 services
 Supervisors: crafts/trades -4,862
 Administrative & senior clerical -930
 personnel
 Skilled sales & sevice personnel 1,028
 Skilled crafts & trades workers -2,696
 Clerical personnel -3,123
 Intermedicate sales & service -3,209
 personnel
 Semi-skilled manual workers -5,085
 Other sales & service personnel -2,296
 Other manual workers -4,595
 1490 *
Census Metropolitan Area (CMA):

 Not CMA -186
 CMA less than 500,000 -2
 CMA 5000,000 to less than -493
 1 million
 CMA 1 million and over 365
 15 *
Years of Schooling: 689 1603 *

Work Experience: 510 4169 *

Work Experience Squared: -8 2424 *

Number of Weeks Worked: 325 23814 *

Years since Landing in Canada: 133 415 *

Percent Immigrant in CMA: 120 506 *

Percent Unemployed in CMA: -136 8 *

[R.sub.2] 0.49 2047 *

Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada, 1996 Census of Canada, Public
Use Microdata File on Individuals.
Table 1

Non-Official Language Mother Tongue and Home Language of Racial and
Ethnic Groups, Canada 1996 Census

 Foreign-Born

 Non-official Languages

 Mother Home
Racial and Ethnic Groups Number Tongue Language

Not Visible Minorities % %

British, British Isles, British 703,800 1.0 0.2
 and Canadian
French, French and Canadian 59,436 1.9 0.8
Dutch 118,944 90.0 11.6
German 213,444 89.5 25.9
Other West European 36,504 72.4 17.8
Hungarian 51,012 93.6 43.3
Polish 155,160 95.2 69.8
Ukrainian 42,804 91.7 56.3
Balkan 108,000 96.3 65.4
Greek 73,332 96.5 70.5
Italian 330,372 94.8 59.8
Portugal 158,472 94.0 64.2
Spanish 17,388 91.3 51.6
Jewish 62,640 63.6 33.4
Other European 166,896 87.9 38.6
Other British multiple origins 118,656 9.6 4.0
Other French multiple origins 30,168 35.4 13.1
British & French, British & 36,288 3.4 1.2
 French & other
Other single & multiple origins 260,028 71.5 37.8
Canadian 27,396 13.7 5.8

Visible Minorities

Arab 97,380 91.5 67.4
West Asian 56,628 94.5 74.8
South Asian 458,172 76.1 61.3
Chinese 633,996 94.1 84.2
Filipino 155,772 88.1 62.3
Vietnamese 81,360 94.2 86.8
Other East/South East Asian 87,408 91.4 72.6
Latin/Central/South American 76,464 93.7 75.9
Black 314,928 30.0 19.9
Other single & multiple origins 213,624 66.0 47.7

Aboriginal People 5,364 12.1 7.4

Total 4,951,836 66.8 45.1

 Native-Born

 Non-official Languages

 Mother Home
Racial and Ethnic Groups Number Tongue Language

Not Visible Minorities % %

British, British Isles, British 5,295,276 0.1 0.1
 and Canadian
French, French and Canadian 3,208,896 0.1 0.1
Dutch 180,936 13.5 2.1
German 506,340 27.0 7.8
Other West European 45,756 18.0 6.5
Hungarian 41,724 39.9 5.9
Polish 103,680 42.6 14.3
Ukrainian 283,392 37.0 4.8
Balkan 51,840 56.1 21.7
Greek 68,580 67.9 37.0
Italian 385,344 44.9 11.9
Portugal 80,568 60.9 31.5
Spanish 7,956 55.2 33.9
Jewish 128,916 9.5 3.2
Other European 219,528 24.0 3.7
Other British multiple origins 2,508,444 0.7 0.2
Other French multiple origins 441,792 1.4 0.5
British & French, British & 1,645,344 0.2 0.1
 French & other
Other single & multiple origins 1,274,148 10.1 3.1
Canadian 5,229,396 0.5 0.3

Visible Minorities

Arab 28,548 59.5 42.9
West Asian 8,784 78.3 66.8
South Asian 188,496 51.7 40.4
Chinese 205,272 57.9 38.1
Filipino 37,476 23.7 17.4
Vietnamese 20,772 80.9 73.5
Other East/South East Asian 48,960 47.4 23.8
Latin/Central/South American 15,660 77.2 67.8
Black 246,708 5.3 4.8
Other single & multiple origins 121,248 27.0 20.2

Aboriginal People 782,676 26.1 18.3

Total 23,412,456 6.2 2.8

Source: Calculated from Statistics Canada, 1996 Census of Canada, Public
Use Microdata File on Individuals. The numbers have been weighted to
population size.
Table 2

