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The damages of Ksiaz Castle architecture in relation to routes of recognized tectonic faults and indications of recent tectonic activity of Swiebodzice Depression Orogen--Central Sudetes, SW Poland.

1. INTRODUCTION

The presented study is a part of research program conducted at the Geodynamic Laboratory of Space Research Centre (GL) in Ksiaz in Lower Silesia, Poland. In the early 70s of the last century prof. Roman Teisseyre founded in underground tunnels beneath the Ksiaz Castle a Geophysical Observatory belonging to the Institute of Geophysics of Polish Academy of Sciences. Initial work included seismic research, which since the mid-70s was extended to the tidal study conducted by prof. Tadeusz Chojnicki using horizontal quartz pendulums. In the early years of the XXI century in Ksiaz was founded GL. In the underground appeared new measuring instruments: water-tube tiltmeters, relative and absolute gravimeters and interference extensometer. The research program has been enriched with a wide range of nontidal phenomena research including recent tectonic activity of the Sudetes.

The presence of strong non-tidal signals in the form of tiltings of foundation as well as vertical motions have been observed in the GL for many years. Since the 70s of the 20th century, i.e. from the beginning of activation of quartz horizontal pendulums, irregular instability of their equilibrium which indicate effects of tiltings of foundation were registered. In few days pendulums rapidly changed their azimuths of measuring positions (Chojnicki and Blum, 1996). Installation of long water-tube tiltmeters (WT) in 2002 (Kaczorowski, 2006) confirmed existence of this phenomenon. WT repeatedly recorded events of strong effects of variations in water level, which were equivalent to the non-tidal effects of the range 100 m.a.s. since the moment of their installation (Kaczorowski, 2008, 2009b).

Observations of phenomena obtained using different types of instruments in the form of irregular events lasting from a few to several dozen days (with similar waveforms) confirm geodynamical (not instrumental) genesis of the received signals (Kaczorowski 2009a, 2009b; Kaczorowski and Wojewoda, 2011). The repeatability of the phenomenon, firmness of bedrock (very hard, nonabsorbent gneiss conglomerates) and overlap between distribution of castle damages and known fault lines exclude the effect of gravity causing that the rock mass splits. However, the morphology of the area indicates that the small part of the signal with the systematic nature can be caused by gravitational splitting of the rock mass.

The vertical movements and the slope of the ground observed by tiltmeters are a secondary effect of tectonic deformation resulting from the transformation of primary horizontal movements on inclined dislocation surfaces. For this reason, we expect that the size of the displacement caused by horizontal movements is at least an order of magnitude greater than those vertical displacements. Therefore, the impact of horizontal displacements on the architectural elements of the castle should be greater than of the vertical displacements.

The results of the impact of recent tectonic activity can be seen both in geological structure of the rock mass in the area of research (distinct dislocation lines) as well as in deformations of the Pelcznica River meander valley (Teisseyre and Sawicki, 1955; Teisseyre, 1969; Walczak-Augustyniak, 1988; Kaczorowski and Wojewoda, 2011) (Fig. 1).

2. GEOLOGICAL AND TECTONIC STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH AREA

The Ksiaz Castle is located in the central part of the Sudetes in the Walbrzych Foothills area (SW Poland). From the geological viewpoint the Ksiaz orogen is located almost in the central part of the geological structural unit of Swiebodzice Depression (Grocholski, 1969). The Depression is a mountain sedimentary basin of variscan age with the NW-SE direction (Oberc, 1978; Nemec et al., 1980; Ziegler, 1990; Zelazniewicz and Aleksandrowski, 2008). Sediments within the Swiebodzice Depression are of the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous age (Oberc, 1972). Highlighted are: Ksiaz Formation, Chwaliszow Formation, Pelcznica Formation, Pogorzala Formation as well as volcanic and metamorphic rocks of Kaczawa Complex.

Research area (surroundings of the Ksiaz Castle) is a border area between Kulm Chwaliszow Formation and Kulm Ksiaz Formation. In this area we deal only with characteristic petrographic varieties of these two formations: conglomerates, sandstones, gneiss boulders, migmatites and light gray granites (Teisseyre, 1951; Teisseyre and Gawronski, 1965; Porqbski, 1981; Marcinowski et al., 2004).

In terms of tectonic conditions the structure of Ksiaz area as well as the whole Swiebodzice Depression is much more complicated. The unit is cut by numerous zones of dislocations (Teisseyre and Sawicki, 1955; Haydukiewicz et al., 1962; Teisseyre and Gawronski, 1965; Teisseyre, 1969; Walczak-Augustyniak, 1988; Stepancikova et al., 2010). Some of them are located within the measure basis of the GL instruments which allows for the registration of the effects of recent tectonic movements in the form of tiltings of foundation and vertical motions.

