Printer Friendly

The determination of airborne fungal flora of two different hospitals in Istanbul (Turkey).

Introduction

There are plenty of fungi in air [18]. Since spores, which are reproduction structures of fungus, can easily be spread in air. They amply exists both indoor and outdoor environments [5,25].

Occurrence probability of moulds in clinical environments is very high. Shelton et al., [39]. Moulds can cause many illnesses such as respiratory tract sickness, allergic reactions, sinusitis and hospital infections time to time in people [46,27]. At the same time, higher density of moulds in clinical environment is risky in terms of immunocompromised patients (HIV carriers, oncology patients) and old patients. And especially, Aspergillus caused by certain types of Aspergillus species, is seen in chemotherapy patients rather frequently [34,42]. Therefore mould flora determination of hospitals air is important.

Most important ones among allergen fungus spores, which are effective on respiratory tract allergens are Cladosporium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Fusarium [9,38,17]. Determination of these moulds period and densities in atmosphere is very important for sensitive individuals [26].

Moulds can reproduce under many different environmental niches such as soil, plant and water. It is known the relationships between spore production and environmental conditions, such as meteorological factors [29]. Their concentrations are affected by wind, humidity, temperature, rain, altitude and vegetation. Fungus density becomes dense in humid environments, especially in cloudy and humid atmospheres fungus densities become high [13].

Material and Method

Material (Collection of Samples):

Samples were collected in between February 2005 and January 2006 for one year of duration from parts of Marmara University Hospital and Goztepe Education and Research Hospital, denoted in Table1.

The samples were collected monthly from the denoted parts of given hospitals for one year. Petri Plaque method based on gravity (settle plates method) was used for sample collection. Samples were collected by opening Petri dishes for 15-30 minutes at specified areas at 75-85 cm elevation from the ground. Samples were collected in the morning between 07:30-09:30. Windows were closed during the indoor collection of material. Consequently outdoor contaminations were prevented. This process were applied in 5 different places of specified hospitals during the year. Peptone Dextrose Agar was used as the culture medium while collecting the samples. 30 mg/l streptomycin had been added to the culture to prevent bacteria reproduction [14]. Rose-Bengal stain was added to the culture in order to prevent faster reproduction of moulds [37,38].

Method:

Plaques containing Peptone Dextrose Agar which was used for isolation, was put into 7 days of incubation in laboratories at room temperature (22-26 [degrees]C). Later, every reproduced fungus colony had been put into Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Malt Extract Agar (MEA) and Czapek's Agar (CZA) by utilizing passage to the culture mediums. These plaques were also put into incubation for 7 days at room temperature (22-26 [degrees]C). After the incubation pure cultures of microfunguses were obtained. Meanwhile, surface and inverse appearances of colonies and colony diameters were noted and exudation and pigmentation statuses were examined [14]. Lactophenol solution stained by picric acid and lactophenol solution stained by cotton blue was used for investigation of microscopic structures of moulds [10]. Preparates, made of pure cultures was examined at microscope. Various structures of microfunguses measured for 50 times and averaged.

Identification of funguses were tried to be performed by making use of domestic and foreign resources. In distinguishing the genus, the resource named of "Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi" was used (Barnett, 1987). It was used for identification of Rhizopus species; "Mucorales" Zycha, [47] for Aspergillus species;" The Genus Aspergillus" [35] and "List of accepted species and their synonyms in the family Trichocomonaceae" Pitt, [33] for Penicillium, Gliocladium, Paecilomyces species; A Manual of the Penicillia" [36], for Alternaria, Cladosporium, Ulocladium, Aureobasidium, Scopulariopsis species; "Dematiaceous Hypomycetes" Ellis, [20] and Simmons [40], for Fusarium species; " The Genus Fusarium" Booth, [11] for Mycelia sterilia; "Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi" Ainsworth, [2] and "Tohumsuz Bitkiler Sistematigi" (Bacteriophyta, Cyanophyta, Phycophyta, Mycophyta, Lichenes) [19].

