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The diversity of insects visiting flowers of saw palmetto (Arecaceae).

Generalized flower visitor systems are complex community affairs, diverse and dynamic, with species of plants forming nexuses in an ecological web (Olesen & Jordano 2002, Memmott 1999). Saw palmetto, Serenoa repens (Bartram) Small (Arecaceae) is an example of a common species whose copious production of nectar and pollen should make it an important node in a local ecological network. A survey of the assortment of insects whose activities are fueled by nectar and pollen of saw palmetto flowers might illuminate part of a larger ecological network.

This survey had the following goals: 1. To document the taxonomic diversity of insects supported by nectar and pollen of saw palmetto at a single site. 2. Examine qualitative ways in which saw palmetto flowers support invertebrate food webs, including additional trophic roles (e.g. predator, parasite) by providing energy and nutrients to insects. 3. Characterize saw palmetto as a node in a flower-visitor network by quantifying additional floral hosts of saw palmetto flowers. 4. Investigate whether there is a group of specialized insects dependent on saw palmetto flowers, and whether pollen-feeders, especially bees, are more likely to belong to this hypothetical specialized group.

Saw palmetto is recognized as a foundation species (Takahashi et al. 2011) in landscapes of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of southeastern North America. It dominates extensive habitats (Hilmon 1969; Abrahamson & Hartnett 1990), provides edible fruits for numerous vertebrates and shelter for many more (Maehr & Layne 1996), and determines landscape processes by facilitating fires that rapidly propagate among highly inflammable palmetto clumps (Abrahamson & Hartnett 1990). Individual plants are clonal and capable of extreme longevity, in the range of thousands of years (Takahashi et al. 2011). The abundance and long-term stability of individual saw palmettos suggests that this species should be a foundation species in flower visitor networks as well.

Serenoa repens is a southeastern endemic that is the only member of its genus (Henderson et al. 1995). Its range extends relatively far north into zones that have regular sub-freezing winter temperatures, including northern Florida, coastal Alabama and Mississippi, the coastal plain of Georgia, and a strip along southern coastal South Carolina (Hilmon 1969). It is adapted to frequent fires (Tomlinson 1990), showing rapid vegetative recovery following fire (Hilmon 1969; Abrahamson & Abrahamson 2006), and increased, often accelerated flowering following fire (Hilmon 1969; Abrahamson 1999). Saw palmetto forms shrublike ground vegetation that covers large portions of the southeastern Coastal Plain, especially in flatwoods and prairie communities that have sandy soil and a seasonally high water table (Hilmon 1969). Saw palmetto provides insects with seasonal nectar and pollen resources over a wide geographic area, including about 50% of Florida's land area (Abrahamson & Hartnett 1990). In many parts of this area, however, flower visitor diversity is likely to be limited by periodic flooding or high water tables that affect species with subterranean larvae, including most bees and sphecid wasps. Frequent fires in saw palmetto habitats may affect populations of flower-visiting insects that nest in dead wood or hollow twigs, such as some Vespidae and Megachilidae.

Individual flowers (Fig. 1) are bisexual, with three carpels and six exerted stamens bearing anthers that produce yellowish pollen. The stigma is also exerted, slightly shorter than the stamens. The flower is shallow enough that nectar can be obtained by insects with relatively short mouthparts, such as those of most sphecid wasps. Flowers are spirally arranged on tomentose branchlets on a large inflorescence with three to four order branching (Henderson et al. 1995). The inflorescence (Fig. 2) is usually sheltered and partially hidden by leaves, but is conspicuous because of its large size and strong fragrance. Each flower is open 3-4 days, with the most pollen available the first day and the stigma usually receptive after the first day (Carrington et al. 2003). Saw palmetto appears to require insect pollination, and there is some indication that cross-pollination increases fruit set (Carrington et al. 2003). The heavy blooming with multiple inflorescences that can occur on a single saw palmetto plant may reduce the incentive for insect pollinators to visit a series of plants.

FIELD SITE AND METHODS

The study site is the Archbold Biological Station (ABS) (N 27[degrees] 11' W 81[degrees] 21'), a 2001.6 ha private research station 12 km south of the town of Lake Placid in Highlands County, Florida. The ABS is located on the Lake Wales Ridge, a sand ridge about 160 km long with an unusual concentration of endemic plants and animals (Neil 1957; Turner et al. 2006), including insects (Deyrup 1990). Saw palmetto occurs in 8 of the native plant associations, representing more than 10% cover in 5 of these (Abrahamson et al. 1984). It achieves 36%77% cover in 3 different flatwoods associations, and 16%-22% cover in 2 Florida scrub associations (Abrahamson et al. 1984). These palmettorich habitats together cover about 1110 ha on the ABS (Abrahamson et al. 1984). The climate of the ABS is generally subtropical, with wet rainy summers and dry winters, but short cold periods well below 0 [degrees]C during the winter may inhibit some plants and insects (Abrahamson et al. 1984). Soils are primarily silica sand, low in plant nutrients and usually acidic, ranging from excessively well-drained to poorly drained (Abrahamson et al. 1984). Natural habitats with saw palmetto at the ABS are managed with fire to maintain low vegetation characteristic of saw palmetto habitats.

Insect flower visitors were collected from saw palmetto as part of a long-term survey of all flower visitors on flowers of all species in all habitats at the ABS. This project was begun in 1984 and has continued, sometimes at a low level, up to the present. This has been a simple diversity survey: no attempt was made to assess the abundance of insect species or pollination effectiveness on species of floral hosts, nor was there any attempt to devote equal effort to each plant species.

Insects were observed on saw palmetto inflorescences to assess whether they were collecting floral resources, rather than utilizing the inflorescence in some other way, such as an observational perch. Vouchers were collected and made into standard museum specimens, their labels including the floral host. Every flower visitation record cited in this survey has at least one associated pinned, labeled voucher specimen in the ABS arthropod collection. Identifications are by the authors and by a number of specialists listed in the acknowledgement section below. Collections were made by the authors and by a succession of entomology interns listed in the acknowledgement section below.

RESULTS

Results are summarized in Table 1, which lists 311 species encountered, the number of additional flower records from the ABS, the diet of each species in addition to nectar or pollen of saw palmetto, and the source of the latter information. It is assumed that species whose diets have been studied elsewhere have similar trophic roles at the ABS.

Taxonomic Diversity of Insects Supported by Saw Palmetto Flowers

Hymenoptera. This order includes the largest number of species visiting saw palmetto flowers at the ABS. These species represent 15 out of 49 Hymenoptera families recorded at the ABS (30.6%). Of the 121 species, 116 belong to 6 super-families that comprise the aculeate wasps and bees. Bees (Apoidea) seem to be much commoner on saw palmetto flowers than sphecid wasps, according to casual observations at the ABS, and more methodical observations by Carrington et al. (2003). Nevertheless, the number of species of saw palmetto flower-visiting Sphecidae (37) is greater than that of bees (29). The known sphecid fauna at the ABS (129 species) is larger than that of bees (113 species), but the percentage of sphecid species visiting saw palmetto flowers is slightly higher (28.7%) than that of bees (25.7%). Pollen-collecting by bees at the ABS on saw palmetto is largely restricted to extreme generalists such as Bombus impatiens, Apis mellifera, and Halictidae in the genus Lasioglossum and in the tribe Augochlorini. Saw palmetto pollen might be deficient in nutrients or repellent for most bees; this possibility is mentioned by Deyrup et al. (2002). Among other aculeate families with 10 or more species visiting saw palmetto flowers at the ABS, Formicidae are represented by 10.3% of ABS species, Pompilidae by 19.2% of ABS species, and Vespidae by 37.2% of ABS species.

Nectar and pollen of saw palmetto support activities of about 20% of approximately 575 known species of aculeate Hymenoptera at the ABS, a significant portion of the local arthropod fauna. There are undoubtedly additional species that have not been seen and recorded, especially among Sphecidae and Pompilidae. Most of these 116 aculeate Hymenoptera have alternate floral hosts at the ABS.

A scarcity of flower visitors among the great variety of parasitoid wasps in the Ichneumonoidea and Chalcidoidea is not confined to saw palmetto, but is a general unexplained pattern at the ABS and probably elsewhere. Ichneumonoids are well represented at the ABS, but the only regular flower visitors appear to be certain Braconidae in the subfamilies Agathidinae, Cardiochilinae and Microgastrinae. An unidentified species of Dolichogenidea (Microgastrinae) is the only braconid species known to take nectar from saw palmetto flowers at the ABS. There are few nectar feeders among the Chalcidoidea, but Leucospidae commonly feed on nectar from a wide variety of flowers, including saw palmetto, at the ABS. Leucospidae are also reported to consume pollen (Burks 1979), but this needs further investigation.

Diptera. With 117 species, the Diptera is the second best represented order among visitors to saw palmetto flowers at the ABS. These species represent 24 families, 33.3% of the 72 families of flies known from the ABS. The large suborder Nematocera contributes only 6 of these species, the remaining 111 distributed irregularly among the Brachycera. Saw palmetto nectar and pollen support activities of 19.7% of 563 Brachycera known from the ABS. Most of the 111 species of Brachycera listed in Table 2 have alternative floral hosts at the ABS. The real number of brachyceran Diptera occurring at the ABS is probably considerably greater than 563, as there are several families, such as the Chloropidae, that are poorly known. Small, uncommon brachycerans that visit saw palmetto flowers are probably greatly underrepresented in our samples. It is virtually certain that the real number of species of brachyceran Diptera that visit saw palmetto flowers at the ABS is much larger than that of aculeate Hymenoptera.

With 66 species, the Tachinidae is the largest family of Brachycera at the ABS; 17 species (25.6%) visit saw palmetto flowers. Somewhat surprisingly, only 10 (18%) of the 57 species of ABS Syrphidae have been found on saw palmetto flowers. Some common, spring-flying, generalist species in the genera Copestylum, Palpada and Toxomerus were not recorded from saw palmetto flowers, although these are found on other flowers blooming at the same time as saw palmetto.

Many ABS Syrphidae regularly ingest pollen, and it is possible that pollen-feeding Syrphidae find saw palmetto pollen deficient or repellent. Pollen-feeding Bombyliidae, however, are common on these flowers: 14 out of 37 ABS species (37.8%) visit saw palmetto flowers. Conopidae and Ephydridae are each represented by 9 species on saw palmetto flowers, a number that accounts for 56.2% of the 16 ABS Conopidae, and 21.4% of the 42 ABS Ephydridae. Flower-visiting by ABS Ephydridae was discussed by Deyrup & Deyrup (2008), including a list of floral hosts.

Coleoptera. Fifty-two species of ABS Coleoptera visit saw palmetto flowers. Records are scattered through 22 families, 25.9% of the 85 families found on the ABS. The best represented family is the Scarabaeidae, with 7 species, but this is only 8.0% of the 87 ABS species. The 52 species of Coleoptera found on saw palmetto flowers represent only 3.2% of 1592 species in the unpublished list of beetles known from the ABS. Individual species of palmetto-visiting beetles, however, are no less interesting than those of other orders. Typocerus fulvocinctus, for example, is a rare and distinctive cerambycid endemic to peninsular Florida, known from a small number of sites in three central Florida counties (Peck & Thomas 1998).