The effect of modern deformation of the Pelcznica River meander valley (surroundings of the Ksiaz Castle) along active faults is visible in the form of shifted geological formations (Fig. 1). The regular river meander has been partially stretched in the SWNE direction which is consistent with routes of documented faults (Teisseyre and Sawicki, 1955; Teisseyre and Gawronski, 1965; Teisseyre, 1969; Walczak-Augustyniak, 1988; Kaczorowski and Wojewoda, 2011).

3. ENVIRONMENT OF GEODYNAMIC LABORATORY

The system of underground tunnels used by GL is located at a depth of 50 meters directly under the courtyard of the Ksiaz Castle. They are the residue of the Nazi military facility built in the last years of World War II (Dudziak, 1996; Aniszewski and Zagorski, 2006). Mine workings are in approximate outline of regular grid with tunnels of total length of about 950 meters. A significant number of corridors are unprotected (without roof support systems), which allows watching the course of geological structures faults - in the area of laboratory (Fig. 2). The galleries used by the laboratory are horizontal. Their temperature and humidity conditions are stable and facilitating operation of instruments used in the study of tectonic phenomena, i.e. two water-tube tiltmeters (Kaczorowski, 2006), two pairs of horizontal quartz pendulums and vacuum interference extensometer (made by M. Kaczorowski).

4. DETERMINATION OF FAULTS PARAMETERS IN GL CORRIDORS

The location of Geodynamic L aboratory in underground tunnels provides unique opportunity to observe and study the orogen from the inside. Locations and routes of tectonic faults on the surface of Earth in surroundings of castle buildings are generally known (Teisseyre and Sawicki, 1955; Teisseyre and Gawronski, 1965; Teisseyre, 1969; Walczak-Augustyniak, 1988; Kaczorowski and Wojewoda, 2011). Nevertheless these data are insufficient for a comprehensive description of the geological and tectonic situation (Fig. 1). The inspection of GL corridors executed last year revealed the presence of numerous surfaces of discontinuity. Some of them run directly under the measuring instruments which allows for registration of tectonic activity on these faults in real time (tiltings of foundation and vertical motions).

In order to determine the directions of routes and dips angles of all undergrounds lines of dislocation visible in the GL geodetic measurements were executed. In the first phase of works the horizontal measurement network points were stabilized in the corridors. Two points located on the square courtyard of the castle were selected to symlink the points of horizontal measurement network which were measured by Trimble satellite receiver. After adjustment of points of horizontal measurement network were started measurements of each fault. In result a database of coordinates of measuring points were obtained which indicate the routes of 3 2 measured faults as well as are symlink with the geodetic network. The minimum number of measured points of a single fault which allows to determine route and dip is 3. Number of measured points for each of faults was in the range 3 to 9 depending on measurement conditions. Coordinates of points on faults as well as points of geodetic horizontal network were recorded in the (Polish) National Geodetic Coordinate System "2000" (PL-2000). Coordinates of measurement reference points were determined with millimeter accuracy, while points reflecting outline of fault surface were measured with few centimeters accuracy.

Tectonic structures such as faults are higher-level surfaces, such as Bezier surface (Muhammad et al., 2009). The method applied for calculating route and dip of each fault bases on the assumption that in the cross-sectional area of corridors (extension of several meters) the fault surface may be approximated with good accuracy by plain interpolation. Thus, the problem of determination of routes and dips of faults demands determination of the equation of plain which fulfills the condition of minimum sum of squares distances between the measured points on the fault and the plain.

Calculation of plain is performed in Cartesian coordinates system (0, X, Y, Z) with the starting point connected to measuring instrument (total station) which position is known in geodetic reference system. In the calculations the equation of a normal plain was used:

0 = X cos ([alpha]) + Y cos ([beta]) + Zcos ([gamma])-p (1).

By mathematical transformation (see Appendix was obtained a solution of the problem in the form of equation of a line corresponding to the route of the fault, given by:

Y =- X [W.sub.1]/[W.sub.2] + P ([W.sub.3] - W)/[W.sub.2] (2).

while the dip angle of the fault [gamma] was determined or the basis of the equation:

[gamma] = arccos ([W.sub.3]/W) (3).

After determination of routes and dips the estimated surfaces of faults were extrapolated outside the space of GL undergrounds. It allowed to draw lines of intersections of calculated dislocation plains with the numerical model of terrain surface Intersections of extrapolated plains of faults with terrain surface are treated as geometric place of routes of faults on the surface of the Earth. Analysis ol distribution of dislocation surfaces shows that the faults identified in the rock mass can be divided into two classes of faults parallel to each other, located in azimuths W-E and SW-NE (Fig. 3).