Gross and Net Effects of Official Language Knowledge and Mother Tongue
on Earnings, Canada, 1996 Census

 Male

 Gross
 Number Effects

 (Deviation from
 Mean
 Earning of
 $31,792)

Knowledge of Official Languages:

 English only 147,123 462
 French only 23,074 -5,959
 Both English and French 44,377 1,922
 Neither English nor French 1,265 -12,436

Mother Tongue:

 English single response 129,954 1,166
 French single response 49,880 -1,423
 English and French 636 -3,904
 Aboriginal languages 1,049 -14,231
 German 3,382 2,842
 Netherlandic languages 1,241 5,730
 Italian 4,181 2,728
 Spanish 1,457 -6,369
 Portuguese 1,788 -2,830
 Polish 1,503 -490
 Ukrainian 916 2,204
 Greek 1,089 -7,950
 Chinese 4,594 -4,699
 Austro-Asiatic languages 864 -7,435
 Arabic 1,028 -4,276
 Punjabi 1,486 -6,859
 Other Indo-Iranian languages 1,632 -3,811
 Other non-official languages 8,766 -2,330
 Other non-official languages- 393 -918
 (Atlantic & Territories only)

 Male Female

 Net
 Effects Number

 (Deviation
 from Mean
 Earning of
 $31,792)

Knowledge of Official Languages:

 English only -199 124,673
 French only -1,101 21,110
 Both English and French 1,278 38,715
 Neither English nor French -1,621 1,316

Mother Tongue:

 English single response 911 114,440
 French single response -807 42,109
 English and French -1,488 562
 Aboriginal languages -1,943 761
 German -1,385 2,609
 Netherlandic languages -1,811 937
 Italian -833 3,123
 Spanish -1,271 1,171
 Portuguese 838 1,408
 Polish 1,137 1,330
 Ukrainian -2,965 819
 Greek -4,995 847
 Chinese -3,747 4,302
 Austro-Asiatic languages -2,835 587
 Arabic -1,895 477
 Punjabi -754 1,218
 Other Indo-Iranian languages -2,703 1,085
 Other non-official languages -3,094 7,763
 Other non-official languages- -523 266
 (Atlantic & Territories only)

 Female

 Gross Net
 Effects Effects

 (Deviation from Mean
 Earning of $20,400)

Knowledge of Official Languages:

 English only 161 -118
 French only -2,906 -668
 Both English and French 1,327 774
 Neither English nor French -7,668 -831

Mother Tongue:

 English single response 307 267
 French single response -328 -236
 English and French -798 -847
 Aboriginal languages -4,139 -93
 German 565 -366
 Netherlandic languages 168 -730
 Italian 2,036 -223
 Spanish -3,878 -1,423
 Portuguese -1,837 450
 Polish -244 -993
 Ukrainian 2,267 -541
 Greek -1,844 -858
 Chinese -393 -766
 Austro-Asiatic languages -4,271 -750
 Arabic -2,014 760
 Punjabi -6,032 -1,142
 Other Indo-Iranian languages -2,330 1,910
 Other non-official languages -424 -995
 Other non-official languages- -1,025 1,429
 (Atlantic & Territories only)

Source: Appendix 1
Table 3

Gross and Net Effects of Official Language Knowledge and Home Language
on Earnings, Canada, 1996 Census

 Male

 Gross Net
 Number Effects Effects

 (Deviation from Mean
 Earning of $31,792)

Knowledge of Official Languages:

 English only 147,123 462 -184
 French only 23,074 -5,959 -1,066
 Both English and French 44,377 1,922 1,187
 Neither English nor French 1,265 -12,436 -781

Home Language:

 English single response 148,968 1,467 776
 French single response 47,354 -1,740 -944
 English and French 751 -1,957 -2,198
 Aboriginal languages 610 -16,095 -1,837
 German 511 -6,762 -2,914
 Italian 1,233 -4,235 -2,851
 Spanish 849 8,968 -3,612
 Portuguese 940 -4,330 -1,611
 Polish 829 4,913 -3,242
 Chinese 3,578 -6,856 -5,702
 Austro-Asiatic languages 711 -7,496 -4,206
 Arabic 490 -11,741 -7,351
 Punjabi 1,064 -8,939 -1,784
 Other Indo-Iranian languages 888 -7,443 -4,660
 Other non-official languages 6,897 -6,926 -3,737
 Other non-official languages- 166 -5,788 -791
 (Atlantic & Territories only)

 Female

 Gross Net
 Number Effects Effects

 (Deviation from Mean
 Earning of $20,400)

Knowledge of Official Languages:

 English only 124,673 161 -98
 French only 21,110 -2,906 -728
 Both English and French 38,715 1,327 720
 Neither English nor French 1,316 -7,668 -272

