The economics of e-learning production.
This study builds on a substantial literature of empirical investigations on the fact that taking into account the favorable reception of online and blended instruction in established pedagogical practice in addition to prevalent technological advance (Mircica, 2011a, b; 2012; 2014), the reframing and obstreperous effect that e-learning has on training should be pointed out. People who can succeed in a linked and swiftly altering knowledge society (Popescu and Predescu, 2016) have grasped how to think, assimilate knowledge, and perform in collaborative learning settings. E-learning can set up asynchronous groups of inquiry which may back the advancement of collaborative groups of learning and simultaneously enable "anytime-anywhere" connection by learners. Such technology, when associated with successful instruction and reflective teaching, may improve higher education. Communications technologies have impacted the unparalleled advancement of e-learning. Aside from the numerous incursions that information and communication technologies have operated in instruction, unreceptive information transmission still monopolize the didactic undertaking. (Randy Garrison, 2017)
2. Literature Review
The unsteadiness, discrepancies, and opacity brought about via the technological speeding up present an unsuitable likelihood and a potential of a thoroughly different prospect through pursuing university's vital inconsistencies and inequalities. The incessant self-resistance of the higher education scheme has been cleared up by technologies of increasing speed assisting neo-liberalism. University's standards of self-determination, recognition, fairness, accuracy, and social equality (Mihaila, 2016a, b) have become transferred into the entitlements of proficiency and work rate. The criticism of cybernetic systems of ascendancy reacts to the required hopefulness of the higher education scheme. To successfully evaluate e-learning priorities and proposals on their praised good points of learner empowerment, they should be positioned in the broader regional and worldwide socio-economic setting (Popescu, Coma nescu, and Sabie, 2016) from which they developed and persist in having a progressively decisive function. Novel instructions and their technologies bring about feasible groundbreaking types of disempowerment through furthering particular approaches of expanding flexibility while disapproving others. (Hoofd, 2017)
Reconsidering established instruction by taking into account technological advancements and the demand for higher-order didactic results means affecting the underpinning of the instructional undertaking. E-learning is the relationship between technological and educational advancements which has generated an analysis of substantial and eloquent learning practice (Nica and Molnar, 2016), being transformational in how individuals assimilate pedagogical practices with reference to continuous interaction and collaboration. Learners should be involved in feasible learning groups that back reflective dialogue and multifaceted advances to education. The affordances of pervasive and dominant communications technologies having the capacity to generate and back groups of students have driven e-learning into the centrality of pedagogical cognition and experience. Favorable outcome in designing a pedagogical group of inquiry necessitates training, unceasing potentiality, and significant educational and content know-how. (Randy Garrison, 2017)
For the investigation of the formulated issues, we develop first-rate recent literature and prove that new media are not merely unbiased mechanisms that definitely link learners with instructors or moderate learning goals and results, but can thoroughly alter and are generated by the cultural and conceptual setting in which they and higher education perform. Media technologies are intrinsically preoccupied in intensifying the conundrum at the center of higher education (Radulescu, 2015), being a many-sided and indefinite potential in the foundation of any educational platform and its instructional goals, notwithstanding the module's particular material and the projects that are distributed via these media. E-learning material may indicate the non-objectivity of the broader socio-economic environment (Nica, Manole, and Potcovaru, 2016), in which the medium functions through the link between artistic taste and the setting in which the latter is put forward. The medium of education co-establishes knowledge and brings about particular subject-positions that are in succession necessitated by the superior economic and social priorities that higher education assists. (Hoofd, 2017)
4. Empirical Data and Analysis