Determination of relation between temperature and fungus density, in the study; temperature and humidity values of sampling areas has been measured via thermometer and hygrometer. These values are given in Table 2-3.

Results:

175 mould colonies were isolated in Marmara University Hospital and allergenic ones were speciated (Table 4). Maximal mould isolation was occurred in May, and minimal in February. Mostly isolated species was Cladosporium (42.9%). This one were followed by Alternaria (18.9%), Penicillium (12.6%), Aureobasidium (11.4%), Aspergillus (6.9%), Mycelia Sterilia (4.6%), Scopulariopsis (1.7%), Rhizopus (0.6%) and Ulocladium (0.6%).

Maximally isolated species in this hospital during the study was Cladosporium cladosporioides (36.6%).

182 mould colonies were isolated in Goztepe Education and Research Hospital and allergen ones was specified (Table 5). Maximal mould isolation was occurred in May, and minimal in January. Isolated species are; Cladosporium (32.4%), Alternaria (24.2%), Penicillium (15.9%), Aureobasidium (9.3%), Aspergillus (7.1%), Scopulariopsis (3.8%), Ulocladium (3.3%), Mycelia Sterilia (2.7%), Rhizopus (0.5%) and Paecilomyces (0.5%). Maximally isolated species in this hospital during our study was Cladosporium cladosporioides (23.6%).

When the annual mould flora of the two hospitals has been compared, it is observed that monthly distributions are close to each other. Maximally isolated species in both hospitals were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Aureobasidium. The most isolated species in both hospitals is found as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Table 4, 5).

Discussion:

Moulds can live in very different environmental conditions [6]. They can be found in hospital like crowded environments, since they can easily spread in air via their reproduction structure spores. Moulds can cause sicknesses such as respiratory tract infections, aspergilloz, asthma, allergic reactions and sinusitis in humans [21]. Therefore excess amounts of moulds in air entertain risk for patients [26,8]. While number of suppressed immune system patients is increasing because of cancer, chemotherapy and AIDS, number of fungus infections is also increasing [46]. Concerns on moulds had been increased recently, since diagnostic of mould infections is hard, have long term therapy period; and studies on this subject are also increasing with time [26,21].

In many studies up to now, it was specified that mould density in air is in relation with humidity and temperature of the air, and mould density increased with increasing temperature and humidity [44,1]. And mould density increases in Istanbul city in spring, summer and autumn seasons [15]. When the temperature and humidity values (Table 2, 3) and was isolated colony numbers (Graphics 1, 3), identified in our study, and was examined; it was found that temperature and humidity directly affect fungus concentration. When the monthly distribution (Graphics 1, 3) of isolated funguses examined, it was seen that maximal mould isolation occurs in May in both of the hospitals. It was found that, in May, average measured humidity ratio is 80% and temperature is 21.2 [degrees]C in Marmara University Hospital; and average was measured humidity ratio is 80% and temperature was 21 [degrees]C in Goztepe Education and Research Hospital. Minimal isolation occurred in winter in our study.

Maximally isolated moulds in studies performed in Turkey; were given as Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria and Aureobasidium [25,5,37]. In our study, in Marmara University Hospital mostly Cladosporium (42.9 %) were isolated. This was followed by Penicillium (% 23.4), Aureobasidium (%12.0), Alternaria (%7.4), Aspergillus (%7), Mycelia sterilia (%4.6), Scopulariopsis (%1.7), Rhizopus (%0.6) and Ulocladium (% 0.6). (Table 4). In Goztepe Education and Research Hospital, mostly Cladosporium (% 32.4) was isolated. It was observed that this is followed by Alternaria (% 24.2), Penicillium (% 15.9), Aureobasidium (% 9.3), Aspergillus (% 7.1), Scopulariopsis (% 3.8), Ulocladium (% 3.3), Mycelia sterilia (% 2.7), Rhizopus (% 0.5) and Paecilomyces (% 0.5). (Table 5). In both hospitals, mostly Cladosporium was isolated (Graphics 2, 4).