The Ecological Network of Insects Supported by Saw Palmetto Flowers

A complex series of ecological roles is carried out by insects whose activities are fueled by saw palmetto flowers at the ABS. The insects involved include species that visit additional floral hosts, predators (including parasitoids), phytophagous species, scavenger/decomposers, and fungus feeders (Table 1). Many species have multiple roles; for example, the sphecid wasp Oxybelus laetus fulvipes captures calypterate flies for its larvae, but also visits 13 species of flowers at the ABS. Species that have been extensively studied at the ABS provide a glimpse of the true complexity of the ecological network of which blooming saw palmetto is a node. The vespid wasp Parancistrocerus saecularis rufulus visits flowers of 24 additional species at the ABS (Table 1). Larval hosts are caterpillars of at least 12 species belonging to 6 families of Lepidoptera (Krombein 1967). Larvae of this wasp, or their larval provisions, are consumed at the ABS by at least three species of Bombyliidae, one species of Phoridae, at least one species of Sarcophagidae, two species of Chrysididae, and one species of Eulophidae (Krombein 1967). All of these enemies of P. saecularis rufulus have known or probable alternate insect hosts at the ABS, and five are also known to visit various flowers at the ABS.

Saw palmetto flowers support a wide range of insect ecological roles chiefly by fueling adult activities of insects whose larvae have other dietary habits. Feeding and growth of holometabolous insects occurs primarily in larval stages; subsidizing activities associated with reproduction should have significant cumulative impacts on ecological webs. Of the 311 species of saw palmetto flower visitors the larval diets of 228 are known with some certainty, based on ABS records and literature records (Table 1). In some cases the larval diet of a particular species is not known but it is probable that this species shares the larval diet recorded for its congeners. For example, prey records are not known for one species of Oxybelus listed in Table 1, but all members of this genus prey on adult Diptera (Bohart & Menke 1976).

Predatory Species. Predators of arthropods make up the largest group of species supported by saw palmetto flowers, 158 out of 228 species (69.2%) with known diets. This group includes almost all Hymenoptera other than bees. Five species of cleptoparasitic bees are included as functional predators, bringing the number of predatory Hymenoptera up to 96 species. Other predators include almost half the Diptera, 53 out of 117 species, 8 out of 52 Coleoptera, and 1 species of Neuroptera. With the exception of a few Coleoptera and the single species of Neuroptera, no adult predatory species consume their prey, although adults of many species hunt prey.

There are 44 species visiting saw palmetto flowers that are predators of adults or larvae of other flower visitors (Table 1). We do not include predators such as crab spiders (Thomisidae) or robber flies (Asilidae) that use the inflorescence as a hunting site but do not themselves subsist on nectar or pollen. Some predatory saw palmetto flower visitors, such as conopid flies or sphecids of the genera Ectemnius, Oxybelus and Philanthus attack adult bees or flies. Others such as some bombyliid flies, leucospid and mutillid wasps, and parasitic bees prey on larvae of flower-visiting bees and wasps.

Flower-visiting predatory insects may be useful to individual saw palmetto plants as pollinators, but they may not provide significant additional services as predators of phytophagous species that attack saw palmetto. It is possible that the few phytophagous species known to attack this plant are kept in check by saw palmetto flower-visiting predators, but there is little evidence of this. The only indication of such a relationship is provided by the saw palmetto flower-visiting carabid beetle Calleida fulgida, which, like the related species C. viridipennis (Say) eats larvae of the palmetto-eating chrysomelid beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Say) (Eisner 2003). Saw palmetto may attract its own protective predatory insects in more direct ways: we have observed ants visiting droplets apparently produced by extrafloral nectaries on the rachis of flower spikes, and on apparent surface exudations of young fruits.

In the ecological web of which saw palmetto is a part, predatory saw palmetto flower visitors might have a significant cumulative role in the control of phytophagous insects on other plant species. At least 68 saw palmetto flower visitors attack phytophagous insects, especially caterpillars or root-eating scarabs (Table 1).

Phytophagous Species. Phytophagous insects visiting saw palmetto flowers comprise two groups: insects whose larvae feed on pollen, and those whose larvae feed on tissues of living plants.

Species whose larvae feed on pollen or nectar and pollen include 24 species of bees and one fly. The five species of cleptoparasitic bees are not included here, as they are functional predators, even though their larvae obtain their nourishment almost entirely from pollen and nectar. None of the pollen-gathering species were observed to be "pollen robbers" on saw palmetto; that is, species that collect pollen without approaching the stigma in a way that might transfer pollen.

A narrower definition of "phytophagous" would limit the term to species that feed on tissues of living plants. At the ABS 23 such species have been observed on saw palmetto flowers (Table 1). Most of these are Lepidoptera (17 species), joined by 3 Coleoptera and 3 Diptera. The small number of strictly phytophagous species is notable, considering that over 1,100 species of Lepidoptera are known from the ABS (Minno 1992), the great majority of which are phytophagous species whose elongate mouthparts suggest an adult diet of nectar. It is probable that some nocturnal Lepidoptera that visit saw palmetto have escaped observation at the ABS.

Decomposers. Decomposers visiting saw palmetto flowers include 44 species, 19.3% of the 228 species with known trophic roles. These decomposers are mostly Coleoptera and Diptera, orders with large numbers of decomposers at the ABS. Table 1 suggests that the Diptera (other than Bibionidae) tend to feed on rapidly-decaying material that can be raked in with the mouth-hooks found in larval Brachycera, while larval Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera Nematocera are associated with more resistant materials, such as wood and leaves, that are gnawed with mandibles. About half these decomposers are Diptera, 21 species scattered among 10 families. Decomposer Lepidoptera, primarily represented at the ABS by Tineoidea and Noctuidae, have not been found on saw palmetto flowers, with the exception of Calycopis cecrops (Lycaenidae).

Saw Palmetto Flower Visitors as Potential Pollinators of Other Plants

Most insect species found on saw palmetto flowers have been found at the ABS on at least one other floral host. At least some of these insects must act as pollinators on these additional hosts, although no attempt was made to document this. From the perspective of pollination ecology, there are many three-way relationships between saw palmetto, its flower visitors, and alternate floral hosts of these insects. The total number of documented insect-flower-visitor relationships at the ABS that include saw palmetto is 2029 (Table 1, summarized in Fig. 3). This number is obtained by combining the number of alternate hosts for every saw palmetto flower-visiting species in Table 1.

There is no evidence that saw palmetto and other plants compete for pollinators, although such competition is possible. It would be necessary to show that certain plants are pollinator-limited, and that this limitation appears in association with the blooming of supposedly competing plants, and disappears if these plants are removed. No such experiment has been done with saw palmetto and the alternate hosts of its flower visitors. One might hypothesize that the abundance and extensive range of saw palmetto might have caused competitive displacement of the blooming period of some other species, but there is no evidence of this. Intuitively, such displacement seems unlikely because the timing of the most intense flowering by saw palmetto can be irregular due to the effect of sporadic fires that can increase and accelerate flowering in saw palmetto (Hilmon 1969; Abrahamson 1999). In a review of competition among plants for pollinators, Kodric-Brown & Brown (1979) concluded that competition for pollinators probably has a relatively weak effect on the adaptive evolution of sympatric, distantly-related plants. Intense competition, they argue, is more probable between animals dependent on floral resources. Floral diversity is more plausibly interpreted as promoting floral constancy among pollinators than as competitive displacement (Kodric-Brown & Brown 1979).

Additional Relationships Between Insects and Saw Palmetto Inflorescences

Not all insects associated with saw palmetto flowers are exclusively attracted by floral resources. As mentioned above, Conopidae and members of some genera of Sphecidae not only consume saw palmetto nectar, but also hunt other visitors as prey or hosts. Some additional predators found on saw palmetto inflorescences have not been observed consuming nectar or pollen. These include species of Asilidae, Anthocoridae, Reduviidae, Phymatidae, Eucharitidae and Thomisidae.

At the ABS many insects appear to search for mates around blooming saw palmettos. Especially conspicuous are male Hymenoptera patrolling a series of inflorescences for females, including species of Tiphiidae, Scoliidae, Vespidae, Colletidae, Halictidae and Megachilidae. These males occasionally interrupt their rapid circuits to drink nectar. Such males are often observed to patrol a series of inflorescences, and their occasional flower visits may promote cross pollination. A few beetles in the families Lycidae, Cantharidae and Oedemeridae appear to aggregate for mating on saw palmetto inflorescences. Copulating Bibionidae, especially Plecia nearctica, aggregate as they feed on saw palmetto flowers, but copulation is initiated elsewhere in aerial swarms, often observed in early morning at the ABS.

Some insects, especially ants, are attracted to extrafloral nectaries on immature inflorescences of SP.

A common local treehopper (Membracidae), Idioderma virescens Van Duzee, is a specialized sap-sucker whose nymphs feed exclusively on the rachis of palm inflorescences, especially those of saw palmetto (Kopp & Tsai 1983). At the ABS the honeydew of this membracid forms accretions with black fungus below the inflorescence. This honeydew/fungus combination is consumed by a wide variety of insects, including species of Mutillidae, Pompilidae, Bethylidae, Eucharitidae, Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, and Milichiidae, many of which have not been observed visiting saw palmetto flowers.

Finally, some insects feed on the saw palmetto inflorescence itself at the ABS. These include sap-sucking Coreidae: Acanthocephala confraterna (Uhler); Largidae: Largus davisi Barber; Miridae: Dagbertus fasciatus (Reuter); caterpillars of Arctiidae: Seirarctia echo (J.E. Smith); and caterpil lars of Noctuidae: Litoprosopus futilis (Grote and Robinson). Unopened flower buds are consumed by larvae of Curculionidae: Notolomus basalis, and by an unidentified Cecidomyiidae. Both the latter species appear to be prey of parasitoid wasps.

Discussion

The multiplicity of species of flower visitors associated with saw palmetto, and their general lack of specificity is typical of large pollination networks, according to a review by Oleson & Jordano (2002). We had expected however, to find at least a few saw palmetto visitors that were specialized to efficiently exploit this abundant, widespread, seasonally-focused resource. We encountered, however, no species that are found commonly and exclusively on saw palmetto flowers. While there are many species that were found only on saw palmetto flowers (Table 1), none of these were common on this host, and there is no reason to believe that they are dependent on saw palmetto. There are several species of oligolectic bees at the ABS (Deyrup et al. 2002), but saw palmetto does not have a specialized bee. We also suspected that there might be an oligolectic assemblage specific to the Arecaceae (Serenoa, 2 species of Sabal) at the ABS, but there is no indication of such a group of species. Another expectation was that the species that feed on saw palmetto pollen would be more specialized (have fewer alternate ABS hosts) than species that feed exclusively on nectar, but the opposite is true. In the flies and bees there are 52 known species of pollen-consumers. The average number of alternate hosts for these species is 18.1. The remaining species, presumed to be nectar feeders only, average 4.1 alternate hosts per species. A possible explanation is that there is an observer bias in favor of pollen feeders. Insects that collect both nectar and pollen tend to spend more time on flowers and are more likely to be observed on a range of their hosts. Female bees, in particular, show conspicuous persistence on flowers, as they must gather relatively large amounts of pollen and nectar for their offspring.

The flowers of Serenoa repens are an enormous resource available to hundreds of species of local flower-visiting insects, thereby supporting local taxonomic diversity. While there is no evidence of a specialized insect fauna associated with saw palmetto flowers, some species might be seasonally dependent on this host especially in habitat types that lack other large floral resources in spring. This study adds to the known ecological value of saw palmetto, summarized by Takahashi et al. (2011), and reinforces the conservation importance of this familiar plant.

Acknowledgments

Long-term studies of flower visitors on the Archbold Biological Station were supported by the Archbold Biological Station as part of a continuing program of environmental monitoring, biological inventory and ecological research on the Station.

