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The current landscape of the school librarianship curricula in USA.

Introduction

With the availability of online resources and the advances in information and communication technology, the professional environment in library science has been greatly changed in the past two decades in the United States, a change that has directly and indirectly impacted School Library Media (SLM) and Library and Information Science (LIS) educational programming. To respond to the change, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) have revised the guidelines and standards for School Library Media (SLM) specialists (Garry, 2010; Stephens & Franklin, 2009). LIS programs have implemented major curriculum changes (Robbins, 1998), including the launch of iSchools to support an interdisciplinary approach to the field (Wiggins & Sawyer, 2010). These changes may impact most school library media programs since most American Library Association (ALA)-accredited LIS programs also offer school librarianship programs. In view of these changes a systematic examination of nationwide curricula components is needed.

While a few empirical studies of LIS curriculum in North America have been conducted (Beheshti, 1999; Markey, 2004), a review of the literature reveals that no attempt has been made to systematically analyze curriculum components of school library programs. Such a systematic analysis is needed, however, given the change in school library programs. This study examines the curriculum components of school library programs existing within ALA-accredited programs, AASL-recognized programs, and programs that have neither ALA accreditation nor AASL recognition.

Review of the Literature

In one of the first attempts to map LIS curricula into subjects, Beheshti (1999) analyzed the titles and descriptions of courses offered by the 44 ALA- accredited Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) programs and identified 57 major concepts with coverage intensity. The methodology was based on a hierarchical cluster analysis to create clusters of topics. According to this initial analysis, the four most intensive concepts were technology, management, organization of information, and searching and database development. Beheshti concluded that while the traditional LIS concepts were covered, newer concepts, such as database development, mathematical methods, non-print media, human-computer interface, and artificial intelligence, have also been incorporated into LIS curricula. Markey (2004) manually analyzed the LIS curricula of 56 institutional members of the Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE). Her study showed that a typical set of core requirements is comprised of five courses: Organization, Reference, Foundations, and Management, and one course in either Research or Information Technology. She also identified a new trend, the focus on a user-centered approach to information delivery. Hall (2009) manually examined the core curricula of 55 ALA-accredited LIS programs, focusing on the required core courses, and found six main areas of emphasis: Foundations, Organization, Management, Reference, Research Methods, and Information Technology. He concluded that the core curricula have evolved "to meet the changing complexity of the information environment," but some areas such as information literacy and information ethics are not growing quickly enough (p. 66).

In examining the implementation of professional standards into LIS curriculum, various studies have reported contradictory findings. Comparing the LIS core curricula to the subjects listed in the 1976 International Federation of Library (IFLA) standards, Marco's study (1994) reported that no LIS program is required to cover all the basic subjects described in the standards. However, Irwin (2002), using the same IFLA standards, reported a quite different result, finding that the IFLA subjects are covered by LIS core curricula. McKinney's article (2006) examined 56 ALA-accredited LIS curricula against eight ALA core competencies and reported that 95% of the programs have courses that address all the core competencies, but only 15% satisfy all the proposed competencies through required courses.

Research Questions

In the U.S., each of the school librarianship programs is accredited by the ALA, recognized by the AASL, or is neither ALA-accredited nor AASL-recognized. Thus, for this study, the authors categorized the educational programs of School Librarianship into the following four venues: (1) recognized by the AASL only, (2) accredited by the ALA only, (3) both recognized by the AASL and accredited by the ALA, (4) neither AASL-recognized nor ALA-accredited. Using these categories, the authors compared master's degree school library curricula. In addition to program types, the authors also compared different course offerings of the school library curricula. The study investigated the existing similarities and discrepancies existing across the different groups of curricula, based on program and course types. The following research questions guided this study:

RQ1. How similar/dissimilar are program features across different school library programs?

RQ2. How similar/dissimilar is the coverage of library science courses within school library curricula within the same group and across different groups of curricula?

RQ3. How similar/dissimilar is the coverage of non-library science courses within school library curricula within the same group and across different groups of curricula?