Home Language:

 English single response 130,512 558 247
 French single response 39,633 -543 -133
 English and French 737 1,425 -533
 Aboriginal languages 387 -6,000 486
 German 351 -3,602 610
 Italian 887 -1,900 -786
 Spanish 647 -5,346 -1,666
 Portuguese 647 -4,052 15
 Polish 704 -3,763 -2,619
 Chinese 3,243 -2,184 -2,851
 Austro-Asiatic languages 479 -4,454 -1,673
 Arabic 237 -5,670 -2,883
 Punjabi 874 -7.332 -1,241
 Other Indo-Iranian languages 575 -4,654 -1,884
 Other non-official languages 5,786 -3,146 -1,809
 Other non-official languages- 115 -4,951 289
 (Atlantic & Territories only)

Source: Appendix 2


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This paper was written for the Policy-Research Seminar on Identity. Halifax, November 1-2, 2001, under the auspices of the Multiculuralism Program, Department of Canadian Heritage. Harley Dickinson, Li Zong, and several anonymous reviewers read a draft of this paper and provided helpful comment. The author is solely responsible for the analysis, interpretation, and views expressed in the paper.

NOTES

(1.) The target population in the 1996 Census includes native-born Canadian citizens, landed immigrants and non-permanent residents who, on Census Day, were residing in a private dwelling in Canada Institutional residents and residents of 77 incompletely enumerated Indian reserves were not included. However, the 1996 Census, like the 1991 Census, includes non-permanent residents in Canada, who are defined as persons who held a student or employment authorization, Minister's permit, or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living with them at the time the census was taken (Statistics Canada, 1996).

(2.) The 1996 Public Use Sample File on Individuals contains records of 4,498 nonpermanent residents, which made up 0.6 percent of the total sample. In the 1996 census population, there were 166,715 non-permanent residents, or 0.6 per cent of the total population (Statistics Canada, 1996).

(3.) Positive or negatives limits were applied to 837 individuals with wages and salaries and to 403 individuals with self-employment income in the census microdata. Assuming these were unique individuals, they made up at most 0.3 per cent of the labour force in the sample (Statistics Canada, 1996, Table 7).

(4.) "Full-time" refers to those who worked mainly full-time weeks in 1995, and "Part-time" refers to those who worked mainly part-time weeks in 1995. A full-time week involves working 30 hours or more in one week (Statistics Canada, 1996).

(5.) The microdata file of the 1996 Census provides two occupational classifications, based on the 1991 Standard Occupational Classification (25 categories) and on the National Occupational Classification (14 categories) developed by Statistics Canada and Human Resources Development Canada. The former takes into account industrial sectors in addition to using education, training, skill level, duties and responsibilities of work as bases of classification, whereas the latter mainly relies upon education, training, skill level, duties and responsibilities of work and does not make distinctions about the industry of work. Since this analysis also uses the variable "industry of work," the National Occupational Classification of occupation is used to avoid the overlap between the variables "occupation" and "industry."

(6.) The microdata file of the 1996 Census uses the 1980 Standard Industrial Classification to produce 16 classifications. In this analysis, agriculture and other primary industries are collapsed, and federal and other government services are also recoded into one group.

(7.) It is not clear why women who speak a Portuguese mother tongue and women who speak an Arabic mother tongue do not suffer an income disadvantage like other speakers of minority languages. The data on these two groups do not change the fact that most speakers of a minority language tend to suffer an income penalty.

(8.) Many factors beside market forces, would influence the rate of minority language decline or retention. For example, ethnic groups which emphasize family ties and disciplined socialization would have a strong influence on their children in inciting them to learn and to use their ethnic language at home. However, Gans (1997: 879) suggests distinguishing between involuntary and voluntary ethnic language retention, and treating involuntary retention as a measurement of family obligations and not ethnic identity. Whether it is out of obligation or commitment, family influences would affect the ability of children to retain their ethnic language.

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Peter S. Li is Professor of Sociology at the University of Saskatchewan, and Chair of Economic Domain, Prairie Centre of Excellence for Research in Immigration and Integration. His research areas are race and ethnic studies, the Chinese disapora, immigration, and multiculturalism. He has published several books and many academic papers. Among his books are Race and Ethnic Relations in Canada (Oxford, 1999), The Chinese in Canada (Oxford, 1988, 1998), The Making of Post-War Canada (Oxford, 1996), Racial Oppression in Canada (Garamond, 1988). and Ethnic Inequality in a Class Society (Thompson, 1988). He has just completed a new book entitled Destination Canada: Immigration Debates and Issues (forthcoming, Oxford).
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Date:Sep 22, 2001
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