And in foreign studies were reported that mostly isolated funguses were Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Aureobasidium [43,32,3,30,28,31].

Aspergillus and Penicillium were observed at higher levels in autumn and winter season; and at lower levels in summer season. Alternaria and Cladosporium were observed at higher levels in summer season; and at lower levels in winter season. This situation was identified both by different domestic and foreign researchers [99]. In the study, which was performed in Izmir, the types belong to Aspergillus species was continuously isolated during the study [12]. In our study was found same results.

In our study maximally isolated species in Marmara University Hospital was Cladosporium cladosporioides (36.6%), and this one was followed by Penicillium commune (%12.6), Aureobasidium pullulans (%12.0), Alternaria alternata (% 6.3), Cladosporium herbarum (% 4.6), Penicillium brevicompactum (%4.6), Aspergillus niger (%2.9), Penicillium citrinum (%2.9). Isolated species in Goztepe Education and Research Hospital were respectively; Cladosporium cladosporioides (% 23.6), Alternaria alternata (%19.8), Penicillium glabrum (%11.0), Aureobasidium pullulans (%9.3), Cladosporium herbarum (%6.0), and Alternaria tenuissima (%4.4). When the fungus colony numbers isolated in both hospitals were compared, it was seen that they were lose to each other (175 colonies in Marmara University Hospital and 182 colonies in Goztepe Education and Research Hospital were isolated). And when the species distribution was concerned, there were no different results.

Fungal flora of crowded places where people applied for their health such as hospitals should be determined and controlled routinely.

References

(1.) Afzal, M., F.S. Mehdi, Z.S. Siddiqui, 2004. Effect of Relative Humidity and Temperature on Airborne Fungal Allergens of Karachi City. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7: 159-162.

(2.) Ainsworth, G.C., F.K. Sparrow, A.S. Sussman, 1973. The Fungi. An Advanced Treatise. Volume IV A. A Taxonomic Review with Keys. Ascomycetes and Imperfect Fungi Academic Press New York, San Francisco, USA.

(3.) Al-Suwaine, A.S., A.H. Bahkali, S.M. Hasnain, 1999. Seasonal Incidence of Airbone Fungal Allergens in Riyadh Saudi Arabia Mycopathologia, 145: 15-22.

(4.) Al-Suwaine, A.S., S.M. Hasnain, 1999. Bahkali AH. Viable Airbone Fungi in Riyadh Saudi Arabia Aerobiologia, 15: 121-130.

(5.) Asan, A., S. Ilhan, B. Sen, E.I. Potoglu, C. Filik, A. Cabuk, R. Demirel, M. Ture, O.S. Sarica, S. Tokur, 2004. Airborne Fungal Actinomycetes Concentrations in Urban Air of Eskisehir City Turkey. Indoor Built Environ, 14: 63-74.

(6.) Asan, A., B. Sen, S. Sarica, 2002. Airborne Fungi in Urban Air of Edirne City Turkey. Biologia, 57: 59-68.

(7.) Barnett, H.L., B.B. Hunter, 1987. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. 4 th Ed Macmillan Publishing Company New York Collier Macmillan Publishers London.

(8.) Beggs, C.B., 2003. The Airborne Transmission of Infection in Hospital Buildings: Fact or Fiction? Indoor and Built Environment, 12: 9-18.

(9.) Bicakci, A., S. Tatlidil, Y. Canitez, H. Malyer, N. Sapan, 2001. Mustafa Kemal Pasa Ilcesi Bursa Atmosferindeki Allerjen Alternaria sp. Ve Cladosporium sp. Sporlari Akciger Arsivi, 2: 69-72.

(10.) Bilgehan, H., 2002. Klinik Mikrobiyolojik Tani 3. Baski Baris Yayinlari Fakulteler Kitapevi Izmir Turkiye.

(11.) Booth, C., 1971. The Genus Fusarium Commonwealth Mycol Inst Kew Surrey The Eastern Press Limited England.