Methodology

Data Collection

The authors manually collected a total of 1,150 course titles and descriptions from 84 school librarian master's degree programs from their respective academic websites during the period of January through March 2013. The AASL and ALA websites were reviewed to identify the programs and to record the course titles and descriptions: http://www.ala.org/ aasl/aasleducation/schoollibrary/AASL-Historical (AASL-Recognized Programs Historical List, 1989-present) and http:// www.ala.org/accreditedprograms/(ALA Accredited Programs). The 84 programs were mutually exclusively divided into four different groups: 34 programs that are AASL recognized but not ALA accredited (Group 1: AASL Only); 37 programs that are ALA accredited but not AASL recognized (Group 2: ALA Only); 7 programs that are both AASL recognized and ALA-accredited (Group 3: Both); and 6 programs that are neither AASL recognized nor ALA accredited (Group 4: Neither). Note that this study encompassed only master's degree programs so that non-master's degree or non-degree programs, such as bachelor, certification, or endorsement, were excluded from the study. Overall, most school library programs offer both master's degree as well as non-degree programs, but only master's degree programs were included for this study. However, there are only a small number of institutions offering only non-degree school library programs that are not applicable to this study (e.g., University of Delaware and Missouri State University that offer school library certification programs only).

The lists of included programs examined for Groups 1, 2, and 3 are exhaustive, but the program list examined for Group 4 is not; in fact, a comprehensive list of programs for Group 4 does not seem to exist. Thus, to identify the programs for Group 4, the authors relied on the AASL-Recognized Program Historical List webpage above, which lists master's degree programs that were AASL-recognized in the past but do not presently belong to any other group. In addition, for purposes of comparison, the authors added to Group 4 the school library program at Eastern Kentucky University, which has never been AASL-recognized.

Categorization by Course Types

Each course in the school library programs is classified into one of two groups: library science courses and non-library science courses. Non-library science courses vary program by program depending on the nature of the particular college and department offering the program. That is, non-library science courses come from various disciplines, such as education, communication, etc. No matter whether it is a library science or non-library science course, a course is recorded as one of the three different cases: (1) required, (2) required elective, (3) elective.

Manual and Automatic Classification of the School Librarianship Courses

The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) has published an LIS research areas classification scheme (available at: http://www. alise.org/classification-scheme) covering all LIS areas, including school libraries. Consisting of 10 major classes and 104 subjects, the classification scheme appears to be the only comprehensive map of the LIS field from the LIS community. For that reason, the classification scheme has been adopted as a map to classify all of the school librarianship courses in this study.

The authors were trained with an established coding protocol, by coding, comparing and discussing a random sample set consisting of about 10% of the collected course titles. After the training process, the authors manually classified all the library science courses (excluding non-library science courses) into the classification map on the basis of the titles and descriptions of the courses. A general coding rule is that only one out of the 104 subjects is assigned to each course, which is broad enough to cover all major topics of the target course. The single subject-based classification has the case of exception that two or three subjects can be assigned if the same number of subjects is explicitly specified with equal weight. Another study parameter was that if a course covered a specific topic in school library, then the authors assigned the topic to the course. Using Cohen's kappa for assessing inter-rater agreement for nominal level variables (Cohen, 1960), the authors achieved an inter-coder reliability score of 0.833, indicating more than substantial agreement between the two coders (Carletta, 1996).

As an extended model of the classic Salton's vector space model (Salton, Wong, & Yang, 1975), Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), proposed by Deerwester, Dumais, Furnas, Landauer, and Harshman (1990) was employed. This is a theoretical model for representing the contextual meaning of words by statistical computations applied for information clustering (Xu, Liu, & Gong, 2003) and information visualization (Landauer, Laham, & Derr, 2004). A distinctive feature of the LSA model is to identify latent patterns existing in the complex relationships between words and the various contexts, such as the documents in which they are found. LSA begins with the creation of a co-occurrence matrix M, where the columns represent different contexts and the rows represent different words. An entry (i, j) in the matrix M corresponds to the frequency of the word i appearing in the context j. The matrix is then analyzed by applying singular value decomposition (SVD) to derive the associated hidden semantic structures from the matrix.

Non-library science courses in the dataset are derived from various fields, such as education and communication. Refer to Appendix A for the list of the unique non-library science course titles. No single scheme was used as a common platform for classifying the non-library science courses. For that reason, manual classification of non-library science courses was not preferable. Instead, the authors attempted to cluster and visualize a collection of the non-library science courses. Due to the popularity and the unique latent feature, the authors intended to use LSA for automatically clustering and visualizing non-library science courses onto a Euclidean space. In implementation, a co-occurrence matrix for non-library science courses was created, wherein a column corresponds to each non-library science course and a row refers to a unique word from the titles and descriptions.