Routes of first class faults (SW-NE) comply with the directions of the routes of faults on geological maps (Teisseyre and Gawronski, 1965). Among the faults marked on the geological maps, the most prominent is the southern main fault (Teisseyre and Gawronski, 1965), whose activity has the strongest influence on the morphology of the terrain (Fig. 1 and Fig. 3). This fault is a major element of geological and tectonic model of the Ksiaz orogen. Second class faults with azimuths course towards W-E and faults of the first class of azimuths course towards SW-NE are defined as the secondary.

5. AREAS OF DAMAGE TO THE ARCHITECTURAL OBJECTS AND ROUTES OF SECONDARY FAULTS

Documentation of routes of the dislocation surfaces and registrations of indicators of recent tectonic activity determined by GL instruments gave basis for further research on the influence of tectonic deformations on the ground surface and the architectural objects (Blachowski, 2004; Kostak, 2006; Gazetas et al., 2008; Justo et al., 2008; Bray, 2012).

The southern main fault of SW-NE direction has dominating impact on the local morphology of the terrain. It passes the buildings of the castle in the distance of several dozen meters (Fig. 1, Fig. 3 and Fig. 5). Extensions of certain identified in the underground secondary faults of first and second class intersect parts of castle buildings, including the castle walls (Fig. 3). To assess the effects of tectonic interactions, in the first place the secondary faults will be taken into account, whose routes indicate that these faults may intersect the areas of identified damages to architectural objects of Ksiaz. These include faults of both the first and the second class (Fig. 5).

In frame of the works there were noticed some suspected cracks in construction of the wall of St. George Tower and in the wall of Chestnut Terrace. These damages are repeated in sequences of cracks of window stone elements and in the window sills above the Chestnut Terrace and in the western wall of terraces (fragments repeatedly repaired). Cracks are also visible from the southern side of the castle complex in the stone wall and stairs leading to the terraces--concreted cracks that quickly open again (Fig. 4).

Correlation of azimuths of lines of damages and lines of faults is distinctly visible especially in the southern part of the wall (Fig. 5) where the line of identified cracks coincides with the fault azimuth direction--the direction W-E and break lines and damage lines are in close proximity. It may be noted that not all identified zones of damage courses coincide with the directions of documented discontinuity zones.

6. CONCLUSIONS

Location of GL nearby the Ksiaz Castle complex in the area of the Sudetes showing recent tectonic activity creates a privileged situation to study the influence of tectonic activity on the architectural complex of the Ksiaz Castle. The area of carried works contains a description of geological and geodetic reconnaissance enabling the identification and location of the dislocation routes in the vicinity of the Ksiaz Castle and underground corridors of laboratory as well as preparation of documentation of the damages to the architectural elements of the castle complex.

Work on the faults determination has revealed the presence of several large and dozens of smaller zones of tectonic fractures (faults) of rock mass isible in the corridor, in which has been installed the water-tube tiltmeter. This observation confirms the geodynamic nature of signals recorded by WT generated by vertical movements and the slopes of rock blocks during tectonic events.

Identified faults have been divided into two classes depending on the direction of route. A significant number of faults determined in the underground have running lines similar to the directions of faults plotted on the basis of archival geological maps of Ksiaz Castle surroundings, including the southern main fault.

Extrapolation of faults which are visible inside the orogen (corridors of laboratory) revealed that several faults run directly under the architectural objects of the castle. Designated lines of damages visible in Ksiaz architecture in conjunction with collected information about azimuths of faults allowed to conclude with high probability that observed sequences of damages were produced by effects of recent tectonic activity. Nevertheless, it is necessary to perform empirical verification of the adopted thesis.

For this purpose it is planned further development of measurement infrastructure of GL in Ksiaz through the purchase of new instruments and construction of field geodetic network. Installing on faults the TM-71 crack gauges will allow recording the currently not observed horizontal component of displacements. In further studies of tectonic phenomena will be also used satellite measurement techniques--founded in Ksiaz permanent GNSS stations KSI1 and KSI2 on opposite walls of the southern main fault. The stations KSI1 and KSI2 allow to extend the tectonic phenomena study outside the laboratory, both in direct laboratory surroundings and in relation to regional context.

Development and interpretation of the results of observations will be used for the construction of a research model, applications of which will be used in the description and prediction of the influence of recent--endogenous crustal motions of tectonic origin on land surface and architectural objects.