(12.) Boyacioglu, H., A. Haliki M. Ates, A. Guvensen, O. Abaci, 2007. The statistical investigation on airborne fungi and pollen grains of atmosphere in Izmir-Turkey. Environ Monit Assess, 135: 327-334.

(13.) Cetinkaya, Z., F. Fidan, M. Unlu, I. Hasenekoglu, L. Tetik, R. Demirel, 2005. Afyon Atmosferinde Alerjen Fungus Sporlari Akciger Arsivi, 6: 140-144.

(14.) Colakoglu, G., 1983. Erzurum Ili ve IlCelerinde Depolardan Izole Edilen Kuf Mantarlari Uzerinde Aractirmalar PhD Thesis, Ataturk Universitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fak. Biyoloji Bolumu Botanik Anabilim Dali Erzurum, Turkiye.

(15.) Colakoglu, G., 2004. Indoor and Outdoor Mycoflora in the Different Districts of the City of Istanbul Turkey. Indoor and Built Environment, 13: 91-100.

(16.) Colakoglu, G., 1996a. Mould Counts in the Atmosphere at the Europe Quarter of Istanbul Turkey. J Basic Microbiol., 36: 389-392.

(17.) Colakoglu, G., 2003. Airborne Fungal Spores at the Belgrad Forest Near the City of Istanbul Turkey in the Year 2001 and Their Relation to Allergic Diseases. J Basic Microbiol., 43: 376-384.

(18.) Colakoglu, G., 1996b. Fungal Spore Concentrations in the Atmosphere at the Anatolia Quarter of Istanbul Turkey. J Basic Microbiol, 36: 155-162.

(19.) Colakoglu, G., 1999. Tohumsuz Bitkiler Sistematigi Bacteriophyta Cyanophyta Phycophyta Mycophyta Lichenes Marmara Univ Yay No 648 Fen-Edebiyat Fak Yay No 37 Teknik Egitim Fak Doner Sermaye Isletmesi Matbaa Birimi Istanbul, Turkiye.

(20.) Ellis, M.B., 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes Commonwealth Mycol. Inst. Kew Surrey London, England.

(21.) Gelincik, A.A., S. Buyukozturk, H. Gul, G. Gungor, H. Issever, A. Cagatay, 2005. The Effect of Indoor Fungi the Symptoms of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis in Istanbul. Indoor and Built Environment, 14: 427-432.

(22.) Gilman, J.C., 1957. A Manual of Soil Fungi 2 nd Ed Iowa State Coll Press Ames USA,1-450.

(23.) Hawksworth, D.L., B.C. Sutton, G.C. Ainsworth, 1983. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 7 th Ed Commonwealth Mycol. Inst. Kew Surrey England, 1-445.

(24.) Ilhan, S., A. Asan, 2001. Soilborne Fungi in Wheat Fields of Kirka Vicinity Eskisehir-Turkey. Biologia, 56: 363-371.

(25.) Inci, R., S. Hilmioglu, 2000. Nozokomiyal Fungal Enfeksiyonlara Yaklasim. Klimik Dergisi, 13: 28-31.

(26.) Latge, J-P., 1999. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis Clinical Micr Rev., 12: 310-350.

(27.) Leenders, ACAP., A.V. Belkum, A. Luijendijk, H.A. Verbrugh, 1999. Density and Molecular Epidemiology of Aspergillus in Air and Relationship to Outbreaks of Aspergillus Infection. Journal of Clinic Microbiology, 37: 1752-1757.

(28.) Lugauskas, A., A. Krikstaponis, 2004. Filamentous Fungi Isolated in Hospitals and Some Medical Institutions in Lithuania Indoor and Built Environment, 13: 101-108.

(29.) Oliveira, M.M., H. Ribeiro, JL. Delgado, I. Abreu, 2009. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level. Int J Biometeorol, 53: 61-73.

(30.) Menezes, E.A., C.P. Trindade, M.M. Costa, CCF. Freire, M. Cavalcante, FA. Cunha, 2004. Airborne Fungi Isolated From Fortaleza City State of Creara Brazil Rev Inst Med Trop., 46: 133-137.