Results

The results of the analysis that follow are described according to the research questions.

RQ1. How similar/different are program features across different school library programs?

To answer RQ1, each of the four school librarianship program groups has been analyzed and compared for the following four distinct features: (a) names of academic units offering the programs, (b) levels of academic units offering the programs, (c) degree names, and (d) credit hours per program.

Names of Academic Units

The academic unit shall be defined as the smallest unit in which school library master's degree programs are offered. Figure 1 demonstrates a bar chart summarizing the percentage of academic units with various names. In compiling the names, words referring to unit levels, such as school, department, college, etc., were excluded.

Of all the 84 programs (i.e., referring to the TOTAL series in Figure 1), nineteen units (22.6%) are named Library and Information Science or Sciences (LIS). The same number of units has names beginning with "Education" or "Educational." Fourteen entities (14.3%) have unique names bearing the words "Graduate," "Special," "Teacher," etc. Examples include [School of] Graduate and Continuing Studies, [Department of] Special Educational Services and Instruction, and [Department of] Teaching, Learning, and Technology.

Within the group of AASL Only, names beginning with "Education" or "Educational" occur at a rate of more than 50 percent. However, in the group of ALA Only, LIS is the most commonly occurring term. Meanwhile, in the Both group (i.e., both in AASL and ALA), LIS and LISt are equally cited as the most frequently used terms. In the Neither group, unlike the other groups, the most frequently cited term occurring is Others, meaning that a single dominant name does not exist for the programs in the group.

Levels of Academic Units

Figure 2 summarizes the levels of the academic units for the school library programs. School and department are the two most popular unit levels in the groups of AAsL Only, ALA Only, and Both. Department is the most popular in the AASL Only group, but School is the most popular in the ALA Only group. Unlike the other groups, department and college are the two most popular in Neither. An interesting fact is that no School occurs in the Neither group. Although it is less prevalent, the programs in Neither are also offered under program, division, or university.

Professional Degrees

As shown in Figure 3, overall, the frequency of degrees awarded are: MS > MLIS > M.Ed > MA = MLS. The professional degree names vary considerably across different groups: M.Ed is the most frequently offered degree in AASL Only, MLIS is the most frequently offered in ALA Only, MLS is in Both, and both M.Ed and MA are equally the most popular in Neither.

Credit Hours per Program

Figure 4 plots the credit-hour requirements for program completion for 84 programs. The most popular range of credit hours per program is between 35 and 39 credit hours across all the groups. A total of at least 60 credit hours occur only in the group of ALA Only, due to the fact that the programs are quarter-based, not semester-based. The lowest number of credit hours is 30, and the highest number of credit hours is 48 excluding quarter programs or 63 including quarter programs. Also, note that the programs from the ALA Only group require the largest number of credit hours (i.e., 45 <= X <= 49) and those from both the AASL Only and Neither groups require the smallest number of credit hours (i.e., 30 <= X <= 34).

RQ2. How similar/dissimilar is the coverage of library science courses within school library curricula within the same group and across different groups of curricula?

To answer the question, the authors manually classified the courses using the ALISE classification scheme, a two-level hierarchical structure of scheme consisting of 10 major classes and 104 sub-classes (i.e., subjects). The 10 major classes are used and shown as X-axis labels in Figure 5 and 6. The manual classification result is presented in two different formats: according to (a) course type (i.e., required, required elective, and elective) and (b) program type (i.e., AASL Only, ALA Only, etc.).

The authors have collected a total of 833 different library science courses offered from the 84 school library programs. Only traditional courses are included in the library science courses, excluding nontraditional such as practicum, internship, field experience, capstone courses, etc. Out of 833, 64 courses are classified with more than one subject (i.e., sub-class). Consequently, we have a total of 900 pairs of course types and categories. Table 1 shows the distribution of the course pairs by course type. A required elective connotes the need for an elective course as part of the required core curriculum. As shown in the table, pairs of required courses take the largest portion (i.e., 85%), followed by pairs of elective courses (11.1%). The last row of the table shows the average frequency per program.