We gratefully acknowledge all the ABS interns who collected insects on flowers of saw palmetto and other plants. These include Spencer Bissett, James Cronin, Jackson Mosley, Elaina Rhodes, Andrew Schreffler, Robert Shumate, Alex Smith, and Lauren Sullivan. We especially appreciate the work of Kim Keyser, 1997 intern, who focused her work on saw palmetto visitors, including nocturnal species. Visiting researchers who contributed extensively to ABS flower visitor records are Karl Krombein, Beth Norden, and Jayanthi Edirisinghe; the ABS work of the latter researcher was supported by a Fulbright Scholar Program Research Award. Specialists who identified ABS specimens relevant to this study include Willis Wirth, Karl Krombein, Richard Bohart, Roy Snelling, George Eickwort, Sidney Camras, D. M. Wood, John Ascher, Vincent Golia, Stuart Fullerton, Marc Minno, Wayne Mathis and Matthias Buck. Any mistakes in using identified ABS specimens as reference specimens are our own. We thank Warren Abrahamson for many constructive comments on an early version of this paper. We take this opportunity to acknowledge Nancy Deyrup for her long-term efforts in specimen labeling and collection organization at the ABS. Fig. 1 is scanned from a slide donated to the ABS by the late Thomas Eisner.

We are especially grateful to an anonymous reviewer who took the time to provide many valuable suggestions that greatly improved the original manuscript.

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MARK DEYRUP (1), * AND LEIF DEYRUP (2)

(1) Archbold Biological Station, 123 Main Drive, Venus, FL 33960

(2) Univ. of the Cumberlands, Williamsburg, KY 40769

* Corresponding author; E-mail: mdeyrup@archbold-station.org

Table 1. Serenoa repens flower visitors at the Archbold Biological
Station.

Order/Family       Species               AFR (1)

Blattaria
  Blattidae        Eurycotis floridana
                     (F. Walker)
                   Periplaneta
                     australasiae
                     (Fabricius)
  Blattellidae     Cariblatta lutea
                     Saussure &
                     Zehntner
Neuroptera
  Chrysopidae      Nodita floridana
                     (Banks)
Coleoptera
  Carabidae        Calleida fulgida
                   Dejean
                   Cymindis limbalis
                     Dejean
                   Galerita bicolor
                     (Drury)
                   Lebia viridis Say

  Scarabaeidae     Diplotaxis bidentata
                     LeConte
                   Euphoria limbalis
                     Fall
                   Euphoria                   2
                     sepulchralis
                     (Fabricius)
                   Trichiotinus               6
                     lunulatus
                     (Fabricius)
                   Trichiotinus               6
                     rufobrunneus
                     (Casey)
                   Trigonopeltastes          18
                     delta (Forster)
                   Trigonopeltastes           3
                     floridana (Casey)
  Scirtidae        Cyphon sp. A
                   Cyphon sp. B
  Elateridae       Anchastus asper
                     LeConte
                   Neotrichophorus
                     carolinensis
                     Schaeffer
  Lycidae          Calochromus
                     perfacetus (Say)
                   Lycus lateralis            3
                     Melsheimer
                   Plateros                   2
                     flavoscutellatus
                     Blatchley
  Lampyridae       Pyractonema
                     angulata (Say)
  Cantharidae      Chauliognathus            17
                     marginatus
                     (Fabricius)
                   Polemius laticornis
                     Say
                   Tytthonyx
                     flavicollis
                     Blatchley
  Dermestidae      Attagenus fasciatus        1
                     (Thunberg)
                   Cryptorhopalum             5
                     focale Beal
                   Cryptorhopalum
                     ruficorne LeConte
  Cleridae         Enoclerus lunatus          2
                     (Klug)
  Melyridae        Attalus                    3
                     circumscriptus Say
                   Attalus sp.
                   Collops subtropicus        3
                     Fall
  Nitidulidae      Carpophilus sp.

                   Epurea luteola
                     (Erichson)
                   Stelidota coenosa
                     Erichson
  Languriidae      Pharaxonotha
                     floridana (Casey)
  Coccinellidae    Cycloneda sanguinea        3
                     (Linnaeus)
  Corylophidae     Orthoperus sp.
  Mordellidae      Mordella atrata           19
                     Melsheimer

                   Mordella knulli            5
                     Liljeblad

                   Mordella marginata         4
                     Melsheimer

                   Mordellistena masoni
                     Liljeblad
  Tenebrionidae    Epitragodes
                     tomentosa
                     (LeConte)
                     Hymenorus sp.
  Oedemeridae      Oxycopis thoracica         1
                     (Fabricius)
  Meloidae         Pseudozonitis              1
                     longicornis Horn
  Scraptiidae      Allopoda lutea             1
                     (Haldeman)
  Cerambycidae     Anelaphus pumilus
                     (Newman)
                   Elaphidion                 1
                     mucronatum (Say)
                   Lycochoriolaus             3
                     lateralis
                     (Olivier)
                   Strangalia strigosa        4
                     Newman
                   Typocerus                  2
                     fulvocinctus Knull
                   Typocerus zebra            5
                     (Olivier)
  Chrysomelidae    Caryobruchus
                     gleditsiae
                     (Linnaeus)
  Curculionidae    Notolomus basalis          2
                     LeConte
Lepidoptera
  Sesiidae         Carmenta texana
                     (Edwards)
  Hesperiidae      Wallengrenia otho          3
                     Abbot & Smith
  Lycaenidae       Calycopis cecrops          6
                     (Fabricius)
                   Fixsenia favonius          2
                     (Smith)
                   Parrhasius m-album         3
                     (Boisduval &
                     LeConte)
  Nymphalidae      Vanessa virginiensis       2
                     (Drury)
  Pyralidae        Samia ecclesialis
                     (Guenee)
  Arctiidae        Dahana atripennis
                     Grote
                   Utetheisa bella            1
                     (Linnaeus)
  Noctuidae        Anicla infecta
                     Ochsenheimer
                   Catocala consors
                     (Abbot & Smith)
                   Metallata absumens
                     (Walker)
                   Mocis latipes
                     (Guenee)
                   Pseudaletia
                     unipuncta
                     (Haworth)
                   Spodoptera
                     frugiperda (Smith)
                   Spodoptera
                     ornithogalli
                     Guenee
                   Spragueia onagrus          3
                     (Guenee)
Diptera
  Bibionidae       Dilophus orbatus           2
                     (Say)
                   Dilophus spinipes
                     Say
                   Plecia nearctica          34
                     Hardy
  Culicidae        Culex sp.

  Ceratopogonidae  Allohelea
                     johannseni (Wirth)
                   Clinohelea
                     bimaculata (Loew)
  Tabanidae        Chlorotabanus              1
                     crepuscularis
                     (Bequaert)
                   Tabanus americanus
                     Forster

                   Tabanus lineola            4
                     Fabricius

                   Tabanus trijunctus
                     Walker

  Mydidae          Mydas carbonifer
                     Osten Sacken
                   Mydas clavatus
                     (Drury)
                   Mydas maculiventris        3
                     (Westwood)
                   Phyllomydas                1
                     parvulus
                     (Westwood)
  Stratiomyidae    Hedriodiscus               2
                     trivittatus (Say)
                   Odontomyia sp.

                   Stratiomys
                     floridensis
                     Steyskal
  Bombyliidae      Bombylius                  4
                     fraudulentis
                     Johnson
                   Chrysanthrax              16
                     cypris (Meigen)
                   Chrysanthrax dispar       21
                     (Coquillett)
                   Chrysanthrax mira         17
                     (Coquillett)
                   Exprosopa fasciata        22
                     Macquart
                   Exprosopa                 22
                     fascipennis (Say)
                   Geron senilis              1
                     (Fabricius)
                   Geron vitripennis         22
                     (Loew)
                   Hemipenthes sp. nr.        4
                     bigradata (Loew)
                   Poecilognathus             3
                     punctipennis
                     Walker
                   Poecilognathus            10
                     sulphurea Loew
                   Poecilognathus sp.         8
                   Toxophora amphitea         3
                     Walker
                   Villa sp.                 19

  Mythicomyiidae   Glabellula sp.             9

  Syrphidae        Allograpta exotica
                     (Wiedemann)
                   Allograpta obliqua        13
                     (Say)
                   Copestylum mexicanum      26
                     (Macquart)
                   Copestylum                 1
                     sexmaculatum
                   (Palisot de
                     Beauvois)
                   Meromacrus acutus          3
                     (Fabricius)
                   Ocyptamus costatus         4
                     (Say)
                   Palpada agrorum           36
                     (Fabricius)
                   Pseudodoros clavatus      21
                     (Fabricius)
                   Toxomerus verticalis       5
                     (Curran)
                   Trichopsomyia banksi       2
                     (Curran)
  Conopidae        Physocephala              18
                     sagittaria (Say)
                   Physocephala               2
                     tibialis (Say)
                   Physoconops               13
                     brachyrhynchus
                     (Macquart)
                   Physoconops                6
                     bulbirostris
                     (Loew)
                   Physoconops                1
                     floridanus Camras
                   Physoconops                3
                     obscuripennis
                     (Williston)
                   Physoconops                5
                     sylvosus
                     (Williston)
                   Zodion abitus Adams        1

                   Zodion americanum          5
                     Wiedemann
  Micropezidae     Grallipeza nebulosa
                     (Loew)
  Lonchaeidae      Lonchaea sp.               1
  Ulidiidae        Delphinia picta
                     (Fabricius)
                   Euxesta sp.                3
                   Notogramma stigma
                     (Fabricius)
  Platystomidae    Rivellia vaga Namba        1
                   Senopterina varia
                     Coquillett
  Milichiidae      Desmometopa sp.            8
                   Milichia sp.
                   Milichiella sp.            7
                   Paramyia nitens           12
                     (Loew)
                   Pholeomyia dispar          2
                     (Becker)
                   Pholeomyia                 1
                     pseudodecora
                     (Becker)
  Sepsidae         Paleosepsis pusio          9
                     (Schiner)
                   Sepsidimorpha              2
                     brunnipes Melander
                     & Spuler
  Lauxaniidae      Homoneura sp.
                   Poecilominettia
                     puncticeps
                     (Coquillett)
                   Poecilominettia            1
                     valida Walker
  Trixoscelididae  Spilochroa ornata          2
                     (Johnson)
  Ephydridae       Allotrichoma              16
                     abdominalis
                     (Williston)
                   Ceropsilopa                6
                     adjunctus Cresson
                   Discocerina               11
                     obscurella
                     (Fallen)
                   Mimapsilopa                5
                     cressoni L. de
                     Grosso
                   Ochthera exsculpta         1
                     Loew
                   Ochthera tuberculata
                     Loew
                   Psilopa dupla             10
                     Cresson
                   Ptilomyia mabelae          5
                     (Cresson)
                   Typopsilopa sp.            1

  Chloropidae      Apallates dissidens       12
                     (Tucker)
                   Hippelates plebjus
                     Loew
                   Liohippelates pusio       15
                     (Loew)
                   Monochaetoscinella         1
                     sp.
                   Olcella
                     quadrivittata
                     (Sabrosky)
                   Tricimba sp.
  Muscidae         Atherigona                 5
                     orientalis Schiner
                   Coenosopsia prima          6
                     Malloch
                   Coenosia sp.               2
                   Lispe sp.
                   Musca domestica            9
                     Linnaeus
                   Philornis porteri
                     Dodge
  Calliphoridae    Chrysomya rufifacies      10
                     (Macquart)
                   Cochliomyia               12
                     macellaria
                     (Fabricius)
                   Lucilia                    4
                     caeruliviridis
                     Macquart
  Sarcophagidae    Amobia floridensis         7
                     (Townsend)
                   Eusenotainia               1
                     rufoventris
                     (Coquillett)
                   Helicobia sp.
                   Oxysarcodexia              4
                     ventricosa (Van
                     der Wulp)
                   Senotainia
                     literalis (Allen)
                   Senotainia                12
                     trilineata (Van
                     der Wulp)
  Tachinidae       Archytas aterrimus         5
                     (Robineau-Desvoidy)
                   Chaetogaedia analis
                     (Van der Wulp)
                   Chaetostigmoptera
                     crassinervus
                     (Walton)
                   Chetogena                  5
                     floridensis
                     (Townsend)
                   Chetogena                  3
                     scutellaris (Van
                     der Wulp)
                   Crocinosoma                7
                     cornuale Reinhard
                   Drino sp.