To introduce empirical content to our theoretical model, we start with the finding that e-learning is not a thorough groundbreaking advance, but a coming back to established values related to debate and joint inquiry that differentiates human progress. Cutting-edge e-learning experiences constitute genuine proposals to teaching and education in regard to collaboratively shaping meaning (Pera, 2015) via critical cerebration and debate. E-learning improvement has been directed by the merging of technological advancements and a reconsideration of successful pedagogical practices. Considering the swiftly dynamic knowledge society (Nica, Hurjui, and Stefan (Iftimie), 2016), the demand is to elaborate the pedagogical practice in a manner that shapes and instructs learners for a progressively linked knowledge society. E-learning in the framework of blended education has repositioned the strategy of instructors in relation to reframing course and program upgrading. E-learning aims to supply a manageable and collaborative pedagogical practice, constituting an authentic pattern move from the industrial manufacturing of prepackaged study contents to instructionally influencing the pedagogical practice (Popescu, 2015a, b; 2016) via the accurate purpose for rationalization and learning as a team. The peculiar characteristic of e-learning resides its exceptional potential to sustain debate in time and distance, without being a product that is pre-manufactured and transferred electronically to be incorporated integrally by an autonomous student. (Randy Garrison, 2017) (Figures 1 and 2)
5. Results and Discussion
Our findings support our theoretical discussion and empirical analysis and are consistent with research highlighting the fact that when didactic design features are maintained consistent throughout delivery requirements, e-learning and classroom education may bring about comparable learning outcomes. Delivery media do not impact learning, but are the channels via which teaching conditions are provided to students. The success of e-learning can be proven by assessing not distinct technologies but the consequences of certain pedagogical characteristics and reinforcements (Bratu, 2015) embedded in them. Interactivity considerably affects the strength of e-learning programs, and that particular kinds of synergy might generate more relevant results than others. Whether a specific e-learning program is adequate in a particular situation is determined by its capacity to give rise to the requirements essential for individuals to learn. (Bell and Federman, 2013) The movement of instructor duty into e-learning mechanisms prevents breaches and spots of concern, which are frequently central to successful learning and concrete undertaking for learners with their colleagues. Such learning shifts into the cybernetic mechanisms and renders ineffectual any accurate moral way of thinking. The idea of positioning the learner at the focal point of performance and connection is disconcertingly comparable to the appearance of enablement (Nica, 2016a, b, c) that the novel interactive technologies enable under current technocratic globalization. Self-motivated schooling via e-learning can bring about a thoughtless recurrence of technical, organizational, and superior socio-economic power arrangements by teaching staff and university managers. (Hoofd, 2017)
The implications of the developments outlined in the preceding sections of this paper suggest a growing need for a research agenda on the fact that the unique characteristic of e-learning resides in associating and cooperating with individuals in focused and eloquent manners. Collaborative cerebration and schooling in a determined group of learners generates a setting where actors can investigate and inspect initiatives (Lazaroiu, 2015a, b, c; 2016) while confronting personal prejudices. Instructors should set up the circumstances that stimulate variety of assessment by overcoming intellectual confines. Cerebration and learning in cooperation is the key of a constant group of inquiry (Ionescu, 2010; 2016a, b, c) enabled by the affordances of e-learning. Communication technologies facilitate viable cognitive and social circumstances (Popescu Ljungholm, 2016a, b) where learners are linked to a learning group. The transience of public knowledge, in conjunction with the personal difficult task of becoming accustomed to novel initiatives, requires a capacity to reflect judiciously and be capable to examine and handle higher-order cerebration and learning. Certain communications technology features supply practical limitations in relation to setting up and supporting a group of inquiry. (Randy Garrison, 2017)
Received 22 March 2016 * Received in revised form 14 May 2016 Accepted 16May 2016 * Available online 15 June 2016
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GHEORGHE H. POPESCU
Center for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis at AAER, New York; Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University, Bucharest
Caption: Figure 1 Enrollment of Learners Attending at least a Class at a Distance (Fall 2016)
Caption: Figure 2 Online Education as Essential to the Long-run Policy by Overall Enrollment (2014 and 2016)
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|Author:||Popescu, Gheorghe H.|
|Publication:||Economics, Management, and Financial Markets|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2017|
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