(31.) Nunes, Z.G., A.S. Martins, ALF. Altoe, M.M. Nishikava, M.O. Leite, PF. Aguiar, S.EL. Fracalanzza, 2005. Indoor Air Microbiological Evaluation of Offices Hospitals Industries and Shopping Centers. Mem Inst Oswoldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro, 100: 351-357.

(32.) Palmas, F., S. Cosentino, V. Meloni, ME. Fadda, 1999. Occurrence of Mites and Fungi in the Homes of Patients with Allergic Manifestations Aerobiologia, 15: 109-114.

(33.) Pitt, J.I., R.A. Samson, J.C. Frisvad, 2000. List of accepted species and synonyms in the family Trichocomaceae. [In: SAMSON RA, PITT JI (Eds.). Integration of modern taxonomic methods for Penicillium and Aspergillus classification.. Harwood Academic Publishers. Singapore].

(34.) Ponikau, J.U., D.A. Sherris, E.B. Kern, H.A. Homburger, E.F. Frigas, T.A. Gaffey, G.D. Roberts, 1999. The Diagnosis and Incidence of Allergic Fungal Sinusitis. Mayo Clin Proc., 74: 877-887.

(35.) Raper, K.B., 1965. Fennell DI. The Genus Aspergillus The Williams and Wilkins Co Baltimore USA, 1-686.

(36.) Raper, K.B., C. Thom, DI. Fennell, 1949. A Manual of the Penicillia The Williams and Wilkins Co Baltimore USA, 1-875.

(37.) Sarica, OS., A. Asan, Y. Tungan, M. Ture, 2005. Airborne Fungal Concentrations in East Patch of Edirne City Turkey in Autumn Using Two Sampling Methods Trakya Univ J Sci., 61: 97-106.

(38.) Sarica, S., A. Asan, MT. Oktun, M. Ture, 2002. Monitoring Indoor Airborne Fungi and Bacteria in the Different Areas of Trakya University Hospital Edirne Turkey. Indoor Built Environment, 11: 285-292.

(39.) Shelton, B.G., K.H. Kirkland, W.D. Flanders, G.K. Morris, 2002. Profiles of Airbone Fungi in Buildings and Outdoor Environments in the United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Apr., 68: 1743-1753.

(40.) Simmons, E.G., 1967. Typification of Alternaria, Stemphylium, Ulocladium Mycologia, 59: 67-91.

(41.) Smith, G., 1971. An Introduction to Industrial Mycology Edward Arnold Ltd London, 219-291.

(42.) Warris, A., A. Voss, P. Verweij, 2001. Hospital Sources of Aspergillus Species. New Routes of Transmission? Rev Iberoam Micol., 18: 156-162.

(43.) Womble, S.E., L.E. Burton, L. Kolb, J.R. Girman, G.E. Hadwen, M. Carpenter, J.F. McCarthy, 1994. Prevalence and Concentrations of Culturable Airbone Fungal Spores in 86. Office Buildings from the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Base Study Proceedings of Indoor Air., 93: 1-6.

(44.) Wu, P.C., Su, HJ., Ho HM. 2000. A Comparison of Sampling Media for Environmental Viable Fungi Collected in a Hospital. Environment Environmental Research Section A., 82: 253-257.

(45.) www.indexfungorum.org

(46.) Yucel, A., A.S. Kantarcioglu, 2001. Epidemiology of Hospital Acquired Nosocomial Fungal Infections. Cerrahpasa, J Med., 32: 259-269.

(47.) Zycha, H., R. Siepmann, 1969. Mucorales Eine Beschreibung Aller Gattungen und Arten Dieser Pilzgruppe Mit Einem. Beitrag Zur Gattung Mortierella Von G. Linnemann. Verlag Von J Cramer Lehre., 74-84.

(1) Gunay COLAKOGLU, (2) Iskender KARALTI

(1) Marmara University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Ziverbey, 34722. Istanbul, Turkey.

(2) Yeditepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Microbiology, 34755. Istanbul, Turkey.