DOI: 10.13168/AGG.2014.0011

Article info

Article history:

Received 27 January 2014

Accepted 17 June 2014

Available online 1 July 2014

APPENDIX

DETERMINATION OF FAULTS PARAMETERS--ROUTE AND ANGLE OF DIP

Calculation of plain is performed in Cartesian coordinates system (0, X, Y, Z) with the starting point

connected to measuring instrument (total station) which position is known in geodetic reference system. In the calculations the equation of a normal plain was used (Fig. 1):

0 = X cos ([alpha]) +Y cos ([beta]) + Z cos ([gamma])-p (1).

In equation (1) {cos ([alpha]),cos ([beta]), cos ([gamma])} aredirection cosines of vector [??] normal to the plain the length of which is p (distance between plain and the beginning of Cartesian system) (Fig. 1). Distance of the point ([x.sub.i], [y.sub.i], [z.sub.i]) from the plain is given by the equation:

[[delta].sub.i]([x.sub.i], [y.sub.i],[z.sub.i]) = [x.sub.i]cos ([alpha]) + [y.sub.i] cos ([beta]) + [z.sub.i]cos ([gamma])-p (2).

The mathematical task consists in determination of the directional cosines of plain {cos ([alpha]) ,cos ([beta]) ,cos ([gamma])} which fulfill the condition of minimum sum S for N measuring points:

S = [N.summation over (i=1)] [[delta].sup.2.sub.i] ([x.sub.i], [y.sub.i], [z.sub.i]) (3).

We substitute: A = cos ([alpha]), B = cos ([beta]), C = cos ([gamma]) into the equation (3) and assume that the distance between the plain and origin of Cartesian system is p=1. The distance of measuring point ([x.sub.i], [y.sub.i], [z.sub.i]) from the plain is equal: [[delta].sub.i]([x.sub.i], [y.sub.i], [z.sub.i]) = [x.sub.i]A + [y.sub.i]B + [z.sub.i]C -1. Therefore function of the sum of squared distances is equal:

S(A,B,C) = [N.summation over (i=1)] [[delta].sup.2.sub.i]([x.sub.i], [y.sub.i], [z.sub.i]) = [N.summation over (i=1)] [([x.sub.i]A + [y.sub.i] + B + [z.sub.i] C-1).sup.2].

The criterion [partial derivative]S/[partial derivative]A = [partial derivative]S/[partial derivative]B = [partial derivative]S/[partial derivative]C = 0 for the minimum of the function S (A,B,C) leads to a system of linear

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

Hence:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

We calculate the determinants of the matrices W, [W.sub.1], [W.sub.2] ,[W.sub.3]:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

By using Cramer's formulas we obtain roots A = [W.sub.1]/W, B = [W.sub.2]/W, C = [W.sub.3]/W of equations (4). Hence, the direction cosines of the searched plain are following:

cos([alpha]) = [W.sub.1]/W, cos([beta]) = [W.sub.2]/W, cos([gamma]) = [W.sub.3]/W

Determination of the direction cosines of plain allows to calculate distance pt between origin of Cartesian system and i point on the basis of equation (2) [p.sub.i] = [x.sub.i] [W.sub.1]/W + [y.sub.i] [W.sub.2]/W + [z.sup.i] [W.sub.3]/W.

We assume that determined plain which lies in the plain of the fault is in the distance equal to arithmetic mean of distances {[P.sub.i]} of determined point for N on the fault P = 1/N [N.summation over (i=1)][p.sub.i].

After substitution of P and directional cosines in equation (1) the searched plain corresponding to the plain of the fault is in the form:

P = X [W.sub.1]/W + Y [W.sub.2]/W + [W.sub.3]/W (5).

We can find the direction of fault trend by intersecting this plain with the horizontal plain Z = P . Hence, straight line equation corresponding to the route of the fault is given by the equation:

Y =- X [W.sub.1]/[W.sub.2] + P ([W.sub.3] - W)/[W.sub.2] (6),

and the dip angle of the fault is given by the equation:

[gamma] = arccos ([W.sub.3]/W) (Fig. 1) (7).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This article is co-financed by the European Union as part of the European Social Fund.

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Damian KASZA (1) *, Marek KACZOROWSKI (2), Ryszard ZDUNEK (2) and Roman WRONOWSKI (2)

(1) Wroclaw University of Technology, Institute of Mining Engineering, 15 Na Grobli St., 50-421 Wroclaw, Poland

(2) Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 18A Bartycka St., 00-716 Warsaw, Poland

* Corresponding author's e-mail: damian.kasza@pwr.edu.pl
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Title Annotation:Original paper
Author:Kasza, Damian; Kaczorowski, Marek; Zdunek, Ryszard; Wronowski, Roman
Publication:Acta Geodynamica et Geromaterialia
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXPO
Date:Jul 1, 2014
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