                   Masiphya confusa
                     Aldrich
                   Masiphya floridana
                     Townsend
                   Paradidyma sp.             9

                   Prosenoides flavipes       6
                     Coquillett
                   Pseudochaeta sp.

                   Ptilodexia sp.             2

                   Trichopoda pennipes       18
                     (Fabricius)
                   Trichopoda plumipes        3
                     (Fabricius)
                   Vanderwulpia sequens       5
                     Townsend
                   Xanthomelanotes            2
                     atripennis (Say)
                   Zaira sp.
Hymenoptera
  Braconidae       Dolichogenidea sp.

  Leucospidae      Leucospis affinis         12
                     Say
                   Leucospis birkmani
                     Brues
                   Leucospis robertsoni      14
                     Crawford
                   Leucospis slossonae       23
                     Weld
  Bethylidae       Goniozus nigrifemur
                     Ashmead
  Chrysididae      Chrysis archboldi
                     Kimsey
                   Chrysis inaequidens        1
                     Dahlbom
  Tiphiidae        Myzinum carolinianum      18
                     (Panzer)
                   Myzinum dubiosum          26
                     Cresson
                   Myzinum maculatum          2
                     (Fabricius)
                   Paratiphia texana          7
                     Cameron
                   Tiphia floridana           7
                     Robertson
  Mutillidae       Dasymutilla pyrrhus        2
                     (Fox)
                   Pseudomethoca
                     sanbornii (Fox)
                   Timulla ferrugata
                     (Fabricius)
  Scoliidae        Campsomeris plumipes      30
                     (Drury)
  Formicidae       Brachymyrmex
                     obscurior Forel
                   Camponotus castaneus       1
                     (Latreille)
                   Camponotus impressus       2
                     (Roger)
                   Camponotus
                     inaequalis Roger
                   Camponotus
                     nearcticus Emery
                   Formica archboldi          1
                     M.R. Smith
                   Formica pallidefulva       5
                     Latreille
                   Monomorium viride          2
                     Brown
                   Paratrechina
                     longicornis
                     (Latreille)
                   Pseudomyrmex ejectus
                     (F. Smith)
                   Pseudomyrmex               6
                     gracilis
                     (Fabricius)
                   Solenopsis invicta
                     Buren

  Vespidae         Eumenes smithii            9
                     Saussure
                   Euodynerus auranus         1
                     (Cameron)
                   Mischocyttarus             9
                     cubensis
                     (Saussure)
                   Monobia quadridens         8
                     (Linnaeus)
                   Pachodynerus              34
                     erynnis
                     (Lepeletier)
                   Parancistrocerus           1
                     histrio
                     (Lepeletier)
                   Parancistrocerus          21
                     saecularis rufulus
                   Bohart
                   Polistes bahamensis        1
                     Bequaert & Salt
                   Polistes bellicosus        5
                     Cresson
                   Polistes fuscatus          1
                     (Fabricius)
                   Polistes metricus          3
                     Say
                   Stenodynerus               2
                     australis
                     (Robertson)
                   Stenodynerus              10
                     lineatifrons
                     Bohart
                   Vespula squamosa          10
                     (Drury)
                   Zethus slossonae Fox      18

                   Zethus spinipes Say       16
  Pompilidae       Ageniella obscura
                     Banks
                   Anoplius marginalis        1
                     (Banks)
                   Aporinellus
                     fasciatus (Smith)
                   Ceropales elegans
                     quaintanzei
                     Viereck
                   Episyron conterminus      16
                     posterus (Fox)
                   Pepsis saphirus
                     Palisot
                   Poecilopompilus            4
                     interruptus (Say)
                   Psorthaspis legata
                     (Cresson)
                   Sericopompilus             2
                     apicalis (Say)
                   Tachypompilus              2
                     ferrugineus (Say)
  Sphecidae        Ammophila procera          7
                     Dahlbom
                   Ammophila urnaria          4
                     Dahlbom
                   Bembecinus                 5
                   floridanus Krombein
                     & Willink
                   Bembix sayi Cresson        8
                   Bicyrtes                  12
                     quadrifasciata
                     (Say)
                   Cerceris blakei           24
                     Cresson
                   Cerceris                   5
                     flavofasciata
                     floridensis Banks
                   Cerceris fumipennis        8
                     Say
                   Cerceris rufopicta         1
                     F. Smith
                   Chalybion                  1
                     californicum
                     (Saussure)
                   Crabro hilaris             3
                     rufibasis (Banks)
                   Ectemnius                 12
                     decimmaculatus
                     tequesta Pate
                   Ectemnius maculosus        1
                     (Gmelin)
                   Ectemnius rufipes         25
                     ais Pate
                   Isodontia auripes          4
                     (Fernald)
                   Isodontia exornata        19
                     Fernald
                   Isodontia mexicana         2
                     (Saussure)
                   Larropsis greeni           1
                     Rohwer
                   Liris beata
                     (Cameron)
                   Liris fulginosa
                     muspa (Pate)
                   Liris panamensis           3
                     muesebecki
                     (Krombein)
                   Oxybelus decorosus         9
                     (Mickel)
                   Oxybelus                   4
                     emarginatus Say
                   Oxybelus laetus           12
                     fulvipes Robertson
                   Philanthus sanbornii
                     Cresson
                   Philanthus                18
                     ventilabris
                     Fabricius
                   Podium rufipes
                     Fabricius
                   Sphecius speciosus
                     (Drury)
                   Sphex ichneumoneus         6
                     (Linnaeus)
                   Sphex pensylvanicus
                     Linnaeus
                   Stictia carolina           1
                     (Fabricius)
                   Stictiella serrata         6
                     (Handlirsch)
                   Tachytes grisselli         5
                     Bohart (5)
                   Tachytes                   2
                     guatemalensis
                     Cameron
                   Tachytes mergus Fox        1
                   Tanyoprymnus               4
                     moneduloides
                     (Packard)
                   Trypargilum clavatum       3
                     johannis
                     (Richards)
  Colletidae       Colletes banksi            3
                     Swenk
                   floridanus Krombein
                   Colletes brimleyi          8
                     Mitchell
                   Colletes                  22
                     mandibularis Smith
                   Colletes nudus             5
                     Robertson
                   Colletes sp.               6
                   Hylaeus graenicheri        1
                     Mitchell
  Halictidae       Agapostemon               38
                     splendens
                     (Lepeletier)
                   Augoclora pura Say        21
                   Augoclorella aurata       46
                     (Smith)
                   Augochloropsis            37
                     metallica
                     (Fabricius)
                   Augochloropsis            41
                     sumptuosa (Smith)
                   Halictus poeyi Say        39
                   Lasioglossum              19
                     coreopsis
                     (Robertson)
                   Lasioglossum              22
                     miniatulus
                     (Mitchell)
                   Lasioglossum              55
                     nymphalis (Smith)
                   Lasioglossum              17
                     pectoralis (Smith)
                   Lasioglossum              47
                     placidensis
                     (Mitchell)
                   Lasioglossum              18
                     tegulare
                     (Robertson)
                     sp. group
                   Sphecodes heraclei        14
                     Robertson
  Megachilidae     Coelioxys sayi            24
                     Robertson
                   Dianthidium               21
                     floridiense
                     Schwarz Megachile        5
                     policarius Say
                   Megachile                 14
                     xylocopoides Smith
  Apidae           Apis mellifera            73
                     Linnaeus
                   Bombus impatiens          50
                     Cresson
                   Bombus                    16
                     pennsylvanicus
                     (DeGeer)
                   Epeolus erigeronis         3
                     Mitchell
                   Epeolus glabratus          2
                     Cresson
                   Epeolus zonatus            9
                     Smith

Order/Family       Species               Role

Blattaria
  Blattidae        Eurycotis floridana
                     (F. Walker)
                   Periplaneta
                     australasiae
                     (Fabricius)
  Blattellidae     Cariblatta lutea
                     Saussure &
                     Zehntner
Neuroptera
  Chrysopidae      Nodita floridana      Predator of small insects
                     (Banks)               on vegetation
Coleoptera
  Carabidae        Calleida fulgida      Predator of Chrysomelidae
                   Dejean
                   Cymindis limbalis     Predator prey unknown (genus)*
                     Dejean
                   Galerita bicolor
                     (Drury)
                   Lebia viridis Say     Predator of beetle pupae
                                           (genus)*
  Scarabaeidae     Diplotaxis bidentata  Phytophagous on roots (genus)*
                     LeConte
                   Euphoria limbalis     Decomposer of rotten wood
                     Fall
                   Euphoria              Decomposer of decaying plants
                     sepulchralis
                     (Fabricius)
                   Trichiotinus          Decomposer of rotten wood
                     lunulatus
                     (Fabricius)
                   Trichiotinus          Decomposer of rotten wood
                     rufobrunneus
                     (Casey)
                   Trigonopeltastes      Decomposer of palm bracts
                     delta (Forster)
                   Trigonopeltastes      Decomposer (genus)*
                     floridana (Casey)
  Scirtidae        Cyphon sp. A
                   Cyphon sp. B
  Elateridae       Anchastus asper
                     LeConte
                   Neotrichophorus
                     carolinensis
                     Schaeffer
  Lycidae          Calochromus           Decomposer & mycetophagous
                     perfacetus (Say)      (family)+
                   Lycus lateralis       Decomposer & mycetophagous
                     Melsheimer            (family)+
                   Plateros              Decomposer & mycetophagous
                     flavoscutellatus      (family)+
                     Blatchley
  Lampyridae       Pyractonema           Decomposer & mycetophagous
                     angulata (Say)        (family)+
  Cantharidae      Chauliognathus        Predator of small insects
                     marginatus            (genus) *
                     (Fabricius)
                   Polemius laticornis
                     Say
                   Tytthonyx
                     flavicollis
                     Blatchley
  Dermestidae      Attagenus fasciatus   Decomposer of dry organic
                     (Thunberg)            matter
                   Cryptorhopalum        Decomposer of dead insects
                     focale Beal           (genus) *
                   Cryptorhopalum        Predator of Lepidoptera eggs
                     ruficorne LeConte
  Cleridae         Enoclerus lunatus     Predator of insects on trees
                     (Klug)                (genus) *
  Melyridae        Attalus
                     circumscriptus Say
                   Attalus sp.
                   Collops subtropicus   Predator of small insects
                     Fall                  (genus) *
  Nitidulidae      Carpophilus sp.       Decomposer of plant matter
                                           (genus) *
                   Epurea luteola        Decomposer of dead cactus
                     (Erichson)
                   Stelidota coenosa     Mycetophagous
                     Erichson
  Languriidae      Pharaxonotha          Phytophagous on Zamia flowers
                     floridana (Casey)
  Coccinellidae    Cycloneda sanguinea   Predator of Aphididae
                     (Linnaeus)
  Corylophidae     Orthoperus sp.        Mycetophagous (genus)*
  Mordellidae      Mordella atrata       Decomposer of wood &
                     Melsheimer            mycetophagous  (genus)*