Figure 5 lists the result of the manual classification according to three course types, required, required elective, and elective. The 'Service to User Populations' class turns out the most frequently used and the 'Informatics' class is the least frequently used across the three course types. In fact, there is not any single course assigned to the "Informatics" class. In the required courses, the "School Libraries" class is the second most popular class, and the remaining seven classes are of relatively similar popularity. In both the required elective and the elective courses, the second most popular class is "Information Systems and Retrieval."

Table 2 shows the resulting distribution of the course pairs by program type. Directly comparing the absolute frequencies among program types is meaningless because a different number of courses were collected from different program types. Instead, the last row of the table indicates the order of the number of library science courses on average for different program types: ALA Only > Both > AASL Only > Neither.

Figure 6 plots the result of the coverage of library science courses by four program types, AASL Only, ALA Only, Both, and Neither. The most commonly frequent class across the program types is the "Services to User Populations" although the class is the second most popular among AASL Only programs. Nevertheless, the bar chart also illustrates the noticeable characteristics of each program type; in AASL Only, the most frequent class is "School Libraries"; in Both and Neither, the relatively frequent classes are the "Information Systems and Retrieval" and the "Management and Administration" classes, respectively.

RQ3. How similar/dissimilar is the coverage of non-library science courses within school library curricula within the same group and across different groups of curricula?

To answer the research question, a total of 165 non-library science courses from the school library programs were manually collected. Non-traditional courses, such as seminar, practicum, projects, etc. were not included to the dataset. The authors divided the collected non-library science courses into different program types: 106 (64.2%) in AASL Only, 36 (21.8%) in ALA Only, 2 (1.2%) in Both, 21 (12.7%) in Neither. To visually examine the coverage of non-library science courses across program types, we plotted non-library science courses on a two-dimensional Euclidean space based on the LSA method, which is shown in Figure 7. As shown in the figure, the coverage of the non-library science courses from the AASL Only program is the largest and broad enough to encompass almost all areas covered by the courses in the other program types. An interesting finding is the rather distinctive coverage between ALA Only and Neither. The ALA Only courses cover the flattened area on the top, whereas the Neither courses tend to congregate at the central area on the top left.

Figure 8 plots some key terms from the titles and descriptions of the non-library science courses at the same Euclidian space that the courses were plotted in Figure 7. Comparing the terms and courses reveals that all program types commonly cover the concepts of leadership, web, literacy, methodology, and curriculum. Concepts of instruction, psychology, and literature are primarily dealt with in AASL Only programs but not in the other types.

The non-library science courses are divided into three course types: 81 (49.1%) required, 40 (24.2%) required elective, and 44 (26.7%) elective courses. Figure 9 plots the three course types of the non-library science courses based on the LSA method. Figure 9 demonstrates that three course types appear to have their own coverage areas. The three areas have a common zone near the (0, 0) coordinate. Nevertheless, the area for required courses has a tendency of being more centered at (0, 0). However, the areas for required elective and elective courses stretch out farther along the positive x-axis (i.e., for the case of required elective courses) and the negative y-axis (i.e., for the case of elective courses). Figure 8 can be referenced to identify the further extended areas by required elective and elective cases.

Discussions and Conclusion

Compared to previous studies of LIS programs, the authors believe that this is the first comprehensive study on the close examination of school librarianship curricula.

In terms of program features, programs between AASL Only and ALA Only turn out to be the most dissimilar. Also, programs in Neither are located between those in AASL Only and Both in program features, and programs in Both are between those in Neither and ALA Only. Thus, the similarity among the programs can be presented as: AASL Only [left and right arrow] Neither [left and right arrow] Both [left and right arrow] ALA Only.

Out of the 84 school library programs, only two are quarter-based programs (both of which fall in the category of ALA Only), and the remaining 82 are semester-based. Thus, in comparing school library vs. LIS programs based on semester programs only, the range of credit hours requirements in school library programs is larger than the range in LIS programs, i.e., 30 to 48 in school library programs vs. 36 to 48 in LIS programs (Markey, 2004). School library programs in AASL Only are toward lower range of the credit hours, but a similar range of credit hours, especially at the upper range, are currently required at both the school library and LIS programs. A number of recent studies indicate the expanded role and competencies required of school library media specialists (Mardis, 2007; Shannon, 2002, 2008; Tiley & Callison, 2001). In addition, the recent technological and instructional demands and change have arisen in the school library community. The current circumstances may request offering more credit hours in school library programs than as it is now and/or curriculum revisions accordingly.