Corresponding Author

Gunay COLAKOGLU, Marmara University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Ziverbey, 34722. Istanbul, Turkey.

E-mail: gtcolak@marmara.edu.tr
Table 1: Installments where Samples has been collected.

1. Microbiology Laboratory

2. Toilets

3. Waiting rooms

4. Hospital gardens

5. Libraries

Table 2: Measured humidity and temperature values of sampling areas
of Marmara University Hospital sample research (February 2005-January
2006).

 Marmara University Hospital

 1 2 3

Months T H T H T H

February 19 49 15 51 15 51
March 20 55 16 54 15 53
April 19 41 17 43 17 42
May 20 80 21 81 23 80
June 21 71 21 72 21 71
July 24 67 27 70 27 70
August 24 61 26 64 27 65
September 23 75 24 73 25 72
October 22 82 19 83 18 83
November 20 90 17 91 17 90
December 18 61 19 61 17 62
January 18 41 17 40 16 42

 Marmara University Hospital

 4 5

Months T H T H

February 9 50 15 51
March 10 55 15 54
April 12 40 16 41
May 21 79 21 80
June 21 70 22 71
July 28 69 27 70
August 29 71 27 64
September 23 77 26 77
October 15 82 20 80
November 14 92 19 93
December 8 60 18 63
January 5 40 17 41

T: Temperature ([degrees]C), H: Humudity (%)

1. Microbiology Laboratory, 2. Toilets, 3. Waiting saloons,
4. Hospital gardens, 5. Libraries

Table 3: Measured humidity and temperature values of sampling areas
of Goztepe Education and Research Hospital sample research
(February 2005-January 2006).

 Goztepe Education and Research Hospital

 1 2 3

Months T H T H T H

February 18 44 15 50 16 52
March 20 55 15 54 14 53
April 19 41 16 44 16 42
May 20 80 20 82 23 79
June 20 70 22 73 22 70
July 26 70,5 28 71 28,5 71
August 25 65 27 66 26 66
September 25 71 26 71 25 72
October 23 83 16 85 16 85
November 20 77 17 79 17 80
December 18 62 19 62 17 62
January 18 41 18 41 15 43

 Goztepe Education and Research Hospital

 4 5

Months T H T H

February 8 51 15 52
March 10 56 14 53
April 12 41 15 42
May 21 80 21 80
June 21 70 22 72
July 27 75 26 71
August 26 65 27 67
September 23 73 26 73
October 14 84 18 88
November 16 78 22 83
December 8 60 17 62
January 5 41 18 43

T: Temperature ([degrees]C) , H: Humudity (%)

1. Microbiology Laboratory, 2. Toilets, 3. Waiting saloons,
4. Hospital gardens, 5. Libraries

Table 4: Colony Numbers and Percentages of Total Microfungus
Species in Marmara University Hospital during February 2005-January
2006 period.

 Number of
Genera and species name colony %

Alternaria 33 18.9
Alternaria alternata * 31 17.7
Alternaria tenuissima 2 1.1
Aspergillus 12 6.9
Aspergillus candidus 1 0.6
Aspergillus cervinus 1 0.6
Aspergillus flavus * 1 0.6
Aspergillus nidulans 3 1.7
Aspergillus niger * 5 2.9
Aspergillus reptans * 1 0.6
Aureobasidium 20 11.4
Aureobasidium pullulans * 20 11.4
Cladosporium 75 42.9
Cladosporium cladosporioides * 64 36.6
Cladosporium herbarum * 8 4.6
Cladosporium oxysporum 3 1.7
Mycelia sterilia 8 4.6
Penicillium 22 12.6
Penicillium brevicompactum 8 4.6
Penicillium citrinum 5 2.9
Penicillium commune 3 1.7
Penicillium digitatum 2 1.1
Penicillium glabrum * 3 1.7
Penicillium notatum 1 0.6
Rhizopus 1 0.6
Rhizopus nigricans * 1 0.6
Scopulariopsis 3 1.7
Scopulariopsis brevicaulis 1 0.6
Scopulariopsis brumptii 2 1.1
Ulocladium 1 0.6
Ulocladium botrytis 1 0.6
Toplam 175 100