                   Mordella knulli       Decomposer of wood &
                     Liljeblad             mycetophagous (genus)*

                   Mordella marginata    Decomposer of wood &
                     Melsheimer            mycetophagous (genus)*

                   Mordellistena masoni  Phytophagous (genus)*
                     Liljeblad
  Tenebrionidae    Epitragodes
                     tomentosa
                     (LeConte)
                     Hymenorus sp.
  Oedemeridae      Oxycopis thoracica
                     (Fabricius)
  Meloidae         Pseudozonitis
                     longicornis Horn
  Scraptiidae      Allopoda lutea
                     (Haldeman)
  Cerambycidae     Anelaphus pumilus     Decomposer of hardwoods
                     (Newman)
                   Elaphidion            Decomposer of dead Smilax
                     mucronatum (Say)      tubers & hardwoods
                   Lycochoriolaus        Decomposer of dead wood
                     lateralis
                     (Olivier)
                   Strangalia strigosa   Decomposer of dead wood
                     Newman
                   Typocerus             Decomposer of dead wood
                     fulvocinctus Knull
                   Typocerus zebra       Decomposer of dead wood
                     (Olivier)
  Chrysomelidae    Caryobruchus          Phytophagous in seeds of
                     gleditsiae            Arecaceae
                     (Linnaeus)
  Curculionidae    Notolomus basalis     Phytophagous in buds of
                     LeConte               Serenoa repens
Lepidoptera
  Sesiidae         Carmenta texana       Phytophagous in stems of
                     (Edwards)             Asteraceae
  Hesperiidae      Wallengrenia otho     Phytophagous on Gramineae
                     Abbot & Smith
  Lycaenidae       Calycopis cecrops     Decomposer of dead leaves
                     (Fabricius)
                   Fixsenia favonius     Phytophagous on Quercus
                     (Smith)
                   Parrhasius m-album    Phytophagous on Quercus
                     (Boisduval &
                     LeConte)
  Nymphalidae      Vanessa virginiensis  Phytophagous on Asteraceae
                     (Drury)
  Pyralidae        Samia ecclesialis     Phytophagous (genus)*
                     (Guenee)
  Arctiidae        Dahana atripennis     Phytophagous on Tillandsia
                     Grote
                   Utetheisa bella       Phytophagous on seeds of
                     (Linnaeus)            Crotalaria
  Noctuidae        Anicla infecta        Phytophagous on herbaceous
                     Ochsenheimer          plants
                   Catocala consors      Phytophagous on Carya
                     (Abbot & Smith)
                   Metallata absumens    Phytophagous (genus)*
                     (Walker)
                   Mocis latipes         Phytophagous on Gramineae
                     (Guenee)
                   Pseudaletia           Phytophagous on herbaceous
                     unipuncta             plants
                     (Haworth)
                   Spodoptera            Phytophagous on herbaceous
                     frugiperda (Smith)    plants
                   Spodoptera            Phytophagous on herbaceous
                     ornithogalli          plants
                     Guenee
                   Spragueia onagrus     Phytophagous (genus)*
                     (Guenee)
Diptera
  Bibionidae       Dilophus orbatus
                     (Say)
                   Dilophus spinipes
                     Say
                   Plecia nearctica      Decomposer of plant matter
                     Hardy
  Culicidae        Culex sp.             Consumes aquatic
                                           microorganisms; adult
                                           hematophagous
  Ceratopogonidae  Allohelea             Predator of small insects
                     johannseni (Wirth)    (genus) *
                   Clinohelea
                     bimaculata (Loew)
  Tabanidae        Chlorotabanus
                     crepuscularis
                     (Bequaert)
                   Tabanus americanus    Predator of aquatic
                     Forster             invertebrates (genus)*;
                                           adult hematophagous
                   Tabanus lineola       Predator of aquatic
                     Fabricius             invertebrates (genus) *;
                                           adult hematophagous
                   Tabanus trijunctus    Predator of aquatic
                     Walker                invertebrates (genus) *;
                                           adult hematophagous
  Mydidae          Mydas carbonifer      Predator of subterranean
                     Osten Sacken          Coleoptera larvae (genus)*
                   Mydas clavatus        Predator of subterranean
                     (Drury)               Coleoptera larvae (genus)*
                   Mydas maculiventris   Predator of subterranean
                     (Westwood)            Coleoptera larvae
                   Phyllomydas
                     parvulus
                     (Westwood)
  Stratiomyidae    Hedriodiscus          Aquatic microorganisms
                     trivittatus (Say)     (subfamily)+
                   Odontomyia sp.        Aquatic microorganisms
                                           (subfamily)+
                   Stratiomys            Aquatic microorganisms
                     floridensis           (subfamily)+
                     Steyskal
  Bombyliidae      Bombylius             Predator of subterranean
                     fraudulentis          Hymenoptera larvae (genus)*
                     Johnson
                   Chrysanthrax          Predator of subterranean
                     cypris (Meigen)       Hymenoptera larvae (genus)*
                   Chrysanthrax dispar   Predator of subterranean
                     (Coquillett)          Hymenoptera larvae (genus)*
                   Chrysanthrax mira     Predator of subterranean
                     (Coquillett)          Hymenoptera larvae (genus)+
                   Exprosopa fasciata    Predator of subterranean
                     Macquart              Hymenoptera larvae
                   Exprosopa             Predator of subterranean
                     fascipennis (Say)     Hymenoptera larvae
                   Geron senilis         Predator of Lepidoptera larvae
                     (Fabricius)           (genus) *
                   Geron vitripennis     Predator of Lepidoptera larvae
                     (Loew)                (genus) *
                   Hemipenthes sp. nr.   Predator of Hymenoptera larvae
                     bigradata (Loew)      (genus) *
                   Poecilognathus
                     punctipennis
                     Walker
                   Poecilognathus
                     sulphurea Loew
                   Poecilognathus sp.
                   Toxophora amphitea    Predator of Vespidae larvae
                     Walker
                   Villa sp.             Predator of Hymenoptera
                                           larvae (genus)*
  Mythicomyiidae   Glabellula sp.        Predator of Apoidea larvae
                                           (genus) *
  Syrphidae        Allograpta exotica    Predator of Homoptera
                     (Wiedemann)           (genus) *
                   Allograpta obliqua    Predator of Homoptera
                     (Say)
                   Copestylum mexicanum  Decomposer of cactus
                     (Macquart)
                   Copestylum
                     sexmaculatum
                   (Palisot de
                     Beauvois)
                   Meromacrus acutus     Decomposer of rotten wood
                     (Fabricius)
                   Ocyptamus costatus    Predator of Homoptera
                     (Say)
                   Palpada agrorum       Decomposer of plant matter
                     (Fabricius)           (genus) *
                   Pseudodoros clavatus  Predator of Homoptera
                     (Fabricius)           (genus) *
                   Toxomerus verticalis  Consumer of pollen (genus)*
                     (Curran)
                   Trichopsomyia banksi  Predator of Homoptera (genus)*
                     (Curran)
  Conopidae        Physocephala          Predator of adult Apoidea
                     sagittaria (Say)
                   Physocephala          Predator of adult Apoidea
                     tibialis (Say)        (genus) *
                   Physoconops           Predator of adult Apoidea
                     brachyrhynchus        (genus) *
                     (Macquart)
                   Physoconops           Predator of adult Apoidea
                     bulbirostris          (genus) *
                     (Loew)
                   Physoconops           Predator of adult Apoidea
                     floridanus Camras     (genus) *
                   Physoconops           Predator of adult Apoidea
                     obscuripennis         (genus) *
                     (Williston)
                   Physoconops           Predator of adult Apoidea
                     sylvosus              (genus) *
                     (Williston)
                   Zodion abitus Adams   Predator of adult Apoidea
                                           (genus) *
                   Zodion americanum     Predator of adult Apoidea
                     Wiedemann            (genus)  *
  Micropezidae     Grallipeza nebulosa
                     (Loew)
  Lonchaeidae      Lonchaea sp.
  Ulidiidae        Delphinia picta
                     (Fabricius)
                   Euxesta sp.
                   Notogramma stigma     Decomposer on cactus
                     (Fabricius)
  Platystomidae    Rivellia vaga Namba   Phytophagous on Legume
                   Senopterina varia       nodules (genus)*
                     Coquillett
  Milichiidae      Desmometopa sp.
                   Milichia sp.
                   Milichiella sp.
                   Paramyia nitens
                     (Loew)
                   Pholeomyia dispar
                     (Becker)
                   Pholeomyia
                     pseudodecora
                     (Becker)
  Sepsidae         Paleosepsis pusio     Decomposer, organic matter
                     (Schiner)             (family)+
                   Sepsidimorpha         Decomposer, organic matter
                     brunnipes Melander    (family)+
                     & Spuler
  Lauxaniidae      Homoneura sp.         Decomposer of leaves (genus)*
                   Poecilominettia       Decomposer of leaves (genus)*
                     puncticeps
                     (Coquillett)
                   Poecilominettia       Decomposer of leaves (genus)*
                     valida Walker
  Trixoscelididae  Spilochroa ornata
                     (Johnson)
  Ephydridae       Allotrichoma          Decomposer of aquatic
                     abdominalis           organisms (genus)*
                     (Williston)
                   Ceropsilopa
                     adjunctus Cresson
                   Discocerina           Aquatic microorganisms
                     obscurella
                     (Fallen)
                   Mimapsilopa
                     cressoni L. de
                     Grosso
                   Ochthera exsculpta    Predator of aquatic
                     Loew                  invertebrates (genus)*
                   Ochthera tuberculata  Predator of aquatic
                     Loew                  invertebrates (genus)*
                   Psilopa dupla         Phytophagous, leaf miner
                     Cresson               (genus)*
                   Ptilomyia mabelae
                     (Cresson)
                   Typopsilopa sp.       Decomposer of plant matter
                                           (genus)*
  Chloropidae      Apallates dissidens   Decomposer of plant matter
                     (Tucker)              (genus)*
                   Hippelates plebjus    Decomposer of plant matter
                     Loew                  (genus)*
                   Liohippelates pusio   Decomposer of plant matter
                     (Loew)
                   Monochaetoscinella
                     sp.
                   Olcella
                     quadrivittata
                     (Sabrosky)
                   Tricimba sp.          Mycetophagous
  Muscidae         Atherigona            Phytophagous & decomposer of
                     orientalis Schiner    plant matter
                   Coenosopsia prima
                     Malloch
                   Coenosia sp.
                   Lispe sp.
                   Musca domestica       Decomposer of plant & animal
                     Linnaeus              matter
                   Philornis porteri     Parasite of nestling birds
                     Dodge
  Calliphoridae    Chrysomya rufifacies  Decomposer of carrion
                     (Macquart)
                   Cochliomyia           Decomposer of carrion
                     macellaria
                     (Fabricius)
                   Lucilia               Decomposer of carrion
                     caeruliviridis
                     Macquart
  Sarcophagidae    Amobia floridensis    Predator of larval Hymenoptera
                     (Townsend)
                   Eusenotainia          Predator of larval Hymenoptera
                     rufoventris
                     (Coquillett)
                   Helicobia sp.         Decomposer of dead arthropods
                   Oxysarcodexia         Decomposer of dung
                     ventricosa (Van
                     der Wulp)
                   Senotainia            Predator of larval Hymenoptera
                     literalis (Allen)
                   Senotainia            Predator of larval Vespidae
                     trilineata (Van
                     der Wulp)
  Tachinidae       Archytas aterrimus    Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     (Robineau-Desvoidy)
                   Chaetogaedia analis   Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     (Van der Wulp)
                   Chaetostigmoptera     Predator (family)+
                     crassinervus
                     (Walton)
                   Chetogena             Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     floridensis
                     (Townsend)
                   Chetogena             Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     scutellaris (Van      (genus)*
                     der Wulp)
                   Crocinosoma           Predator of larval