In coverage of library science courses, the most popular area is the "Services to User Populations" for all program types, and the most contributing subject within the area "Services to User Populations" is "Children's/YA Literatures" (see Appendix A). The AASL Only programs appear to remain relatively strong in the "School Libraries" area but relatively weak in the "Information Systems and Retrieval" area compared to the other program types. A noticeable characteristic of ALA Only programs can be found in the fact that the ALA Only courses contribute somewhat evenly to all the areas except "Services to User Populations" and "Informatics." Programs in the Both group can be characterized as being relatively strong in the "Information Systems and Retrieval" area. Meanwhile, programs in the Neither group appear to be relatively strong with offerings in "Organization of Information," "Types of Libraries and Information Providers," and particularly "Management and Administration" areas.

The "Services to User Populations" class frequently occurs across all course types. Beyond that, the largest number of required courses comes from the "School Libraries" area, whereas, that of required elective or elective courses are from the "Information Systems and Retrieval" area.

The experimental result of this study identifies the subject areas of school librarianship curricula and clearly demonstrates the distinction between school librarianship and LIS programs--not only in program features but also in course coverage, particularly in the coverage of required courses. The top three primary areas of required courses in LIS programs were reported as Technology, Management, and Organization (Beheshti, 1999), Organization, Reference, and Management (Markey, 2004), and Foundations, Organization, and Management (Hall, 2009), differing from school library programs, "Services to User Populations," "Information Systems and Retrieval," and "School Libraries."

In coverage of non-library science courses, the AASL Only programs encompass the broadest area. ALA Only provides the second broadest concept space. The area represented by Neither programs falls within the area covered by AASL Only or ALA Only. The region created by Both programs is the smallest and is completely overlapped by those represented in other program types. In summary, the relationship among the areas is: ALA Only ? AASL Only ? Neither ? Both.

The plotted coverage aids in identifying the subject scopes from different course types in the school librarianship curricula. The coverage by required elective courses and the coverage by elective courses can be represented by two oval shapes with some overlap. The coverage by required courses is slightly larger than the overlapping area of the two ovals. The result seems to align with the expectation that elective courses complement the core curricula.

Data in Table 1 indicate that 85% of all school library courses are required courses, which seems to point to a solid common foundation to students; however, it also indicates a lack of student flexibility in selecting courses or subjects. In twenty-first century library education the areas of technology and information literacy are arguably two emerging subjects of importance to students in school library media programs. Some previous studies of LIS programs have pointed to a greater incorporation of technology into curricula (Beheshti, 1999; Hall, 2009; Markey 2004). As shown in Figure 5, the results of this study confirm that technology has become a major subject across all school library programs. Information literacy belongs to the area of "Service to User Populations," the most frequently covered in school library programs. Note that while the importance of information literacy within K-12 curriculum is commonly accepted, information literacy is not a major component in "Service to User Populations." This lack of emphasis seems to suggest a need for great incorporation of information literacy into school librarianship curricula.

Revising or changing curriculum is not an easy process. Nevertheless, the rapidly changing technological and vocational "landscape" requires educational programs to adjust existing curricula to meet new educational and professional needs. This study offers an empirical "snapshot" of current school librarianship programming, program similarities and contrasts, which can provide valuable insights and foundations as school library programs evaluate present and/or future changes or alterations to course offerings and program requirements.

Appendix A

LIS Research Area Classification
Scheme by the Association by Library
and Information Science Education *

Development/Principles of LIS      Organization of Information

History of Information Science     Organization of Information
LIS as a Discipline                Descriptive Cataloguing/AACR
LIS as a Profession                Archival Description/RAD
Philosophy, Values, and            Classification and Subject
  Ethics of LIS                      Analysis
Critical Perspectives on LIS       Indexing and Abstracting
Libraries and Society/Culture      Metadata and Semantic Web
Information and Society/Culture    Knowledge/IR Management
Information Policy                 Records Management
Political Economy of
  Information
Copyright/Intellectual
  Property
Books, Printing, Publishing
  Industry
Intellectual Freedom and
  Censorship
Preservation and Archiving

LIS Education                      Management/Administration

LIS Education and Programs         Administration and Management
LIS Faculty, Students              Personnel
Pedagogy in LIS                    Buildings/Facilities
Research Methods                   Funding
Distance Education in LIS          Strategic Planning, Marketing,
Continuing Education in LIS          Lobbying
International/Comparative          Evaluation of Service
  Librarianship

Collection Development             Types of Libraries and
                                   Information Providers

Collections Development            Digital/Virtual Libraries
Acquisitions Theory and            Public Libraries
  Practice                         Academic Libraries
Preservation of Collections        School Media Centers/Libraries
Licensing                          Special and Corporate
Archival Collections                 Libraries
Special Collections/Rare Books     Medical Libraries
Science and Technology             Law Libraries
  Literatures                      Government Libraries
Arts/Humanities Literatures        Archives and Records Centers
Social Science Literatures         Community Information Centers
Government Documents               Museums
Serials                            Other Providers
Graphic Materials: Maps,
  Art, etc.
Music
Electronic Documents
Other Materials Types

Services to User Populations       Information Systems and
                                     Retrieval
Reference and Information          Information Systems and
  Services                           Technologies
Electronic Reference Services      Information Retrieval
Adult Services                       Theory and Practice
Young Adult Services               Online Catalog Retrieval
Children's Services                  Systems
Services for Senior citizens       Database and Other
                                     Retrieval Systems
Services for Multicultural         Information Architecture
  Populations                      Information Visualization
Services for People with           Computer/Information Networks
  Disabilities                     Information Technology
Services for Gay, Lesbian,           Management
  Bisexual, and Transgendered      Users and Uses of
  (GBLT) Populations                 Information Systems
Diversity Issues                   Human-Computer Interaction
Reading Advisory Services          Bibliometrics/Informetrics/
Children's/YA Literatures            Webometrics
Storytelling                       Social Software Applications
Reading and Literacy               Information Integrity and
Information Literacy and             Security
  Instruction
Information Needs and
  Behaviors/Practices
Information Needs/Behaviors
  of the Public
Information Needs/ Behaviors
  of Specific
Groups
Scholarly and Scientific
  Communication
New Literacies

Informatics                        Types of Libraries and
                                   Information Providers

School Libraries                   Curriculum Integration
Social/Community Informatics       Production of Materials
Health Informatics                 Role of the School Library
Legal Informatics                    Media Specialist
Museum Informatics                 Instructional Design
Digital Archive Informatics

* The version on 2/13/2013 available at:
http://www.alise.org/classification-scheme


Appendix B. List of Unique Non-library Science Course Titles

21st century research and data

21st century learning spaces

21st century master teacher

Accomplished Practices Seminar

Administration and Use of Instructional Media

Administration of Media Programs

Administration of Public Library Work with Children and Young Adults

Advanced Children's Literature

Advanced Computer Applications in the Classroom

Advanced Data Management

Advanced Educational Technology

Applications of Technology

Applications of Technology in Education

Applied Developmental Psychology

Applied Educational Research

Applied Research Methods in Education

Applied Statistics

Assessing Educational Achievement with Technology

Assessing Information Needs

Balanced Literacy

Becoming a Master Teacher

Children's Literature

Children's Literature and Materials for Teaching Reading

Classroom Management

Computer Applications in Education

Computers in Libraries

Creativity in Education

Current Issues and Trends in Education

Curriculum & Philosophical Foundations

Curriculum for leaders in education

Curriculum Issues in the Middle School

Decision-Oriented Research and Evaluation

Design & Production of Media Resources

Design and Production of Media Materials for All Learners (available online)

Designing and Facilitating Technology-Integrated

Learning

Digital Media Production

Ecological Perspectives on Development: The Childhood Years

Educational Research

Educational Research for Practitioners

Educational Technology Foundations

Electronic Media and Design

Elementary Education

Emergent and Early Literacy Development

Exceptional Child

Exceptionality, Diversity & Difference

Foundational Theories in Instructional Technology

Foundations of Educational Technology

Foundations of Learning Disabilities

Foundations of Multicultural Education

Foundations of Special Education

Foundations of the Information Professions

Fundamentals of Curriculum Development

Global Perspectives in Cultural Diversity

Government Documents

History and Philosophy of Education

History of education philosophy

Human Growth and Development

Human Information Interactions

Humanities and Social Science Information

Information Architecture and Web Design

Information Literacy for Teaching and Learning

Information Resources and Services

Information Tools

Instructional Applications of the Internet

Instructional Design

Intermediate/Middle School/High School Reading Instruction

Internet Resources

Introduction to Educational Technology

Introduction to Information Policy

Introduction to Research Methods in Education

Issues for Children and Technology

Issues in Psychology & Measurement

Issues in psychology and measurement

Issues in School, Community & Family

Leadership and Learning Technologies

Leadership skills for teachers

Leading change for student achievement

Literacy programs P-5

Literature for Adolescents

Literature for Children, Adolescents and Adults

Literature for Young Adults

Literature for Young Children

Literature in the Middle Grades

Management of Information Agencies

Management of Instructional Systems

Managing Technological Change

Master of education thesis proposal writing

Media and Telecommunications in Education

Media Utilization & Curriculum

Multi-Media Instructional Design

Multicultural Contexts of Teaching Learning

Multicultural education

Multiculturalism and Acculturation

Multimedia for Educators

Organization of Information

Orientation to Graduate Teacher Education Program

Pedagogy and Application of Children's Literature in the K-12 Classroom

Philosophy, ethics, and education

Principles and Techniques of Storytelling

Problems in Education

Procedures and Evaluation in Research

Production of Instructional Materials

Professional Preparation Seminar

Program Evaluation in Education

Project in Educational Research

Qualitative Research

Read instruction middle school

Reading Institute

Reading Workshop on Children's Books

Recent Trends in Children's Literature

Research and Instruction: Elementary Language Arts

Research Design

Research Design & Methodology

Research Design and Analysis

Research in Education

Research in Information Studies

Research Methods

Researching Current Issues in Inst. Tech

Resource Selection and Evaluation

School and Society

School law

Science Information

Secondary Education

Selection and Utilization of Educational Media

Social behavior in a diverse society

Social Foundations of Education

Social psychology and mythology across cultures

Special Education Assistive Techniques

Standards for Proposal Writing in Education

Strategies for Content Area Reading

Strategies for Teaching Reading with Literature

Supervision & Assessment for Teachers & Learners

Survey of Emerging Technologies

Survey of Intellectual Property

Systems Analysis

Teach reading in sec school

Teacher Education Simulation

Teacher leader research to improve instruction

Teaching Reading in Content Areas

Teaching the Exceptional Learner in the Regular Education Classroom

Teaching with literature

Techniques of Research

Technology and Learning

Technology and Transformational Culture in Education

Technology as a Catalyst for Change in Education

Technology Integration into Instructional Design

Technology Leadership and Planning

Technology-Mediated Learning

The American High School

The Psychology of Adolescence

The Teaching of Reading

Theories of Thinking and Learning

Tools for Teaching and Learning

Workshop: Preservation of Instructional Materials

Young Adult Literature

References

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Garry, C. P. (2010). The revised National Board Library Media Standards and you. School Library Monthly, 27(3), 9-11.

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Kwan Yi

Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, Eastern Kentucky University, E-mail: Kwan.yi@eku.edu

Ralph Turner

Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, Eastern Kentucky University

Table 1. Classification of Library Science Courses by Course Type.

Type of Course    Required      Elective     Required      Grand
                                             Elective      Total

Frequency        765 (85.0%)   100 (11.1%)   35 (3.9%)   900 (100%)
  (Percentage)
Frequency per        9.1           1.2          0.4         10.7
  program

Table 2. Division of Library Science Courses by Program Type.

Type of          AASL Only   ALA Only    Both    Neither   Grand
Program                                                    Total

Frequency           323        458        75       44       900
  (Percentage)    (35.9%)    (50.9%)    (8.3%)   (4.9%)    (100%)
Frequency per       9.5        12.4      10.7      7.3      107
  program
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Author:Yi, Kwan; Turner, Ralph
Publication:Journal of Education for Library and Information Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2014
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