 Installment
 The month which where was
Genera and species name was isolated isolated

Alternaria M,A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au,S 3.4
Alternaria alternata * M,A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au,S 3,4,5
Alternaria tenuissima Jl,S 4
Aspergillus F,M,A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au 1,2,3,4,5
Aspergillus candidus A 4
Aspergillus cervinus M 4
Aspergillus flavus * F 1.4
Aspergillus nidulans M,Au 4.5
Aspergillus niger * A,Ma,Ju,Jl 2,3,4,
Aspergillus reptans * F 4
Aureobasidium M,A,Ma,Ju 2,3,4
Aureobasidium pullulans * M,A,Ma,Ju 2,3,4
Cladosporium J,F,A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au,S,O,N,D 1,2,3,4,5
Cladosporium cladosporioides * J,F, A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au,S,O,N,D 1,2,3,4,5
Cladosporium herbarum * J,F,O,N,D 3.4
Cladosporium oxysporum Ma 4
Mycelia sterilia Jl,N 4.5
Penicillium J,F,M,Au,S,O,N,D 1,2,3,4,5
Penicillium brevicompactum J,S,N,D 1,3,4
Penicillium citrinum J,F,M,Au 1,4,5
Penicillium commune J,O,N,D 4,5
Penicillium digitatum F 4
Penicillium glabrum * J,D 2,4
Penicillium notatum F 4
Rhizopus O 4
Rhizopus nigricans * O 4
Scopulariopsis M,D 4.5
Scopulariopsis brevicaulis M 4
Scopulariopsis brumptii D 4.5
Ulocladium Jl 4
Ulocladium botrytis Jl 4
Toplam

J: January, F :February, M: March, A:April, Ma: May, Ju: June,
J1: July, Au: August, S: September, O: October, N: November, D:
December

1. Microbiology Laboratory, 2. Toilets, 3. Waiting rooms, 4.
Hospital gardens, 5. Libraries

* Microfungus types specified as allergen [15].

Table 5: Colony Numbers and Percentages of Total Microfungus Species
in Goztepe Education and Research Hospital during February 2005-
January 2006 period.

Genera and species name Number of colony %

Alternaria 44 24.2
Alternaria alternata * 36 19.8
Alternaria tenuissima 8 4.4
Aspergillus 13 7.1
Aspergillus candidus 2 1.1
Aspergillus flavipes 1 0.5
Aspergillus fumigatus * 1 0.5
Aspergillus nidulans 3 1.6
Aspergillus niger * 3 1.6
Aspergillus ochraceus 1 0.5
Aspergillus restrictus 1 0.5
Aspergillus ustus 1 0.5
Aureobasidium 17 9.3
Aureobasidium pullulans * 17 9.3
Cladosporium 59 32.4
Cladosporium
 cladosporioides * 43 23.6
Cladosporium herbarum * 11 6.0
Cladosporium sphaerospermum * 5 2.7
Mycelia sterilia 5 2.7
Penicillium 29 15.9
Penicillium brevicompactum 4 2.2
Penicillium chrysogenum * 1 0.5
Penicillium citrinum 1 0.5
Penicillium commune 3 1.6
Penicillium glabrum * 20 11.0
Paecilomyces 1 0.5
Paecilomyces sp. 1 0.5
Rhizopus 1 0.5
Rhizopus nigricans * 1 0.5
Scopulariopsis 7 3.8
Scopulariopsis brevicaulis 3 1.6
Scopulariopsis brumptii 4 2.2
Ulocladium 6 3.3
Ulocladium botrytis 6 3.3
Toplam 182 100

 Installment
 The month which where was
Genera and species name was isolated isolated