                     cornuale Reinhard     Lepidoptera (genus)*
                   Drino sp.             Predator of larval
                                           Lepidoptera (genus)*
                   Masiphya confusa      Predator of Mantodea (genus)*
                     Aldrich
                   Masiphya floridana    Predator of Mantodea (genus) *
                     Townsend
                   Paradidyma sp.        Predator of larval
                                           Lepidoptera (genus)*
                   Prosenoides flavipes  Predator of larval Coleoptera.
                     Coquillett
                   Pseudochaeta sp.      Predator of larval
                                           Lepidoptera (genus)*
                   Ptilodexia sp.        Predator of larval Coleoptera
                                           (genus)*
                   Trichopoda pennipes   Predator of adult Heteroptera
                     (Fabricius)
                   Trichopoda plumipes   Predator of adult Heteroptera
                     (Fabricius)
                   Vanderwulpia sequens  Predator of larval
                     Townsend              Lepidoptera (genus)*
                   Xanthomelanotes       Predator of adult Heteroptera
                     atripennis (Say)      (genus)*
                   Zaira sp.
Hymenoptera
  Braconidae       Dolichogenidea sp.    Predator of larval
                                           Lepidoptera (genus)*
  Leucospidae      Leucospis affinis     Predator of larval Apoidea
                     Say
                   Leucospis birkmani    Predator of larval
                     Brues                 Hymenoptera (genus)*
                   Leucospis robertsoni  Predator of larval
                     Crawford              Hymenoptera (genus)*
                   Leucospis slossonae   Predator of larval Apoidea
                     Weld
  Bethylidae       Goniozus nigrifemur   Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     Ashmead
  Chrysididae      Chrysis archboldi     Predator of larval
                     Kimsey                Hymenoptera (genus)*
                   Chrysis inaequidens   Predator of larval Vespidae
                     Dahlbom
  Tiphiidae        Myzinum carolinianum  Predator of larval
                     (Panzer)              Scarabaeidae (genus)*
                   Myzinum dubiosum      Predator of larval
                     Cresson               Scarabaeidae (genus)*
                   Myzinum maculatum     Predator of larval
                     (Fabricius)           Scarabaeidae (genus)*
                   Paratiphia texana     Predator of larval
                     Cameron               Scarabaeidae (genus)*
                   Tiphia floridana      Predator of larval
                     Robertson             Scarabaeidae (genus)*
  Mutillidae       Dasymutilla pyrrhus   Predator of larval Sphecidae
                     (Fox)
                   Pseudomethoca         Predator of larval Apoidea
                     sanbornii (Fox)
                   Timulla ferrugata     Predator of larval Vespidae
                     (Fabricius)
  Scoliidae        Campsomeris plumipes  Predator of larval
                     (Drury)               Scarabaeidae
  Formicidae       Brachymyrmex          Honeydew, nectar
                     obscurior Forel
                   Camponotus castaneus  Predator of insects & guards
                     (Latreille)           honey-dewproducing Homoptera
                   Camponotus impressus  Predator of insects & guards
                     (Roger)             honeydew-producing insects
                   Camponotus            Predator of insects & guards
                     inaequalis Roger      honeydew-producing insects
                   Camponotus            Predator of insects & guards
                     nearcticus Emery      honeydew-producing insects
                   Formica archboldi     Predator and decomposer of
                     M.R. Smith            insects
                   Formica pallidefulva  Predator and decomposer of
                     Latreille             insects
                   Monomorium viride     Predator and decomposer of
                     Brown                 insects
                   Paratrechina          Decomposer of arthropods &
                     longicornis           guards honeydew-producing
                     (Latreille)           insects
                   Pseudomyrmex ejectus  Predator of arthropods
                     (F. Smith)
                   Pseudomyrmex          Predator of arthropods
                     gracilis
                     (Fabricius)
                   Solenopsis invicta    Predator of arthropods &
                     Buren               guards honeydew-producing
                                           insects
  Vespidae         Eumenes smithii       Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     Saussure
                   Euodynerus auranus    Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     (Cameron)             (genus) *
                   Mischocyttarus        Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     cubensis
                     (Saussure)
                   Monobia quadridens    Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     (Linnaeus)
                   Pachodynerus          Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     erynnis
                     (Lepeletier)
                   Parancistrocerus      Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     histrio
                     (Lepeletier)
                   Parancistrocerus      Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     saecularis rufulus
                   Bohart
                   Polistes bahamensis   Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     Bequaert & Salt
                   Polistes bellicosus   Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     Cresson
                   Polistes fuscatus     Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     (Fabricius)
                   Polistes metricus     Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     Say
                   Stenodynerus          Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     australis             (genus) *
                     (Robertson)
                   Stenodynerus          Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     lineatifrons
                     Bohart
                   Vespula squamosa      Predator of arthropods
                     (Drury)
                   Zethus slossonae Fox  Predator of larval
                                           Lepidoptera (genus) *
                   Zethus spinipes Say   Predator of larval Lepidoptera
  Pompilidae       Ageniella obscura     Predator of Araneida (genus) *
                     Banks
                   Anoplius marginalis   Predator of Lycosidae
                     (Banks)
                   Aporinellus           Predator of Salticidae
                     fasciatus (Smith)
                   Ceropales elegans     Predator of Pompilidae
                     quaintanzei
                     Viereck
                   Episyron conterminus  Prededator of Araneidae
                     posterus (Fox)
                   Pepsis saphirus       Predator of Araneida
                     Palisot
                   Poecilopompilus       Predator of Araneidae
                     interruptus (Say)
                   Psorthaspis legata    Predator of Ctenizidae
                     (Cresson)
                   Sericopompilus        Predator of Araneida
                     apicalis (Say)
                   Tachypompilus         Predator of Lycosidae
                     ferrugineus (Say)
  Sphecidae        Ammophila procera     Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     Dahlbom
                   Ammophila urnaria     Predator of larval Lepidoptera
                     Dahlbom
                   Bembecinus            Predator of Homoptera (genus)*
                   floridanus Krombein
                     & Willink
                   Bembix sayi Cresson   Predator of adult Diptera
                   Bicyrtes              Predator of Heteroptera
                     quadrifasciata
                     (Say)
                   Cerceris blakei       Predator of adult Coleoptera
                     Cresson
                   Cerceris              Predator of adult Coleoptera
                     flavofasciata
                     floridensis Banks
                   Cerceris fumipennis   Predator of adult Coleoptera
                     Say
                   Cerceris rufopicta    Predator of adult Coleoptera
                     F. Smith              (genus) *
                   Chalybion             Predator of Araneida
                     californicum
                     (Saussure)
                   Crabro hilaris        Predator of adult Diptera
                     rufibasis (Banks)
                   Ectemnius             Predator of adult Diptera
                     decimmaculatus        (genus) *
                     tequesta Pate
                   Ectemnius maculosus   Predator of adult Diptera
                     (Gmelin)              (genus) *
                   Ectemnius rufipes     Predator of adult Diptera
                     ais Pate
                   Isodontia auripes     Predator of Orthoptera
                     (Fernald)
                   Isodontia exornata    Predator of Orthoptera
                     Fernald
                   Isodontia mexicana    Predator of Orthoptera
                     (Saussure)
                   Larropsis greeni      Predator of Orthoptera
                     Rohwer
                   Liris beata           Predator of Orthoptera
                     (Cameron)
                   Liris fulginosa       Predator of Orthoptera
                     muspa (Pate)          (genus)*
                   Liris panamensis      Predator of Orthoptera
                     muesebecki            (genus) *
                     (Krombein)
                   Oxybelus decorosus    Predator of adult Diptera
                     (Mickel)              (genus) *
                   Oxybelus              Predator of adult Diptera
                     emarginatus Say
                   Oxybelus laetus       Predator of adult Diptera
                     fulvipes Robertson
                   Philanthus sanbornii  Predator of adult Apoidea
                     Cresson
                   Philanthus            Predator of adult Apoidea
                     ventilabris
                     Fabricius
                   Podium rufipes        Predator of Blattaria
                     Fabricius
                   Sphecius speciosus    Predator of adult Cicadidae
                     (Drury)
                   Sphex ichneumoneus    Predator of Orthoptera
                     (Linnaeus)
                   Sphex pensylvanicus   Predator of Orthoptera.
                     Linnaeus
                   Stictia carolina      Predator of adult Diptera
                     (Fabricius)
                   Stictiella serrata    Predator of adult Lepidoptera
                     (Handlirsch)
                   Tachytes grisselli    Predator of Orthoptera
                     Bohart (5)            (genus) *
                   Tachytes              Predator of Orthoptera
                     guatemalensis         (genus) *
                     Cameron
                   Tachytes mergus Fox   Predator of Orthoptera
                   Tanyoprymnus          Predator of Homoptera
                     moneduloides
                     (Packard)
                   Trypargilum clavatum  Predator of Araneida
                     johannis
                     (Richards)
  Colletidae       Colletes banksi       Nectar & pollen
                     Swenk
                   floridanus Krombein
                   Colletes brimleyi     Nectar & pollen
                     Mitchell
                   Colletes              Nectar & pollen
                     mandibularis Smith
                   Colletes nudus        Nectar & pollen
                     Robertson
                   Colletes sp.          Nectar & pollen
                   Hylaeus graenicheri   Nectar & pollen
                     Mitchell
  Halictidae       Agapostemon           Nectar & pollen
                     splendens
                     (Lepeletier)
                   Augoclora pura Say    Nectar & pollen
                   Augoclorella aurata   Nectar & pollen
                     (Smith)
                   Augochloropsis        Nectar & pollen
                     metallica
                     (Fabricius)
                   Augochloropsis        Nectar & pollen
                     sumptuosa (Smith)
                   Halictus poeyi Say    Nectar & pollen
                   Lasioglossum          Nectar & pollen
                     coreopsis
                     (Robertson)
                   Lasioglossum          Nectar & pollen
                     miniatulus
                     (Mitchell)
                   Lasioglossum          Nectar & pollen
                     nymphalis (Smith)
                   Lasioglossum          Nectar & pollen
                     pectoralis (Smith)
                   Lasioglossum          Nectar & pollen
                     placidensis
                     (Mitchell)
                   Lasioglossum          Necta & pollen
                     tegulare
                     (Robertson)
                     sp. group
                   Sphecodes heraclei    Predator of Apoidea
                     Robertson             (cleptoparasite)
  Megachilidae     Coelioxys sayi        Predator of Megachilidae
                     Robertson             (cleptoparasite)
                   Dianthidium           Nectar & pollen
                     floridiense
                     Schwarz Megachile   Nectar & pollen
                     policarius Say
                   Megachile             Nectar & pollen
                     xylocopoides Smith
  Apidae           Apis mellifera        Nectar & pollen
                     Linnaeus
                   Bombus impatiens      Nectar & pollen
                     Cresson
                   Bombus                Nectar & pollen
                     pennsylvanicus
                     (DeGeer)
                   Epeolus erigeronis    Predator of Apoidea
                     Mitchell              (cleptoparasite)
                   Epeolus glabratus     Predator of Apoidea
                     Cresson               (cleptoparasite)
                   Epeolus zonatus       Predator of Apoidea
                     Smith                 (cleptoparasite)

Order/Family       Species               Source

Blattaria
  Blattidae        Eurycotis floridana
                     (F. Walker)
                   Periplaneta
                     australasiae
                     (Fabricius)
  Blattellidae     Cariblatta lutea
                     Saussure &
                     Zehntner
Neuroptera
  Chrysopidae      Nodita floridana      (ABS)
                     (Banks)
Coleoptera
  Carabidae        Calleida fulgida      (ABS)
                   Dejean
                   Cymindis limbalis     (Ball & Bousquet 2001)
                     Dejean
                   Galerita bicolor
                     (Drury)
                   Lebia viridis Say     (Ball & Bousquet 2001)

  Scarabaeidae     Diplotaxis bidentata  (Ratcliff et al. 2002)
                     LeConte
                   Euphoria limbalis     (Blatchley 1910)
                     Fall
                   Euphoria              (Ritcher 1966)
                     sepulchralis
                     (Fabricius)
                   Trichiotinus          (Ritcher 1966)
                     lunulatus
                     (Fabricius)
                   Trichiotinus          (Ritcher 1966)
                     rufobrunneus
                     (Casey)
                   Trigonopeltastes      (Ritcher 1966)
                     delta (Forster)
                   Trigonopeltastes      (Ritcher 1966)
                     floridana (Casey)
  Scirtidae        Cyphon sp. A
                   Cyphon sp. B
  Elateridae       Anchastus asper
                     LeConte
                   Neotrichophorus
                     carolinensis
                     Schaeffer
  Lycidae          Calochromus           (Lawrence 1991a)
                     perfacetus (Say)
                   Lycus lateralis       (Lawrence 1991a)
                     Melsheimer
                   Plateros              (Lawrence 1991a)
                     flavoscutellatus
                     Blatchley
  Lampyridae       Pyractonema           (Lawrence 1991a)
                     angulata (Say)
  Cantharidae      Chauliognathus        (Blatchley 1910)
                     marginatus
                     (Fabricius)
                   Polemius laticornis
                     Say
                   Tytthonyx
                     flavicollis
                     Blatchley
  Dermestidae      Attagenus fasciatus   (Ali 1993)
                     (Thunberg)
                   Cryptorhopalum        (Kiselyova 2002)
                     focale Beal
                   Cryptorhopalum        (Mason and Ticehurst 1984)
                     ruficorne LeConte
  Cleridae         Enoclerus lunatus     (Foster & Lawrence 1991a)
                     (Klug)
  Melyridae        Attalus
                     circumscriptus Say
                   Attalus sp.
                   Collops subtropicus   (Foster & Lawrence 1991b)
                     Fall
  Nitidulidae      Carpophilus sp.       (ABS)

                   Epurea luteola        (ABS)
                     (Erichson)
                   Stelidota coenosa     (ABS)
                     Erichson
  Languriidae      Pharaxonotha          (ABS)
                     floridana (Casey)
  Coccinellidae    Cycloneda sanguinea   (ABS)
                     (Linnaeus)
  Corylophidae     Orthoperus sp.        (Lawrence 1991b)
  Mordellidae      Mordella atrata       (Lawrence 1991c)
                     Melsheimer

                   Mordella knulli       (Lawrence 1991c)
                     Liljeblad

                   Mordella marginata    (Lawrence 1991c)
                     Melsheimer

                   Mordellistena masoni  (Lawrence 1991c)
                     Liljeblad
  Tenebrionidae    Epitragodes
                     tomentosa
                     (LeConte)
                     Hymenorus sp.
  Oedemeridae      Oxycopis thoracica
                     (Fabricius)
  Meloidae         Pseudozonitis
                     longicornis Horn
  Scraptiidae      Allopoda lutea
                     (Haldeman)
  Cerambycidae     Anelaphus pumilus     (Lingafelter 2007)
                     (Newman)
                   Elaphidion            (ABS), (Lingafelter 2007)
                     mucronatum (Say)      (ABS)
                   Lycochoriolaus        (Lingafelter 2007)
                     lateralis
                     (Olivier)
                   Strangalia strigosa   (Lingafelter 2007)
                     Newman
                   Typocerus             (Lingafelter 2007)
                     fulvocinctus Knull
                   Typocerus zebra       (Lingafelter 2007)
                     (Olivier)
  Chrysomelidae    Caryobruchus          (Kingsolver 2004)
                     gleditsiae
                     (Linnaeus)
  Curculionidae    Notolomus basalis     (ABS)
                     LeConte
Lepidoptera
  Sesiidae         Carmenta texana       (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Edwards)
  Hesperiidae      Wallengrenia otho     (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     Abbot & Smith
  Lycaenidae       Calycopis cecrops     (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Fixsenia favonius     (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Smith)
                   Parrhasius m-album    (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Boisduval &
                     LeConte)
  Nymphalidae      Vanessa virginiensis  (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Drury)
  Pyralidae        Samia ecclesialis     (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Guenee)
  Arctiidae        Dahana atripennis     (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     Grote
                   Utetheisa bella       (ABS)
                     (Linnaeus)
  Noctuidae        Anicla infecta        (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     Ochsenheimer
                   Catocala consors      (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Abbot & Smith)
                   Metallata absumens    (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Walker)
                   Mocis latipes         (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Guenee)
                   Pseudaletia           (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     unipuncta
                     (Haworth)
                   Spodoptera            (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     frugiperda (Smith)
                   Spodoptera            (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     ornithogalli
                     Guenee
                   Spragueia onagrus     (Heppner et al. 2003)
                     (Guenee)
Diptera
  Bibionidae       Dilophus orbatus
                     (Say)
                   Dilophus spinipes
                     Say
                   Plecia nearctica      (ABS)
                     Hardy
  Culicidae        Culex sp.

  Ceratopogonidae  Allohelea             (Wirth & Grogan 1988)
                     johannseni (Wirth)
                   Clinohelea
                     bimaculata (Loew)
  Tabanidae        Chlorotabanus
                     crepuscularis
                     (Bequaert)
                   Tabanus americanus    (Oldroyd 1964)
                     Forster

                   Tabanus lineola       (Oldroyd 1964)
                     Fabricius

                   Tabanus trijunctus    (Oldroyd 1964)
                     Walker

  Mydidae          Mydas carbonifer      (Genung 1959)
                     Osten Sacken
                   Mydas clavatus        (Genung 1959)
                     (Drury)
                   Mydas maculiventris   (Genung 1959)
                     (Westwood)
                   Phyllomydas
                     parvulus
                     (Westwood)
  Stratiomyidae    Hedriodiscus          (Foote 1991a)
                     trivittatus (Say)
                   Odontomyia sp.        (Foote 1991a)

                   Stratiomys            (Foote 1991a)
                     floridensis
                     Steyskal
  Bombyliidae      Bombylius             (Hull 1973)
                     fraudulentis
                     Johnson
                   Chrysanthrax          (Hull 1973)
                     cypris (Meigen)
                   Chrysanthrax dispar   (Hull 1973)
                     (Coquillett)
                   Chrysanthrax mira     (Hull 1973)
                     (Coquillett)
                   Exprosopa fasciata    (Krombein 1979a)
                     Macquart
                   Exprosopa             (Krombein 1979a)
                     fascipennis (Say)
                   Geron senilis         (Hull 1973)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Geron vitripennis     (Hull 1973)
                     (Loew)
                   Hemipenthes sp. nr.   (Hull 1973)
                     bigradata (Loew)
                   Poecilognathus
                     punctipennis
                     Walker
                   Poecilognathus
                     sulphurea Loew
                   Poecilognathus sp.
                   Toxophora amphitea    (Krombein 1967) (ABS)
                     Walker
                   Villa sp.             (Krombein 1979a)

  Mythicomyiidae   Glabellula sp.        (Hull 1973)

  Syrphidae        Allograpta exotica    (Weems 1971)
                     (Wiedemann)
                   Allograpta obliqua    (Weems 1971)
                     (Say)
                   Copestylum mexicanum  (ABS)
                     (Macquart)
                   Copestylum
                     sexmaculatum
                   (Palisot de
                     Beauvois)
                   Meromacrus acutus     (Perez-Banon et al. 2003)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Ocyptamus costatus    (Wirth et al. 1965)
                     (Say)
                   Palpada agrorum       (Perez-Banon et al. 2003)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Pseudodoros clavatus  (Wirth et al. 1965)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Toxomerus verticalis  (Reemer et al. 2009)
                     (Curran)
                   Trichopsomyia banksi  (Wirth et al. 1965)
                     (Curran)
  Conopidae        Physocephala          (Freeman 1966)
                     sagittaria (Say)
                   Physocephala          (Freeman 1966)
                     tibialis (Say)
                   Physoconops           (Freeman 1966)
                     brachyrhynchus
                     (Macquart)
                   Physoconops           (Freeman 1966)
                     bulbirostris
                     (Loew)
                   Physoconops           (Freeman 1966)
                     floridanus Camras
                   Physoconops           (Freeman 1966)
                     obscuripennis
                     (Williston)
                   Physoconops           (Freeman 1966)
                     sylvosus
                     (Williston)
                   Zodion abitus Adams   (Freeman 1966)

                   Zodion americanum     (Freeman 1966)
                     Wiedemann
  Micropezidae     Grallipeza nebulosa
                     (Loew)
  Lonchaeidae      Lonchaea sp.
  Ulidiidae        Delphinia picta
                     (Fabricius)
                   Euxesta sp.
                   Notogramma stigma     (ABS)
                     (Fabricius)
  Platystomidae    Rivellia vaga Namba   (Bibro & Foote 1986)
                   Senopterina varia
                     Coquillett
  Milichiidae      Desmometopa sp.
                   Milichia sp.
                   Milichiella sp.
                   Paramyia nitens
                     (Loew)
                   Pholeomyia dispar
                     (Becker)
                   Pholeomyia
                     pseudodecora
                     (Becker)
  Sepsidae         Paleosepsis pusio     (Foote 1991b)
                     (Schiner)
                   Sepsidimorpha         (Foote 1991b)
                     brunnipes Melander
                     & Spuler
  Lauxaniidae      Homoneura sp.         (Miller & Foote 1976)
                   Poecilominettia       (Miller & Foote 1976)
                     puncticeps
                     (Coquillett)
                   Poecilominettia       (Miller & Foote 1976)
                     valida Walker
  Trixoscelididae  Spilochroa ornata
                     (Johnson)
  Ephydridae       Allotrichoma          (Thier & Foote 1980)
                     abdominalis
                     (Williston)
                   Ceropsilopa
                     adjunctus Cresson
                   Discocerina           (Foote 1995)
                     obscurella
                     (Fallen)
                   Mimapsilopa
                     cressoni L. de
                     Grosso
                   Ochthera exsculpta    (Foote 1995)
                     Loew
                   Ochthera tuberculata  (Foote 1995)
                     Loew
                   Psilopa dupla         (Foote 1995)
                     Cresson
                   Ptilomyia mabelae
                     (Cresson)
                   Typopsilopa sp.       (Foote 1995)

  Chloropidae      Apallates dissidens   (Mulla 1962)
                     (Tucker)
                   Hippelates plebjus    (Mulla 1962)
                     Loew
                   Liohippelates pusio   (Mulla 1962)
                     (Loew)
                   Monochaetoscinella
                     sp.
                   Olcella
                     quadrivittata
                     (Sabrosky)
                   Tricimba sp.          (ABS)
  Muscidae         Atherigona            (Butcher 1954)
                     orientalis Schiner
                   Coenosopsia prima
                     Malloch
                   Coenosia sp.
                   Lispe sp.
                   Musca domestica       (ABS)
                     Linnaeus
                   Philornis porteri     (ABS)
                     Dodge
  Calliphoridae    Chrysomya rufifacies  (Wells & Greenberg 1992)
                     (Macquart)
                   Cochliomyia           (Wells & Greenberg 1992)
                     macellaria
                     (Fabricius)
                   Lucilia               (ABS)
                     caeruliviridis
                     Macquart
  Sarcophagidae    Amobia floridensis    (Krombein 1967)
                     (Townsend)
                   Eusenotainia          (Krombein 1979a)
                     rufoventris
                     (Coquillett)
                   Helicobia sp.         (ABS)
                   Oxysarcodexia         (Downes 1965)
                     ventricosa (Van
                     der Wulp)
                   Senotainia            (Krombein 1979a)
                     literalis (Allen)
                   Senotainia            (Krombein 1967)
                     trilineata (Van
                     der Wulp)
  Tachinidae       Archytas aterrimus    (Arnaud 1978)
                     (Robineau-Desvoidy)
                   Chaetogaedia analis   (Arnaud 1978)
                     (Van der Wulp)
                   Chaetostigmoptera     (Arnaud 1978)
                     crassinervus
                     (Walton)
                   Chetogena             (Arnaud 1978)
                     floridensis
                     (Townsend)
                   Chetogena             (Arnaud 1978)
                     scutellaris (Van
                     der Wulp)
                   Crocinosoma           (Sabrosky &Arnaud 1965)
                     cornuale Reinhard
                   Drino sp.             (Arnaud 1978)

                   Masiphya confusa      (Wood 1987)
                     Aldrich
                   Masiphya floridana    (Wood 1987)
                     Townsend
                   Paradidyma sp.        (Arnaud 1978)

                   Prosenoides flavipes  (Sabrosky & Arnaud 1965)
                     Coquillett
                   Pseudochaeta sp.      (Arnaud 1978)

                   Ptilodexia sp.        (Arnaud 1978)

                   Trichopoda pennipes   (Arnaud 1978)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Trichopoda plumipes   (Arnaud 1978)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Vanderwulpia sequens  (Sabrosky & Arnaud 1965)
                     Townsend
                   Xanthomelanotes       (Sabrosky & Arnaud 1965)
                     atripennis (Say)
                   Zaira sp.
Hymenoptera
  Braconidae       Dolichogenidea sp.    (Whitfield 1997)

  Leucospidae      Leucospis affinis     (Krombein 1967)
                     Say
                   Leucospis birkmani    (Burks 1979)
                     Brues
                   Leucospis robertsoni  (Burks 1979)
                     Crawford
                   Leucospis slossonae   (Burks 1979)
                     Weld
  Bethylidae       Goniozus nigrifemur   (Evans 1978)
                     Ashmead
  Chrysididae      Chrysis archboldi     (Krombein 1967)
                     Kimsey
                   Chrysis inaequidens   (Krombein 1967) (ABS)
                     Dahlbom
  Tiphiidae        Myzinum carolinianum  (Krombein 1979c)
                     (Panzer)
                   Myzinum dubiosum      (Krombein 1979c)
                     Cresson
                   Myzinum maculatum     (Krombein 1979c)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Paratiphia texana     (Krombein 1979c)
                     Cameron
                   Tiphia floridana      (Krombein 1979c)
                     Robertson
  Mutillidae       Dasymutilla pyrrhus   (ABS)
                     (Fox)
                   Pseudomethoca         (Krombein 1979c)
                     sanbornii (Fox)
                   Timulla ferrugata     (Krombein 1979c)
                     (Fabricius)
  Scoliidae        Campsomeris plumipes  (Krombein 1979c)
                     (Drury)
  Formicidae       Brachymyrmex          (ABS)
                     obscurior Forel
                   Camponotus castaneus  (ABS)
                     (Latreille)
                   Camponotus impressus  (ABS)
                     (Roger)
                   Camponotus            (ABS)
                     inaequalis Roger
                   Camponotus            (ABS)
                     nearcticus Emery
                   Formica archboldi     (ABS)
                     M.R. Smith
                   Formica pallidefulva  (ABS)
                     Latreille
                   Monomorium viride     (ABS)
                     Brown
                   Paratrechina          (ABS)
                     longicornis
                     (Latreille)
                   Pseudomyrmex ejectus  (ABS)
                     (F. Smith)
                   Pseudomyrmex          (ABS)
                     gracilis
                     (Fabricius)
                   Solenopsis invicta    (ABS)
                     Buren

  Vespidae         Eumenes smithii       (Krombein 1979b)
                     Saussure
                   Euodynerus auranus    (Krombein 1979b)
                     (Cameron)
                   Mischocyttarus        (ABS)
                     cubensis
                     (Saussure)
                   Monobia quadridens    (Krombein 1967) (ABS)
                     (Linnaeus)
                   Pachodynerus          (Krombein 1979b)
                     erynnis
                     (Lepeletier)
                   Parancistrocerus      (Krombein 1979b)
                     histrio
                     (Lepeletier)
                   Parancistrocerus      (Krombein 1967) (ABS)
                     saecularis rufulus
                   Bohart
                   Polistes bahamensis   (ABS)
                     Bequaert & Salt
                   Polistes bellicosus   (ABS)
                     Cresson
                   Polistes fuscatus     (ABS)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Polistes metricus     (ABS)
                     Say
                   Stenodynerus          (Krombein 1979b)
                     australis
                     (Robertson)
                   Stenodynerus          (Krombein 1967) (ABS)
                     lineatifrons
                     Bohart
                   Vespula squamosa      (ABS)
                     (Drury)
                   Zethus slossonae Fox  (Krombein 1979b)

                   Zethus spinipes Say   (Krombein 1979b)
  Pompilidae       Ageniella obscura     (Townes 1957)
                     Banks
                   Anoplius marginalis   (Evans 1951a)
                     (Banks)
                   Aporinellus           (Evans 1951b
                     fasciatus (Smith)
                   Ceropales elegans     (Townes 1957)
                     quaintanzei
                     Viereck
                   Episyron conterminus  (Evans 1950)
                     posterus (Fox)
                   Pepsis saphirus       (Townes 1957)
                     Palisot
                   Poecilopompilus       (Evans 1950)
                     interruptus (Say)
                   Psorthaspis legata    (Krombein 1979d)
                     (Cresson)
                   Sericopompilus        (Evans 1950)
                     apicalis (Say)
                   Tachypompilus         (Evans 1950)
                     ferrugineus (Say)
  Sphecidae        Ammophila procera     (Krombein 1979a)
                     Dahlbom
                   Ammophila urnaria     (Krombein 1979a)
                     Dahlbom
                   Bembecinus            (Krombein 1979a)
                   floridanus Krombein
                     & Willink
                   Bembix sayi Cresson   (Krombein 1979a)
                   Bicyrtes              (Krombein 1979a)
                     quadrifasciata
                     (Say)
                   Cerceris blakei       (Krombein 1979a)
                     Cresson
                   Cerceris              (Krombein 1979a)
                     flavofasciata
                     floridensis Banks
                   Cerceris fumipennis   (ABS)
                     Say
                   Cerceris rufopicta    (Krombein 1979a)
                     F. Smith
                   Chalybion             (Krombein 1979a)
                     californicum
                     (Saussure)
                   Crabro hilaris        (Krombein 1979a)
                     rufibasis (Banks)
                   Ectemnius             (Krombein 1979a)
                     decimmaculatus
                     tequesta Pate
                   Ectemnius maculosus   (Krombein 1979a)
                     (Gmelin)
                   Ectemnius rufipes     (Krombein 1979a)
                     ais Pate
                   Isodontia auripes     (Krombein 1967)
                     (Fernald)
                   Isodontia exornata    (Krombein 1979a)
                     Fernald
                   Isodontia mexicana    (Krombein 1967) (ABS)
                     (Saussure)
                   Larropsis greeni      (Krombein 1979a)
                     Rohwer
                   Liris beata           (Krombein 1979a)
                     (Cameron)
                   Liris fulginosa       (Krombein 1979a)
                     muspa (Pate)
                   Liris panamensis      (Krombein 1979a)
                     muesebecki
                     (Krombein)
                   Oxybelus decorosus    (Bohart & Menke 1976)
                     (Mickel)
                   Oxybelus              (Krombein 1979a)
                     emarginatus Say
                   Oxybelus laetus       ABS
                     fulvipes Robertson
                   Philanthus sanbornii  (Krombein 1979a)
                     Cresson
                   Philanthus            (Krombein 1979a)
                     ventilabris
                     Fabricius
                   Podium rufipes        (Krombein 1967) (ABS)
                     Fabricius
                   Sphecius speciosus    (Krombein 1979a)
                     (Drury)
                   Sphex ichneumoneus    (Krombein 1979a)
                     (Linnaeus)
                   Sphex pensylvanicus   (Krombein 1979a)
                     Linnaeus
                   Stictia carolina      (Krombein 1979a)
                     (Fabricius)
                   Stictiella serrata    (Krombein 1979a)
                     (Handlirsch)
                   Tachytes grisselli    (Krombein 1979a)
                     Bohart (5)
                   Tachytes              (Krombein 1979a)
                     guatemalensis
                     Cameron
                   Tachytes mergus Fox   (ABS)
                   Tanyoprymnus          (Krombein 1979a)
                     moneduloides
                     (Packard)
                   Trypargilum clavatum  (Krombein 1967) (ABS)
                     johannis
                     (Richards)
  Colletidae       Colletes banksi       (ABS)
                     Swenk
                   floridanus Krombein
                   Colletes brimleyi     (ABS)
                     Mitchell
                   Colletes              (ABS)
                     mandibularis Smith
                   Colletes nudus        (ABS)
                     Robertson
                   Colletes sp.          (ABS)
                   Hylaeus graenicheri   (ABS)
                     Mitchell
  Halictidae       Agapostemon           (ABS)
                     splendens
                     (Lepeletier)
                   Augoclora pura Say    (ABS)
                   Augoclorella aurata   (ABS)
                     (Smith)
                   Augochloropsis        (ABS)
                     metallica
                     (Fabricius)
                   Augochloropsis        (ABS)
                     sumptuosa (Smith)
                   Halictus poeyi Say    (ABS)
                   Lasioglossum          (ABS)
                     coreopsis
                     (Robertson)
                   Lasioglossum          (ABS)
                     miniatulus
                     (Mitchell)
                   Lasioglossum          (ABS)
                     nymphalis (Smith)
                   Lasioglossum          (ABS)
                     pectoralis (Smith)
                   Lasioglossum          (ABS)
                     placidensis
                     (Mitchell)
                   Lasioglossum          (ABS)
                     tegulare
                     (Robertson)
                     sp. group
                   Sphecodes heraclei    (ABS)
                     Robertson
  Megachilidae     Coelioxys sayi        (ABS)
                     Robertson
                   Dianthidium           (ABS)
                     floridiense
                     Schwarz Megachile   (ABS)
                     policarius Say
                   Megachile             (ABS)
                     xylocopoides Smith
  Apidae           Apis mellifera        (ABS)
                     Linnaeus
                   Bombus impatiens      (ABS)
                     Cresson
                   Bombus                (ABS)
                     pennsylvanicus
                     (DeGeer)
                   Epeolus erigeronis    (ABS)
                     Mitchell
                   Epeolus glabratus     (ABS)
                     Cresson
                   Epeolus zonatus       (ABS)
                     Smith

(1) Additional floral hosts at the Archbold Biological Station.

* Dietary role known for species in this genus, presumed for this
species.

+ Dietary role known for species in this family or subfamily, presumed
for this species.


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Article Details
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Author:Deyrup, Mark; Deyrup, Leif
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 1, 2012
Words:11374
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