Alternaria F,M,A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au,S 1,2,3,4,5
Alternaria alternata * F,M,A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au,S 1,2,3,4,5
Alternaria tenuissima Ju,Jl, Au,S 3,4
Aspergillus J,F,M,A,Ma,Ju,S,N,D 1,2,3,4,5
Aspergillus candidus J,F,N,D 1,2,4
Aspergillus flavipes J,F 4,5
Aspergillus fumigatus * J,F 1,3
Aspergillus nidulans F,M,A 2,3,4
Aspergillus niger * J,F,M,Ma 4,5
Aspergillus ochraceus S 4
Aspergillus restrictus F,D 4
Aspergillus ustus Ju 4
Aureobasidium M,A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au 1,2,3,4
Aureobasidium pullulans * M,A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au 1,2,3,4
Cladosporium J,F,M,A,Ma,Ju,Jl,Au,S,O,N,D 1,2,3,4,5
Cladosporium
 cladosporioides * F,M,A,MA,Ju,Jl,Au,S,O,N,D 1,2,3,4,5
Cladosporium herbarum * J,A,Ma,Jl,Au,S 3,4,5
Cladosporium sphaerospermum * Ma,Ju 4
Mycelia sterilia Ma,Jl,O 4
Penicillium J,F,M,A,Ma,Ju,Au,S,O,N,D 1,2,3,4,5
Penicillium brevicompactum J,F,N,D 1,3,4
Penicillium chrysogenum * F,Ma 4,5
Penicillium citrinum J,S 4
Penicillium commune F,O,N,D 2,3,4
Penicillium glabrum * J,F,M,Ma,Ju,Au,N,D 1,2,3,4,5
Paecilomyces S 4
Paecilomyces sp. S 4
Rhizopus J,A,N 3,4
Rhizopus nigricans * J,A,N 3,4
Scopulariopsis M,A,Jl,Au,S 2,3,4,5
Scopulariopsis brevicaulis M,A,Au 2,3,4
Scopulariopsis brumptii Jl,S 4,5
Ulocladium Ju,Jl,Au 3,4
Ulocladium botrytis Ju,Jl,Au 3,4
Toplam

J: January, F: February, M: March, A: April, Ma: May, Ju: June, Jl:
July, Au: August, S: September, O: October, N: November, D: December

1. Microbiology Laboratory, 2. Toilets, 3. Waiting rooms, 4.
Hospital gardens, 5. Libraries

* Microfungus types specified as allergen [15].

Fig. 1: Monthly Distribution of Colony Numbers of Total Microfungus
Species Isolated in Marmara University Hospital (February 2005-January
2006).

Cladosporium 75
Alternaria 33
Penicillium 22
Aureobasidium 20
Aspergillus 12

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 2: Colony Counts of Total Microfungus Species in Marmara
University Hospital (February 2005-January 2006).

Number of colony

FEBRUARY 4
MARCH 9
APRIL 11
MAY 39
JUNE 24
JULY 13
AUGUST 11
SEPTEMBER 13
OCTOBER 21
NOVEMBER 17
DECEMBER 8
JANUARY 5

Note: Table made from line graph.

Fig. 3: Monthly Distribution of Colony Numbers of Total Microfungus
Species Isolated in Goztepe Education and Research Hospital (February
2005-January 2006).

Number of colony

FEBRUARY 7
MARCH 14
APRIL 20
MAY 44
JUNE 20
JULY 10
AUGUST 13
SEPTEMBER 10
OCTOBER 17
NOVEMBER 15
DECEMBER 7
JANUARY 5

Note: Table made from line graph.

Fig. 4. Colony Counts of Total Microfungus Species in Goztepe Education
and Research Hospital (February 2005-January 2006).

Cladosporium 59
Alternaria 44
Penicillium 29
Aureobasidium 17
Aspergillus 13

Note: Table made from bar graph.
COPYRIGHT 2011 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Colakoglu, Gunay; Karalti, Iskender
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7TURK
Date:Nov 1, 2011
Words:4434
Previous Article:Energy input-output analysis for maize production systems in Shooshtar, Iran.
Next Article:Comparison silicon resources in the two cultivars of rice (Oryza Sativa L.).
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters