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The construction of original public meaning.

APPENDIX
Original Text           Dutch Translation       German Translation
                        (De Ronde 1788)         (Billmeyer Print)

WE. the People of       WY, het Volk van de     Wir, das Volk der
the United States,      Vereenigde Staten,      Vereinigten Staaten,
in Order to form a      ten einde om een        um eine
more perfect Union,     volmaaktere             vollkommenere
Union, establish        Vereeniging te          Vereinigung zu
Justice, insure         formeren,               errichten,
domestic                gerechtigheid te        Gerechtigkeit
Tranquility, provide    staven, inlandsche      vestzusetzen, innere
for the common          rust in verseekerina    Ruhe zu versichern.
defence, promote the    te stellen, om zorg     Vorsorge zur
general Welfare, and    te dragen voor de       gemeinen Beschutzung
secure the Blessings    gemeene                 zu machen, die
of Liberty to           verdeedeging, het       allgemeine Wohlfahrt
ourselves and our       algemeen welvaren       zu befordern und
Posterity, do ordain    te bevorderen, en de    den Segen der
and establish this      zeegeningen van         Freyheit fur uns
Constitution for        vryhyd te               und unsere
the United              beveiligen, voor        Nachkommen sicher
                        ons en ons              zu stellen,
                        nageslaft, ordoneren    verordnen und setzen
                        en stellen vast         diese Verfassung
                        deeze Constitutie       fur die Vereinigten
                        voor de Vereenigde      Staaten von America
                        Staaten van             veste.
                        Amerika.

ARTICLE I.              ARTYKEL I.              1. ARTIKEL

Sect. 1. All            1. Afd. Alle            1. ABSCH. Alle
legislative Powers      wetgeevende machten     hierin verliehene
herein granted shall    hierin toegestaan.      Gewalt, Gesetze zu
be vested in a          zullen gevestigt        geben, soll einem
Congress of the         weesen in een           Congress der
United States,          Congress van de         Vereinigten Staaten,
which shall consist     Vereenigde Staaten,     der aus einem Senate
of a Senate and         't welk bestaan zal     und Hause der
House of                uit een Senaat en       Reprasentanten
Representatives.        Huis van                bestehen soll,
                        Representatives.        ertheilet werden.

Sect. 2. The House      2. Afd. Het Huis        2. ABSCH. Das Haus
of Representatives      van Representatives     der Reprasentanten
shall be composed of    zal't samen gesteld     soll aus Gliedern
Members chosen every    zyn uit leeden eiken    bestehen, die alle
second Year by the      tweede yaar verkoren    zwey Jahre von dem
People of the           by het volk van de      Volke der
several States,         bysonder Staaten.       Verschiedenen
and the Electors in     en de kiesers in        Staaten erwahlet
each State              elke staat              werden, und die
shall have the          zullen de               Erwahler in jedem
Qualifications          hoedanigheeden          Staate sollen die
requisite for           hebben, die vereyst     Eigenschaften
Electors of the         worden in de            haben, die fur
most numerous Branch    verkiesers van de       Erwahler des
of the State            talryke rank der        zahlreichsten
Legislature.            staats legislature.     Zweiges des
                                                gesetzgebenden
                                                Standes erfordert
                                                werden.

No Person shall be      Geen persoon zal een    Niemand soll ein
a Representative        representatief zyn      Reprasentante seyn,
who shall not have      die niet heeft den      der nicht das Alter
attained to the Age     ouderdom van vyf en     von funf und zwanzig
of twenty five          twintig jaaren, en      Jahren erreicht hat.
Years, and been         seeven jaaren een       und sieben Jahr ein
seven Years a           burger van de           Burger der
Citizen of the          Vereenigde Staaten      Vereinigten Staaten
United States, and      geweest is, en die.     gewesen ist. und der
who shall not, when     wanneer verkooren,      nicht zu der Zeit.
elected, be an          niet zal zyn een in     da er erwahlet wird,
Inhabitant of that      woonder van de staat    ein Einwohner
State in which he       in welke hy             desjenigen Staats
shall be chosen.        gekoozen zyn.           ist, in welchem er
                                                wird erwahlet werden.

Representatives and     Representatives en      Reprasentanten und
direct Taxes shall      directe taxen zullen    unmittelbare Taxen
be apportioned          verdeelt worden         sollen unter den
among the several       onder de verscheyde     verschiedenen
States which may be     Staaten die             Staaten, die in
included within this    ingeslooten moogen      diese Vereinigung
Union, according to     zyn in deese unie,      mogen eingeschlossen
their respective        overeenkomstig          werden, nach ihrer
Numbers, which shall    haar respective         verschiedenen Anzahl
be determined by        aantal, dat bepaalt     gleich vertheilet
adding to the whole     zal worden door         werden; diese
Number of free          byvoeging tot het       Anzahl soll dadurch
Persons, including      geheele getal van       bestimmt werden,
those bound to          vrye persoonen.         dass zu der ganzen
Service for a Term      insluitende die         Anzahl freyer
of Years, and           geenen die              Personen,
excluding Indians       verbonden zyn om te     diejenigen, welche
not taxed, three        dienen voor een tyd     gewisse Jahre zu
fifths of all other     van jaaren, en          dienen verbunden
Persons. The actual     uitsluitenden de        sind, mit
Enumeration shall       Indiaanen die niet      eingeschlossen.und
be made within          getaxt zyn, drie        nicht getaxierte
three Years after       vyf-dens van all        Indianer
the first Meeting       andere persoonen. De    ausgeschlossen, drey
of the Congress         dadelyke volks          Funftheile von allen
of the United           optelling zal           andern Personen dazu
States, and             gemaakt worden          gerechnet werden.
within every            binnen drie             Die wirkliche
subsequent Term         jaaren na de eerste     Zahlung soll
of ten Years, in        byeenkomste van het     innerhalb drey
such Manner             Congress der            Jahren nach der
as they shall by        Vereenigde Staaten,     ersten Zusammenkunft
Law direct.             en binnen elke na       des Congresses der
The Number of           volgende tyd            Vereinigten Staaten
Representatives         van tien jaaren, op     und innerhalb eines
shall not exceed one    suulk een maniere       jeden folgenden
for every thirty        als sy by de wer        Zeitpuncts von zehn
Thousand, but each      zullen bestellen.       Jahren, auf solche
State shall have at     Het getal der           Art, also derselbe
Least one               Respresentatives        durch Gesetze
Representative;         zal niet grooter zyn    verordnen wird,
and until such          dan ee'n voor elke      gemacht werden. Die
enumeration shall be    dartig duisent,         Anzahl der
made, the State of      maar elke staat         Reprasentanten soll
New Hampshire shall     zal op zyn minst een    nicht uber Einen
be entitled to chuse    representative          jede dreysig tausend
three, Massachusetts    hebben; en tot dat      seyn, doch soll jeder
eight, Rhode-           sulke optelling zal     Staat zum wenigsten
Island and              gemaakt zyn, so zal     einen Reprasentanten
Providence              de staat van Nieuw-     haben; und ehe
Plantations one,        Hampshire moogen        solche Zahlung wird
Connecticut five.       verkiezen drie,         gemacht werden, soll
New-York six, New       Massachusetts           der Staat New
Jersey four,            acht, Rood-Eyland       Hamschire berechtigt
Pennsylvania eight.     en de Plantagien        seyn, dreye zu
Delaware one,           van Providence          erwahlen,
Maryland six,           ee'n, Connecticut       Massachusetts achte,
Virginia ten, North     vyf, Nieuw-York ses,    Rhode Eyland und
Carolina five,          Nieuw-Jersy vier.       Providenz
South Carolina five,    Pennsylvania acht,      Plantaschen einen,
and Georgia three.      Delaware e'en,          Connecticut funf.
                        Maryland ses,           Neu-York sechse,
                        Virginia tien,          Neu-Jersey viere.
                        Noord-Carolina vyf,     Pennsylvanien achte,
                        Suid- Carolina vyf,     Delaware einen,
                        en Georgia drie.        Maryland sechse,
                                                Virginien zehen,
                                                Nord-Caroline funfe,
                                                Sud-Caroline funfe,
                                                und Georgien dreye.

When vacancies          Wanneer plaatsen        Wenn in der
happen in the           open vallen in de       Reprasentation von
Representation from     representatie van       einem Staate Stellen
any State, the          enige staat, zo zal     erlediget werden,
Executive Authority     de executive            so soll die
thereof shall issue     authority daar van      Vollziehende Macht
Writs of Election to    writs van verkiezinge   desselben Befehle
fill such Vacancies.    uitsenden, om           zur Wahl ausgeben,
                        zulke vacante           solche erledigte
                        plaatsen optevullen.    Stellen wieder zu
                                                besetzen.

The House of            Het Huis van            Das Haus der
Representatives         Representatives         Reprasentanten soll
shall chuse their       zal haer spreeker       seinen Sprecher und
Speaker and other       en andere officieren    andere Beamte
Officers; and shall     verkiesen; en zal       erwahlen, und die
have the sole Power     alleen de magt          alleinige Gewalt
of Impeachment.         hebben van 't           offentlicher
                        zoogenaamde             Anklage haben.
                        impeachment [of
                        aanklachte.]

Sect. 3. The Senate     3 Afd. De Senaat van    3. ABSCH. Der Senat
of the United States    de Vereenigde Staten    der Vereinigten
shall be composed       zal 't samen            Staaten soll aus
of two Senators         gesteld zyn uit         zwey Senatoren von
from each State,        twee senators van       einem jeden Staate,
chosen by the           elke staat, verkoren    die von der
Legislature thereof     door de legislature     Gesetzgebenden Macht
for six Years; and      daar van, voor ses      desselben fur sechs
each Senator shall      jaaren; en elke         Jahren gewahlet
have one Vote.          senator zal een         werden sollen,
                        stem hebben.            bestehen; und jeder
                                                Senator soll eine
                                                Stimme haben.

Immediately after       Zo aanstonds nadat      So bald sie zufolge
they shall be           ze zullen vergardert    der ersten Wahl
assembled in            zyn, in gevolge van     werden versammlet
Consequence of          de eerste electie,      seyn. sollen sie so
the first Election,     zullen sy, zoo          gleich als seyn
they shall be           evengelyk als weesen    mag in drey Classen
divided as equally      kan. verdeeld worden    getheilet werden.
as may be into three    in drie dassen. De      Die Sitze der
Classes. The Seats      plaatsen van de         Senatoren der ersten
of the Senators of      eerste dass der         Classe sollen am
the first Class         senators zullen         Ende des zweyten
shall be vacated at     vacant zyn, na 't       Jahres, der zweyten
the Expiration of       verloop van 't          Classe am Ende des
the second Year,        tweede jaar; en van     vierten Jahres, und
of the second Class     de tweede class         der dritten Classe
at the Expiration       na 't verloop van 't    am Ende des sechsten
of the fourth Year,     vierde jaar; en van     Jahres erledigt seyn:
and of the third        de derde class na 't    so dass ein
Class at the            verloop van 't          Drittheil alle zwey
Expiration of the       selfde jaar; so         Jahre mag erwahlet
sixth Year, so that     dat een derde           werden; und wenn
one third may be        verkooren magh          durch Niederlegung
chosen every second     worden elke tweede      des Amts oder auf
Year; and if            jaar: en by aldien      andere Weise,
Vacancies happen by     'er plaatsen open       wahrend der Zeit, da
Resignation,            sullen vallen door      die Gesetzgebende
or otherwise, during    resignatie, of          Macht eines Staats
the Recess of the       andersints,             auseinander gegangen
Legislature of any      gedurende dat de        ist, Stellen
State, the Executive    legislature van         erlediget werden
thereof may make        eenige staat niet       sollten, so mag die
temporary               zittende is, de         Vollziehende Macht
Appointments until      executive of            desselben. Solche
the next Meeting of     uitvoerende macht       bis zur nachsten
the Legislature,        daar van zal voor       Zusammenkunft der
which shall then        een zekere tyd          Gesetzgebenden Macht
fill such Vacancies.    aenstellingen           besetzen, welche
                        moogen maaken           alsdenn solche
                        tot op de naaste        erledigte Stellen
                        vergardering van de     wieder besetzen
                        legislature, welke      soll.
                        dan sulke vacante
                        plaatsen zal
                        opvullen.

No Person shall be      Geen persoon zal een    Niemand, soll ein
a Senator who shall     senator zyn, die        Senator seyn, der
not have attained to    niet gekomen is tor     nicht das Alter von
the Age of thirty       den ouderdom van        dreysig Jahren
Years, and been nine    dertig jaaren, en       erreicht hat, und
Years a Citizen of      neegen jaaren een       neun Jahr ein Burger
the United States,      burger geweest is       der Vereinigten
and who shall not,      van de Vereenigde       Staaten gewesen
when elected, be an     Staaten, en die,        ist, und der nicht
Inhabitant of that      wanneer verkoren,       zu der Zeit,
State for which he      geen inwoonder van      da er erwahlet wird,
shall be chosen.        dien staat is, voor     ein Einwohner
                        welke hy zal            desjenigen Staats
                        verkooren zijn.         ist, fur welchen er
                                                wird erwahlet
                                                werden.

The Vice President      De Vice-President       Der Vice-Prasident
of the United States    van de Vereengide       der Vereinigten
shall be President      Staatn, zal             Staaten soll
of the Senate but       President zyn van       Prasident des Senats
shall have no Vote,     de Senaat. dog zal      seyn, soll aber
unless they             geen stem hebben        keine Stimme haben,
be equally divided.     tenzy de stemmen        es sey denn, dass
                        egaal verdeelt zijn.    sie gleich getheilet
                                                seyn.

The Senate shall        De Senaat zal           Der Senat soll seine
chuse their other       verkiesen haar          andern Beamten und
Officers, and also a    andere officieren       auch einen
President pro           als ook een             Prasidenten fur die
tempore, in the         President voor een      Zeit, wenn der
Absence of the          tyd, in de              Vice-Prasident
Vice President, or      afweesenhyd van de      abwesend seyn, oder
when he shall           Vice-President, of      das Amt des
exercise the Office     wanner die het          Prasidenten der
of President of the     ampt van President      Vereinigten Staaten
United States.          der Vereenigde          verwalten wird,
                        Staaten zal waar        erwahlen.
                        neemen.

The Senate shall        De Senaat zal alleen    Der Senat soll die
have the sole           de macht hebben om      alleinige Gewalt
Power to try all        alle zoogenaamde        haben, alle publike
Impeachments. When      impeachments te         Anklagen gerichtlich
sitting for that        beoordeelen.            zu verhoren. Wenn
Purpose, they shall     Wanneer tot dat         sie zu dem Zweck
be on Oath or           eynde zittende,         sitzen, sollen sie
Affirmation. When       zullen zy op eed. Of    unter Eid oder
the President of        bevestiging zyn.        Betheurung seyn.
the United States       Wanneer de President    Wenn der Prasident
is tried, the Chief     van de Vereenigde       der Vereinigten
Justice shall           Staaten getry'd         Staaten verhoret
preside: And no         word, zo zal de         wird, so soll der
Person shall be         chief justice           Ober-Richter den
convicted without       presideeren: en         Vorsitz haben; und
the Concurrence of      niemand zal schuldig    niemand soll ohne
two thirds of the       verklaart worden        die Zustimmung von
Members present.        zonder de toe           zwey Drittheilen der
                        stemming van twee       gegenwartigen
                        derdens der             Glieder verurtheilet
                        teegenwoordig           werden.
                        zijnde leeden.

Judgment in Cases       Het oordeel in geval    Das Urtheil in
of Impeachment shall    van impeachment zal     Fallen offentlicher
not extend further      zig niet verder         Anklage soll sich
than to removal from    uitstrekken, dan tot    nicht weiter
Office, and             iemands afsetting       erstrecken, also zur
disqualification to     van zyn officie, en     Absetzung vom Amte
hold and enjoy any      onbequaam-verklaring    und Untuchtigkeit
Office of honor,        om te behouden en       ein Ehren-Amt,
Trust or Profit         te genieten eenig       ein wichtiges oder
under the United        ampt van eere,          eintragliches Amt
States: but the         vertrouwen of           unter den
Party convicted         voordeel. onder de      Vereinigten Staaten
shall nevertheless      Vereenigde Staaten;     zu haben und zu
be liable and           maar de veroordeelde    besitzen; aber der
subject to              party zal nogthans      verurtheilte Theil
Indictment, Trial,      bloodgesteld, en        soll demohnerachtet
Judgment and            onderworpen zyn,        einer privaten
Punishment,             aan een indictment,     Anklage, Verhors,
according to Law.       trial, oordeel, en      Urtheils und Strafe
                        straffe volgens de      nach den Gesetzen
                        wet.                    unterworfen seyn.

Sect. 4. The Times,     4. Afd. De tyden,       4. ABSCH. Die Zeit,
Places and Manner of    plaatsen, en            Oerter, Art und
holding Elections       wyze van 't houden      Weise, die Senatoren
for Senators and        van de verkiezingen     und Reprasentanten
Representatives,        der senators en         zu erwahlen, sollen
shall be prescribed     representatives,        in jedem Staate von
in each State by the    zullen worden           der Gesetzgebenden
Legislature thereof;    voorgeschreeven in      Macht desselben
but the Congress may    elke staat door de      vorgeschrieben
at any time by          legislature daar        werden; aber der
Law make or alter       van; maar het           Congress mag
such Regulations,       Congress mag ter        zu irgend einer Zeit
except as to the        eeniger tyd, by een     solche Einrichtungen
Places of chusing       wet, maaken, of         durch Gesetze
Senators.               veranderen sodanige     machen oder
                        regulatien, uit         verandern,
                        genoome [betreklyk      ausgenommen was die
                        tot] de plaatsen van    Oerter zur Wahl der
                        de verkiesing der       Senatoren betrifft.
                        senators.

The Congress shall      De Congress zal         Der Congress soll
assemble at             vergaderen te           zum wenigsten einmal
least once in every     minsten eens in elk     in jedem Jahre
Year, and such          jaar, en zulke          zusammen kommen, und
Meeting shall be on     vergarding zal zyn      solche Zusammenkunft
the first Monday        op de eersten           soll am ersten
in December, unless     Maandag in December,    Montag im December
they shall by Law       ten waare sy by eene    seyn, es sey denn,
appoint a different     wet een ander dag       dass er durch
Day.                    zullen bepalen.         Gesetze einen andern
                                                Tag bestimmt.

Sect. 5. Each House     5 Afd. Elk Huis zal     5. ABSCH. Jedes
shall be the Judge      oordelen over de        Haus soll die
of the Elections,       verkiesingen,           Wahlen, Berichte und
Returns and             returns, en             Tuchtigkeit seiner
Qualifications of       qualificatiens van      eigenen Glieder
its own Members, and    zijn eyge leeden, en    beurtheilen, und
a Majority of each      een meederheid van      eine Mehrheit eines
shall constitute a      elk zal een             jeden soll ein
Quorum to do            genoegsaam getaal       Quorum ausmachen.
Business; but a         zijn om bezigheden      Geschafte zu
smaller Number may      te doen; maar een       verrichten; aber
adjourn from day        minder getal mag        eine kleinere Anzahl
to day, and may be      van dag tot dag         mag die
authorized to compel    adjournen, en           Zusammenkunft von
the Attendance of       geauthoriseerd zyn      Tage zu Tage
absent Members, in      om de afweesende        aufschieben, und mag
such Manner, and        leeden te noodzaken     die Gewalt haben,
under such Penalties    de vergarderinge        abwesende Glieder zu
as each House may       bytewoonen, op          nothigen,
provide.                zulken manier en        beyzuwohnen, auf
                        onder sodanige          solche Art und unter
                        verbeurten. als elk     unter solchen
                        Huis zal verzien.       Strafen, als jedes
                                                Haus verordnen mag.

Each House may          Elk Huis mag            Jedes Haus mag die
determine the Rules     vaststellen de          Regeln seines
of its Proceedings,     reegels van dessels     Verfahrens
punish its Members      wyze van                bestimmen. Seine
for disorderly          handelingen,            Glieder fur
Behaviour, and,         desselvs leeden         unordentliches
with the                straffen, wegens        Betragen strafen,
Concurrence of two      onordentelyk gedrag     und mit Zustimmung
thirds, expel a         en met overeen          von zwey Drittheilen
Member.                 stemming van twee       ein Glied
                        derdens,                ausstossen.
                        een lid, expellen.

Each House shall        Elk Huis zal een        Jedes Haus soll ein
keep a Journal of       journal of              Tagebuch von seinem
its Proceedings, and    dagregister houden      Verfahren halten.
from time to time       van haare               und dasselbe von
publish the same,       handelingen, en van     Zeit zu Zeit bekant
excepting such Parts    tyd tot tydhet zelve    machen, ausgenommen
as may in their         publiceeren, uit        solche Theile, die
Judgment require        genoome zodanige        nach dem Urtheil
Secrecy; and the        stukken, die in haar    desselben erfordern.
Yeas and Nays of        oordeel moogen          geheim gehalten zu
the Members of          verischen geheym        werden; und die Jahs
either House on any     gehouden te worden;     und Neins der
question shall, at      en de yeas en nays      Glieder eines Hauses
the Desire of one       [de stemmen voor en     sollen wegen irgend
fifth of those          teegen] van de          einer Frage auf
Present, be entered     leeden van elk Huis     verlangen eines
on the Journal.         op eenige vraag,        Funftheils derer die
                        zullen op de            gegenwartig sind, in
                        begeerte van een        das Tagebuch
                        vyfde der               eingetragen werden.
                        tegewoordige leeden,
                        geboekt worden in
                        het dag-register.

Neither House,          Geen van beide          Keines der Hauser
during the Session      Huizen, zal zonder      soll wahrend der
of Congress, shall,     toestemminge van 't     Sitzung des
without the Consent     andere, gedurende de    Congresses, ohne
of the other,           zittinge van de         Bewilligung des
adjourn for more        Congress, adjoumen      andern, langer als
than three days,        voor langer dan drie    drey Tage
nor to any other        dagen, noch naar        auseinander gehen,
Place than that in      eenige andere           auch an keinem
which the two Houses    plaatse, dan waar       andern Orte zusammen
shall be sitting.       de twee Huizen          kommen, als wo die
                        zullen zyn zittende.    zwey Hauser sitzen
                                                werden.

Sect. 6. The            6 Afd. De Senators      6. ABSCH. Die
Senators and            en Representatives      Senatoren und
Representatives         zullen een              Reprasentanten
shall receive a         vergeldinge             sollen eine
Compensation for        ontfangen, voor         Vergeltung fur ihre
their Services, to      haare diensten,         Dienste haben, die
be ascertained by       welke by wet zal        durch Gesetze
Law, and paid out       bepaald, en uit de      bestimmt und aus der
of the Treasury of      treasury van de         Schatzkammer der
the United States.      Vereenigde Staaten,     Vereinigten
They shall in all       betaald worden. Zu      Staaten bezahlt
Cases, except           zullen in alle          werden soll. Sie
Treason, Felony and     gevallen, uigezonder    sollen in allen
Breach of the Peace,    van verraad, dood       Fallen, Hochverrath,
be privileged from      waerdige misdaad en     Hauptverbrechen und
Arrest during their     verbrekinge van         Friedensbruch
Attendance at the       vreede, het voorregt    ausgenommen, von
Session of their        hebben om niet          Arresttirung wahrend
respective Houses,      gearreesteerd te        dem, da sie der
and in going to and     worden, gedurende       Sitzung ihrer
returning from the      haar opwagting ter      respectiven Hauser
same; and for any       zittinge van de         beywohnen, und im
Speech or Debate in     respectieve Huisen,     Hingehen und
either House, they      en in 't heen gaan      zuruckkehren von
shall not be            en weerkeeren van       denselben befreyet
questioned in any       deselve; en om          seyn; und wegen
other Place.            eenige woorden of       ihres Redens, es mag
                        verschil redenen in     von oder gegen eine
                        een een van beyde       Sache in einem der
                        Huisen zullen zy        Hauser seyn, sollen
                        niet moogen             sie an keinem andern
                        gequestioneerd          Orte zur
                        worden in eenige        Rechenschaft
                        andere plaats.          gefordert werden.

No Senator or           Geen Senator of         Kein Senator oder
Representative          Representative zal,     Reprasentant soll
shall, during the       gedurende den tyd       wahrend der Zeit,
Time for which he       voor welke hy           fur welche er
was elected, be         verkooren was,          erwahlet worden, zu
appointed to any        gesteld worden in       irgend einem
civil Office under      eenig burgerlyk ampt    burgerlichen Amte
the Authority of the    onder de authorityt     unter der Gewalt der
United States, which    van deVereengide        Vereinigten Staaten,
shall have been         Staaten, 't welke       welches wahrend
created, or the         zal aangesteld zyn      solcher Zeit
Emoluments whereof      geweest, of de          errichtet, oder
shall have been         voordeelen waar van     dessen Nutzen
encreased during        zullen zyn              vermehret worden,
such time; and no       vermeerdert geworden    bestimmt werden; und
Person holding any      gedurende zulk een      Niemand, der irgend
Office under the        tyd; en geen persoon    ein Amt unter den
United States, shall    houdende eenig          Vereinigten Staaten
be a Member of          officie onder de        verwaltet, soll
either House            Vereengide Staten,      wahrend dem, da er
during his              zal een lid zyn van     das Amt bekleidet,
Continuance in          een van beijde          ein Glied eines der
Office.                 Huisen, so lang hy      Hauser seyn.
                        in zyn ampt zal
                        continueeren.

Sect. 7. All Bills      7 Afd. Alle bills       7. ABSCH. Alle Bills
for raising Revenue     om inkomsten te         zur Hebung eines
shall originate in      rijzen, zullen haar     Einkommens sollen in
the House of            oorsprong hebben in     dem Hause der
Representatives; but    het Huis van            Reprasentanten ihren
the Senate may          Representatives;        Ursprung nehmen;
propose or concur       maar de Senaat mag      aber der Senat mag
with Amendments as      voorstellen, of         Verbesserungen
on other Bills.         instemmen met           vorschlagen oder
                        amendments, gelyk in    dazu stimmen, wie
                        andere bills.           bey andern Bills.

Every Bill which        Elke bill die het       Jede Bill, welche
shall have passed       Huis van                das haus der
the House of            Representatives een     Reprasentanten und
Representatives and     de Senaat zal           der Senat wird
the Senate, shall,      gepasseered zyn,        genehmiget haben,
before it become a      zal, eer het een wet    soll. ehe sie ein
Law, be presented to    wort, gepresenteerd     Gesetz wird, dem
the President of the    worden aan den          Prasidenten der
United States:          President van de        Vereinigten Staaten
If he approve he        Vereenigde Staaten,     vorgelegt werden;
shall sign it, but      so hy 'er van           wenn er sie billiget
if not he shall         approbeert, zal hy      soll er sie
return it, with his     het onder teekenen,     unterschreiben, wo
Objections to that      maar so niet, zal hy    nicht, soll er sie
House in which it       het te rug senden,      mit seinen
shall have              met zijne               Einwendungen, dem
originated, who         tegenwerpingen, aan     Hause, in welchem
shall enter the         dat Huis waarin het     sie ihren Ursprung
Objections at large     zijn oorsprong          genommen, zuruck
on their Journal,       genomen heeft, 't       geben, welches die
and proceed to          welke de tegen          Einwendungen
reconsider it. If       werpeningen in 't       weitlaufig in sein
after such              breede in 't            Tagebuch eintragen
Reconsideration two     register boek zal       und sie wieder in
thirds of that House    laten schrijven, en     Erwagung nehmen
shall agree to pass     voordgaan om deselve    soll. Wenn nach
the Bill, it shall      op 't nieuw te          solcher
be sent. Together       overweegen. By          Wiedererwagung zwey
with the Objections,    aldien na sulk een      Drittheile
to the other House,     tweede overweeging,     desjenigen Hauses
by which it shall       'twee derdends van      ubereinstimmen
likewise be             dat Huis zullen         werden, die Bill zu
reconsidered, and if    overeemstemmen om       genehmigen, soll sie
approved by two         de bill te passeeren    nebst den
thirds of that          zo al die, te samen     Einwendungen dem
House, it shall         met de                  andern Hause
become a Law.           teegenwergingen,        zugesandt werden,
                        gesonden worden aan     von welchem sie
                        het andere Huis,        gleichfalls wieder
                        van welke het           erwogen werden soll,
                        ook zal wederom         und wenn sie von
                        overwogen worden, en    zwey Drittheilen
                        so het bij twee         desselbigen Hauses
                        derdens van dat Huis    gebilligt wird, soll
                        goedekeurt word, zo     sie ein Gesetz
                        al het een              werden.
                        wet zyn.

But in all such         Maar in alle zulke      Aber in allen
Cases the Votes of      gevallen zullen de      solchen Fallen
both Houses shall be    stemmen van beyde       sollen die Stimmen
determined by yeas      Huisen door yeas en     beyder Hauser durch
and Nays, and the       nays bepaalt worden,    Ja und Nein
Names of the            en de naamen van de     entschieden und die
Persons voting for      personen voor en        Namen der Personen,
and against the Bill    teegen de bill          die vor oder gegen
shall be entered on     stemmende, zullen in    die Bill stimmen, in
the Journal             het journal van elk     das Tagebuch eines
of each House           byzonder Huis           jeden Hauses
respectively. If any    neegezet worden. So     respective
Bill shall not be       eenige bill niet zal    eingetragen werden.
returned by the         wederom gezonden        Wenn der Prasident
President within ten    worden door den         eine Bill innerhalb
Days (Sundays           President in den tyd    zehen Tagen (Sontage
excepted) after it      van tien daagen (de     ausgenommen) nachdem
shall have been         Zondaagen uit           sie ihm vorgelegt
presented to him,       gezondert) na dat       worden, nicht
the Same shall be a     die aan hem zal         zuruck gegeben wird,
Law, in like Manner     gepresenteerd zyn,      so soll sie auf
as if he had            zo al deselve een       gleiche Weise ein
signed it, unless       wet zyn, even als       Gesetz seyn, als
the Congress by         of hy die getekent      wenn er sie
their Adjournment       hadde, ten ware de      unterschrieben
prevent its Return,     Congress door haar      hatte, es sey denn,
in which Case it        adjournment, de te      dass der Congress
shall not be a Law.     rug sendig daar van     durch Aufschiebung
                        voorkomst, in welk      seiner Sitzung
                        geval het geen wet      derselben Zuruckgabe
                        zal zyn.                verhinderte, in
                                                welchem Falle sie
                                                kein Gesetz seyn
                                                soll.

Every Order,            Elke order, besluit,    Jede Verordnung,
Resolution, or Vote     of stemminge, tot       Schluss oder
to which the            welke de                Meinung, wozu die
Concurrence of the      overeemkomste van de    Zustimmung des
Senate and House of     Senaat en 't Huis       Senats und Hauses
Representatives may     van Representatives     der Reprasentanten
be necessary (except    mogte noodsaakelyk      nothig seyn mag
on a question of        zyn (behalve op een     (Fragen, das
Adjournment) shall      vraag van               Aufschieben der
be presented to the     adjournament) zal       Sitzungen
President of the        voorgesteld worden      betreffend,
United States; and      aan den President       ausgenommen) soll
before the Same         van de Vereenigde       dem Prasidenten der
shall take Effect,      Staaten, en             Vereinigten Staaten
shall be approved by    voordat deselve         vorgelegt. und ehe
him, or being           effect zal neemen,      dieselbe Platz
disapproved by          zal die door hem        nimmt, von ihm
him, shall be           afgekeurt wederom       gebilliget werden;
repassed by two         moeten gepasseert       oder wenn sie von
thirds of the Senate    zyn by twee derdens     ihm gemissbilliget
and House of            van de Senaat en 't     wird, soll sie von
Representatives,        Huis van                zwey Drittheilen
according to the        Representatives, in     des Senats und
Rules and               gevolge de reegels      Hauses der
Limitations             en bepaalingen          Reprasentanten, nach
prescribed in the       voorgeschreeven,        den Regeln und
Case of a Bill.         in 't geval             Einschrankungen, die
                        van een bill.           in dem Falle einer
                                                Bill vorgeschrieben
                                                worden, wieder
                                                genehmiget werden.

Sect. 8. The            8 Afd. De Congress      8. AB SCH. Der
Congress shall have     zal magt hebben,        Congress soll
Power                                           Gewalt haben,

To lay and collect      Om op te leggen en      Taxen, Abgaben,
Taxes, Duties,          te collecteeren         Auflagen und Accise
Imposts and Excises,    taxen, tollen,          aufzulegen und zu
to pay the Debts        schattingen en          heben, die Schulden
and provide for the     excysen, om de          zu bezahlen, und fur
common Defence and      schulden te             die gemeine
general Welfare of      betaalen, en te         Beschutzung und
the United States;      zorgen voor de          allgemeine Wohlfahrt
but all Duties,         gemeene verdediging     der Vereinigten
Imposts and Excises     en 't algemeene         Staaten zu sorgen;
shall be uniform        welvaaren van de        aber alle Abgaben,
throughout the          Vereenigde Staten;      Auflagen und Accise
United States;          maar alle tollen,       sollen durch die
                        schattingen en          Vereinigten
                        excysen, sullen         Staaten einformig
                        eevengelyk zyn door     seyn;
                        [alle] de Staaten;

To borrow Money on      Om geld op te neemen    Geld zu lehnen auf
the credit of the       op het crediet van      den Credit der
United States;          de Vereenigde           Vereinigten Staaten;
                        Staaten;

To regulate Commerce    Om de koopmanschap      Die Handelschaft mit
with foreign            te reguleeren met       auswartigen
Nations, and among      buitenlandsche          Nationen, und unter
the several States,     natien, en onder de     den verschiedenen
and with the Indian     onderscheiden           Staaten und mit den
Tribes;                 staten, alsook met      Indianer Stammen,
                        de Indiaansche          einzurichten;
                        volkeren;

To establish an         Om vast te stellen      Eine einformige
uniform Rule of         eenerly regel van       Regel zur Ertheilung
Naturalization, and     naturalizatie, en       des Burgerrechts
uniform Laws on the     eenerly wetten op       und einformige
subject of              het onderwerp van       Gesetze in Absicht
Bankruptcies            bankrotten door alle    der Bankrotte durch
throughout the          de Vereenigde           die Vereinigten
United States;          Staaten;                Staaten
                                                vestzusetzen.

To coin Money,          Om geld te slaan, de    Geld zu schlagen,
regulate the Value      waarde daar van te      den Werth desselben
thereof, and of         reguleeren en van       und der auswartigen
foreign Coin, and       buitenlandsch geld,     Munzen einzurichten
fix the Standard of     meede de standaard      und Gewicht und
Weights and             van gewigten en         Maass vestzusetzen;
Measures;               maaten vast te
                        stellen;

To provide for the      Om zorg te dragen       Vorsorge zur
Punishment of           voor het straffen       Bestrafung des
counterfeiting the      van het namaaken der    Verfalschens der
Securities and          securityten en 't       Versicherungsscheine
current Coin of the     gangbaar geld van       und der gangbaren
United States;          de Vereenigde           Munzen der
                        Staaten;                Vereinigten Staaten
                                                zu machen;

To establish Post       Om vast te stellen      Postamter und
Offices and post        post-officien en        Postrassen zu
Roads;                  post-weegen;            errichten;

To promote the          Om den voordgang        Die Aufnahme der
Progress of Science     van weetenshap en       Wissenschaften und
and useful Arts, by     nuttige konsten te      nutzlichen Kunste
securing for limited    bevorderen door         dadurch zu
Times to Authors        (voor bepaalde          befordern, dass er
and Inventors the       tyden) aan de           denen Autoren und
exclusive Right to      autheurs, en            Erfindern das
their respective        uitvinders te           ausschliessende
Writings and            verzeekeren het uit     Recht zu ihren
Discoveries;            sluitend regt tot       respectiven
                        haar byzondere          Schriften und
                        schriften en            Entdeckungen
                        ontdekkingen;           Schriften und
                                                Entdeckungen
                                                fur eine gewisse
                                                Zeit versichert;

To constitute           Om vierschaaren aan     Gerichtshofe, die
Tribunals inferior      te stellen laager       unter dem
to the supreme          dan de hooge court;     Obergerichte sind,
Court;                                          zu errichten;

To define and punish    Om te bepalen en te     Seerauberey und
Piracies and            straffen                Hauptverbrechen,
Felonies committed      zeerooverien en         die auf der offenen
on the high Seas,       doodwaardige            See begangen werden,
and Offences against    misdaaden gepleegt      und Verbrechen
the Law of Nations;     op de hooge zee, en     gegen das
                        beleedigingen teegen    Volkerrecht zu
                        de wet der natien;      bestimmen und zu
                                                bestrafen;

To declare War,         Om oorlog te            Krieg zu erklaren.
grant Letters of        verklaren, brieven      Vollmachten, sich zu
Marque and Reprisal,    van zelfsverdes         vertheidigen und
and make Rules          dinge en van            Repressalien zu
concerning Captures     wederneeming te         gebrauchen, zu
on Land and Water;      vergunnen, en           ertheilen, und
                        reglementen te          Verordnungen in
                        maaken, belangenden     Absicht gemachter
                        buit of prijsen te      Beute auf dem Lande
                        land en te water;       oder Wasser zu
                                                machen.

To raise and support    Om legers te rijzen     Truppen aufzubringen
Armies, but no          en te onderhouden,      und zu unterhalten;
Appropriation of        maar geen               doch soll keine
Money to that Use       aaneigening van geld    Bestimmung des
shall be for a          voor dat gebruick       Geldes zu selbigem
longer Term than        zal langer zyn dan      Gebrauch fur eine
two Years;              voor twee jaaren;       langere Zeit als
                                                zwey Jahr seyn;

To provide and          Om te be zorgen en      Eine Seemacht zu
maintain a Navy;        te onderhouden een      errichten und
                        scheeps vloot;          zu unterhalten;

To make Rules for       Om reglementen te       Regeln zur Regierung
the Government          maaken voor het         und Einrichtung der
and Regulation of       government en de        Land- und Seemacht
the land and naval      schikking van de        zu machen;
Forces;                 krygs magt te land
                        en op zee;

To provide for          Om te verzien dat       Verordnungen zur
calling forth the       de militie              Aufforderung der
Militia to execute      uitgeroepen word,       Militz zu machen,
the Laws of the         ten einde de wetten     die Gesetze der
Union, suppress         van de unie te          Vereinigung zu
Insurrections and       hanhavenen, oproeren    vollziehen, Aufruhr
repel Invasions;        te dempen, en           zu unterdrucken und
                        vyandelyke invallen     Einfalle
                        afterkeeren;            abzutreiben;

To provide for          Om te zorgen, dat       Vorsorge zur
organizing, arming,     de militie in order     Einrichtung,
and disciplining,       gebracht, met wapens    Ausrustung und
the Militia, and        voorzien en             Uebung der Militz,
for governing such      gedisciplineerd         und zur Regierung
Part of them as may     word, en dat zulk       desjenigen Theils
be employed in the      een gedeelt daarvan     derselben, der zum
Service of the          als mochte gebruikt     Dienst der
United States,          worden in den dienst    Vereinigten Staaten
reserving to the        van de Vereenigde       gebraucht werden
States respectively,    Staaten wel             mag, zu machen;
the Appointment         geregeerd werde,        wobey doch den
of the Officers,        behoudende voor de      Verschiedenen
and the Authority       Staaten byzonderlyk     Staaten die
of training the         het aan stellen van     Bestellung der
Militia according       officieren. en de       Officier und die
to the discipline       magt om de militie      Gewalt, die Militz
prescribed by           te leeren en te         der von dem Congress
Congress;               laate optrekken.        vorgeschriebenen
                        volgens de              Verordnung gemass,
                        discipline              in den Waffen zu
                        voorgeschreven door     uben, Vorbehalten
                        de Congress;            werden soll;

To exercise             Om te oefenen een       Das ausschliessende
exclusive               uitsluitende magt       Recht, Gesetze zu
Legislation in all      van wetten te maaken    geben, in allen
Cases whatsoever,       in alle gevallen hoe    Fallen uber solchen
over such District      genaamt. over sulk      District (der nicht
(not exceeding ten      een district (niet      uber zehn Meilen ins
Miles square) as        boven tien mylen        Gevierte seyn soll)
may, by Cession of      in 't vierkant) als     als durch Abtretung
particular States,      by afstant van          besonderer Staaten
and the Acceptance      byzondere Staaten,      und Annehmung des
of Congress,            en het aan neemen       Congresses der Sitz
become the Seat of      van Congress mochte     der Regierung der
the Government of       bekoomen de             Vereinigten Staaten
the United States,      zitplaatze der          werden mag,
and to exercise like    regeering van de        auszuuben, und
Authority over all      Vereenigde Staaten,     gleiche Gewalt uber
Places purchased by     en om te oefenen een    alle Oerter
the Consent of          gelyke magt over        auszuuben, die mit
the Legislature of      all plaatsen gekogt     Bewilligung der
the State in which      met toestemming van     Gesetzgebenden Macht
the Same shall be,      de legislature van      des Staats, in
for the Erection        dien staat, in          welchem dieselben
of Forts, Magazines,    welken deselve          seyn werden, um
Arsenals,               gelegen zyn zullen      Vestungen,
dock-Yards, and         tot het oprechten       Vorrathshauser,
other needful           van forten,             Zeughauser.
Buildings:--And         magazynen,              Schiffszimmerhofe
                        wapenhuizen,            und ander nothige
                        scheepdokken en         Gebaude darauf zu
                        andere noodzakelyke     errichten, erkauft
                        gebouwen; en            werden; Und

To make all Laws        Om alle wetten te       Alle Gesetze zu
which shall be          maken, die noodig en    machen, die nothig
necessary and proper    bequaam zullen zyn      und erforderlich
for carrying into       om ter uitvoer te       seyn werden, die
Execution the           brengen de              vorhergehende und
foregoing Powers,       voorgaande maften en    alle andere Gewalt,
and all other           all andere machten,     die kraft dieser
Powers vested by        gevestigt by            Verfassung der
this Constitution       deese Constitutie       Regierung der
in the Government       in het government       Vereinigten
of the United           van de Vereenigde       Staaten oder einem
States, or in any       Staaten, of in          Department oder
Department or           eenig department of     Beamten derselben
Officer thereof.        officiant daarven.      ertheilet worden, in
                                                Ausubung zu bringen.

Sect. 9. The            9 Afd. De               9. ABSCH. Die
Migration or            verhuizingen of de      Wanderung oder
Importation of such     invoering van sulke     Einfuhrung solcher
Persons as any of       persoonen als eenige    Personen, als irgend
the States now          van de Staaten die      einer der jetzigen
existing shall think    nu bestaatn             Staaten zu
proper to admit,        gevoegelyk zullen       verstatten
shall not be            denken toe te           schicklich halten
prohibited by the       laaten, zal door        wird, soll vom
Congress prior to       de Congress niet        Congress vor dem
the Year one            verbooden worden,       Jahr ein tausend
thousand eight          eerder als het jaer     acht hundert und
hundred and eight,      een duisend acht        achte nicht verboten
but a Tax or duty       hondred en acht,        werden, aber ein Tax
may be imposed on       maar een taxt of        oder Abgabe, die
such Importation.       schattinge mag          sich nicht uber
not exceeding ten       gelegd worden op        zehen Thaler fur
dollars for             sulk een importatie     jede Person belauft,
each Person.            niet boven tien         mag auf solche
                        daalders voor eiken     Einfuhrung gelegt
                        persoon.                werden.

The Privilege of the    De privilegie van       Das Recht des
Writ of Habeas          het write van habeas    Habeas Corpus
Corpus shall not be     corpus, zal niet        Befehls soll nicht
suspended, unless       opgeschort worden,      aufgehoben werden,
when in Cases of        ten zy de gemeene       ausser wenn im
Rebellion or            behoudenisse in         Aufruhr oder
Invasion the public     gevallen ran            Einfalle die
Safety may require      rebellie of invasie     offentliche
it.                     het mogte               Sicherheit es
                        vereyschen.             erfordern mag.

No Bill of Attainder    Geen bill van           Kein Gesetz, das
or ex post facto Law    attainder, ex post      jemanden ohne
shall be passed.        facto wet, zal          gerichtliche
                        gepasseerd worden.      Ueberzeugung fur
                                                schuldig erklart,
                                                oder das nach
                                                begangener That
                                                gemacht wird
                                                und jemanden fur
                                                schuldig erklart,
                                                soll gemacht werden.

No Capitation, or       Geen hooft geld of      Kein Kopfgeld oder
other direct, Tax       andere directe taxt     andere unmittelbare
shall be laid,          zalt gelegt worden,     Taxen sollen
unless in Proportion    als in porportie na     aufgelegt werden,
to the Census or        de census of            ausser im
enumeration herein      optelling, die hier     Verhaltniss der zu
before directed to      in te voore             machenden Zahlung
be taken.               aan gewezen is          wie hierin zuvor
                        genomen te              verodnet worden.
                        zullen worden.

No Tax or Duty shall    Geen taxt of dutie      Kein Tax oder Abgabe
be laid on Articles     zal gelegt worden       soll auf Artikel,
exported from any       op artikelen            die aus einem Staate
State.                  uitgevoert van          ausgefuhrt werden,
                        eenige staat.           gelegt werden.

No Preference shall     Geen voorrang zal       Kein Vorzug soll
be given by any         gegeeven worden,        durch irgend eine
Regulation of           door eenige             Einrichtung der
Commerce or Revenue     regulatie, van          Handelschaft oder
to the Ports of one     koophandel of           Einkunfte denen
State over those        inkomst, aan de         Haven einem Staate
of another; nor         haavens van de eene     vor denen in andern
shall Vessels bound     staat boven die van     gegeben werden;
to, or from, one        een ander; nog          noch sollen Schiffe,
State, be obliged to    zullen scheepen         die nach einem
enter, clear, or pay    varende tot, of van     Staate wollen oder
Duties in another.      een staat, verpligt     von einem kommen.
                        zyn zich aan te         verpflichtet seyn,
                        geeven, uit te          in einem andern zu
                        klaaren, of te          entern, oder
                        betalen in een          Gebuhren oder
                        ander.                  Abgaben zu bezahlen.

No Money shall be       Geen geld zal           Kein Geld soll aus
drawn from the          getrokken worden uit    der Schatzkammer
Treasury, but in        de treasury, als        gezogen werden,
Consequence of          alleen in gevolge de    ausser wenn es durch
Appropriations made     bestellingen daar       Gesetze worzu
by Law; and a           toe gemaakt by de       bestimmt worden; und
regular Statement       wet; en een             eine ordentliche
and Account of the      gereguleerde            Rechnung von
Receipts and            optrekkinge en          Einnahmen und
Expenditures of all     rekening van de         Ausgabe aller
public Money shall      ontfangst en uitgaaf    offentlichen Gelder
be published from       van al het publijke     soll von Zeit zu
time to time.           geld. zal van tyd       Zeit bekannt gemacht
                        tot tyd,                werden.
                        gepubliceerd worden.

No Title of Nobility    Geen tytel van          Kein Adelsbrief soll
shall be granted by     adelial vergunt         von den Vereinigten
the United States:      worden by de            Staaten ertheilet
And no Person           Vereenigde Staaten.     werden; und Niemand,
holding any Office      En geen persoon         der ein
of Profit or Trust      hebbende eenig ampt     eintragliches oder
under them, shall,      van voordeel of         wichtiges Amt unter
without the Consent     vertrouwen in           denselben bekleidet,
of the Congress,        dezelve, zal zonder     soll ohne
accept of any           toestemming van de      Verwilligung des
present. Emolument,     Congress, moogen        Congresses, ein
Office, or Title, of    accepten, van eenig     Geschenk, Benutzung,
any kind whatever,      present, gewin          Amt oder Titel von
from any King,          officie of tytel van    irgend einer Art,
Prince, or foreign      eenige soort hoe        von einem Konige,
State.                  genaemt, van eenige     Fursten oder
                        koning, prins, of       auswartigem
                        uitheemsche staat.      Staate annehmen.

Sect. 10. No State      10 Afd. Geen staat      10. ABSCH. Kein
shall enter into any    zal in eenige           Staat soll einen
Treaty, Alliance, or    onderhandeling          Tractat, Bundniss
Confederation;          verbintenis, of         oder Vereinigung
grant Letters of        bondgenootschap         errichten;
Marque and Reprisal;    treeden; geen           Vollmachten, sich zu
coin Money; emit        brieven van zelfs       vertheidigen oder
Bills of Credit;        verdediging, of van     Repressalien zu
make any Thing but      wederneeming            gebrauchen,
gold and silver Coin    vergunnen; geen geld    ertheilen; Geld
a Tender in             slaan; geen billen      schlagen; Credit-
Payment of Debts;       van crediet             Zettel herausgeben;
pass any Bill of        uitgeeven; geen         irgend etwas. Ausser
Attainder, ex post      ding behalve goud en    Gold- und Silber-
facto Law, or Law       silvermunt een          Munze fur gultig in
impairing the           tender in het           Bezahlung der
Obligation of           betalen van schulden    Schulden, erklaren;
Contracts, or grant     maaken; geen bill       ein Gesetz machen,
any Title of            van attainder           das Jemanden ohne
Nobility.               passeeren, geen ex      gerichtliche
                        post facto wet, of      Ueberzeugung fur
                        wet verkortende de      schuldig erklart,
                        obligatie van           oder das nach
                        contracted, of          begangener That
                        enige tytel van         gemacht wird
                        adel geeven.            und Jemanden fur
                                                schuldig erklart,
                                                oder das die
                                                Verbindlichkeit
                                                eines Vertrags
                                                schwachet, oder
                                                einen Adelsbrief
                                                ertheilen.

No State shall,         Geen staat zal,         Kein Staat soll ohne
without the Consent     zonder consent van      Bewilligung des
of the Congress, lay    de Congress, eenige     Congresses, Auflagen
any Imposts or          imposten of taxen       oder Abgaben auf
Duties on Imports or    leggen op in, en        Waaren legen, die
Exports, except what    uitgevoerde             ein- oder ausgefuhrt
may be absolutely       goederen, uitgenoome    werden, ausgenommen
necessary for           wat absoluut            was zur Vollziehung
executing it's          noodzakelyk mogt zyn    seiner Aufsichts-
inspection Laws:        voor de executie van    Gesetze unumganglich
and the net Produce     haare inspectie         nothig seyn mag; und
of all Duties and       wetten; en de nette     das klare Einkommen
Imposts, laid by any    bedraginge van alle     von allen Abgaben
State on Imports or     duties en imposten,     und Auflagen, die
Exports, shall be       gelegt door eenige      ein Staat auf ein-
for the Use of the      staat op in en          oder ausgehende
Treasury of the         uitgevoerde             Waaren legt, soll
United States; and      goederen, zal           zum Gebrauch der
all such Laws shall     voor 't gebruik van     Schatzkammer der
be subject to the       de treasury der         Vereinigten
Revision and            Vereenigde Staaten      Staaten seyn; und
Controul of the         zyn; en sulke wetten    der Congress
Congress.               sullen onderworpen      soll ein Recht
                        zijn aan de revisie     haben, alle solche
                        en 't controul van      Gesetze zu
                        de Congress.            verbessern und
                                                einzuschranken.

No State shall,         Geen staat zal,         Kein Staat soll ohne
without the Consent     zonder consent van      Bewilligung des
of Congress, lay        de Congress, eenig      Congresses.
any Duty of Tonnage,    tongeld op leggen,      Tonnengeld heben,
keep Troops, or         krygstroepen houden,    Truppen oder
Ships of War in         of oorlogs scheepen     Kriegsschiffe in
time of Peace, enter    in tyd van vreede,      Friedenszeiten
into any Agreement      een accoord of          unterhalten, einen
or Compact with         verdrag ingaan met      Vergleich oder
another State, or       een ander               Vertrag mit einem
with a foreign          staat, of met een       andern Staate oder
Power, or engage in     uitheemsche             mit einer
War, unless actually    moogentheid, of         auswartigen Macht
invaded, or in such     haerselve in            errichten, oder sich
imminent Danger as      oorlog begeeven,        ein einen Krieg
will not admit of       'tensy dadelijk         einlassen,
delay.                  overvallen of in        ausgenommen wenn er
                        sulk een naakend        wirklich angegriffen
                        gevaar, 't welk geen    wird, oder in
                        uitstel lyden kan.      solcher
                                                augenscheinlichen
                                                Gefahr, die keinen
                                                Aufschub leiden
                                                will.

ARTICLE II.             ARTYKEL II.             2. ARTIKEL

Sect. 1. The            1 Afd. De executive     1. ABSCH. Die
executive Power         power [of               Vollziehende Gewalt
shall be vested in      uitvoerende macht]      soll einem
a President of the      zal gevestigt zyn in    Prasidenten der
United States of        een President van de    Vereinigten Staaten
America. He shall       Vereenigde Staaten      von America
hold his Office         van Amerikca. Hy        ertheilet werden. Er
during the Term of      zal zyn officie         soll sein Amt vier
four Years, and,        houden geduurende       Jahr bekleiden, und
together with the       den tyt van vier        nebst dem Vice-
Vice President,         jaaren, en 't samen     Prasidenten, der
chosen for the same     met den Vice-           fur eben so lange
Term, be elected,       President, gekosen      Zeit gewahlet wird,
as follows:             voor even langen        erwahlet werden,
                        tyd, verkooren          wie folget:
                        worden als volgt:

Each State shall        Elke staat zal, in      Jeder Staat soll auf
appoint, in such        zodanige manier als     solche Art, wie die
Manner as the           de legislature daar     Gesetzgebende Macht
Legislature thereof     van het beschikke,      desselben verordnen
may direct, a Number    aanstellen een getal    mag, eine Anzahl
of Electors, equal      van electors, gelyk     Erwahler bestimmen.
to the whole Number     aan dat geheele         die der ganzen
of Senators and         getal van senators      Anzahl der
Representatives to      en representatives,     Senatoren und
which the State may     tot het welk die        Reprasentante,
be entitled in the      staat moge geregtigt    zu welchen der Staat
Congress: but no        weesen in de            in dem Congress
Senator or              Congress: Maar geen     berechtiget ist;
Representative, or      senator of              aber kein Senator
Person holding an       representative, of      oder Reprasentanten,
Office of Trust or      eenig persoon           oder der ein
Profit under the        hebbende een officie    wichtiges oder
United States, shall    van vertrouwen of       eintragliches
be appointed an         profyt onder de         Amt unter den
Elector.                Vereenigde Staaten,     Vereinigten Staaten
                        zal aangesteld          bekleidet, soll zu
                        worden tot een          einem Erwahler
                        elector.                bestimmt werden.

The Electors shall      De electors zullen      Die Erwahler sollen
meet in their           byeenkomen in haare     in ihrem respectiven
respective States,      bysondere Staaten,      Staate zusammen
and vote by Ballot      en stemmen by           kommen und durch
for two Persons, of     ballot, twee            Looszettel fur zwey
whom one at least       persoonen, van          Personen stimmen,
shall not be an         dewelken te minste      von welchen einer
Inhabitant of the       e'en geen inwoonder     zum wenigsten kein
same State with         zal zyn van deselfde    Einwohner ihres
themselves. And         staat met haar          Staats seyn soll.
they shall make a       selven. En sy           Und sie sollen ein
List of all the         zullen een lyst         Verzeichniss von
Persons voted for,      maaken van alle         allen den Personen
and of the Number of    persoonen die           fur die gestimmt
Votes for each;         gesternt zyn, en        worden und von der
which List they         van 't getal der        Anzahl der Stimmen
shall sign and          stemmen voor elk,       fur jeden,
certify, and            welke lyst sy sullen    ausmachen; Dieses
transmit sealed to      onderteekenen en        Verzeichnis
the Seat of the         certificeeren, en       sollen sie
Government of the       verzeegeld              unterschreiben und
United States,          oversenden na' de       bescheinigen, und
directed to the         zit plaats van 't       versiegelt nach dem
President of the        government van der      Sitz der Regierung
Senate. The             Vereenigde Staaten,     der Vereinigten
President of the        gedirect aan den        Staaten senden,
Senate shall, in        President van de        addressirt an den
the Presence of the     Senaat. De President    Prasidenten des
Senate and House of     van de Senaat zal,      Senats. Der
Representatives,        in de                   Prasident des Senats
open all the            tegenwoordighyd van     soll in Gegenwart
Certificates, and       de Senaat en 't Huis    des Senats und
the Votes shall then    van Representatives,    Hauses der
be counted. The         alle de certificates    Reprasentanten alle
Person having the       openen, en dan          die Bescheinigungen
greatest Number of      zullen de stemmen       eroffnen und die
Votes shall be the      geteld worden. De       Stimmen sollen
President, if such      persoon, die het        alsdenn gezahlet
Number be a Majority    grootstgetal van de     werden. Wer die
of the whole Number     stemmen heeft, zal      grosste Anzahl
of Electors             President zijn, by      Stimmen hat. Soll
appointed;              aldien sulk een         Prasident seyn,
and if there be more    getal sy de             wenn solche Anzahl
than one who have       meerderhyd van 't       eine Mehrheit von
such Majority, and      geheele getal van       der ganzen Anzahl
have an equal Number    de aangestelde          der bestimmten
of Votes, then the      electors;               Erwahler ist;
House of                en in geval daar        und wenn als mehr
Representatives         meer dan een zy die     als einer ist, der
shall immediately       sulk een meederheid     solche Mehrheit hat,
chuse by Ballot one     en gelyk getal van      und sie eine gleiche
of them for             stemmen hebben, dan     Anzahl Stimmen
President; and if no    zal het Huis van        haben, so soll das
Person have a           Representatives,        Haus der
Majority, then from     aanstonds, door         Reprasentanten
the five highest on     ballot, een van         sogleich durch
the List the said       dezelve tot             Looszettel einen von
House shall in          President verkiesen;    ihnen zum
like Manner chuse       en zo geen persoon      Prasidenten
the President. But      de meederhyt heeft,     erwahlen; und wenn
in chusingthe           dan zal het             niemand eine
President, the Votes    voornoemede Huis,       Mehrheit hat, so
shall be taken by       opgelyke wyse een       soll aus den funf
States, the             President               hochsten in dem
Representation from     veerkiesen, uit de      Verzeichnisse das
each State having       vyf hoogste op de       besagte Haus auf
one Vote; A quorum      lyst. Doch in 't        gleiche Art den
for this purpose        verkiezen vaneen        Prasidenten
shall consist of a      President, zullen       erwahlen. Aber bey
Member or Members       de stemmen opgenomen    der Wahl des
from two thirds of      worden by Staaten,      Prasidenten sollen
the States, and a       de representatie van    die Stimmen nach den
Majority of all         elke staat hebbende     Staaten genommen
the States shall be     een stem; een           werden, so dass die
necessary to a          genoeghzaam getal       Reprasentanten von
Choice. In every        tot dit eynde zal       jedem Staate eine
Case, after the         bestaan uit een lid     Stimme haben; ein
Choice of the           of leeden van twee      Quorum zu diesem
President, the          derdens van de          Zweck soll aus einen
Person having the       Staaten, en een         Gliede oder Gliedern
greatest Number of      meerderhyd van alle     von zwey Drittheilen
Votes of the            Staaten zal             des Staats bestehen,
Electors shall be       noodzakelyk zyn tot     und eine Mehrheit
the Vice President.     een verkiezing. In      aller Staaten soll
                        elk geval, na de        zu einer Wahl nothig
                        verkiezing van den      seyn. In jedem Fall
                        President zal die       soll nach der Wahl
                        persoon die 't          des Prasidenten,
                        grooste getal van de    derjenige, der die
                        stemmen der electors    grosste Anzahl
                        heeft, Vice-            Stimmen der Erwahler

                        President zyn.          hat, Vice- Prasident
                                                seyn.

But if there should     Maar so daar twee       Wenn aber zween oder
remain two or more      of meer zouden          mehrere ubrig
who have equal          overblyven die          bleiben sollten, die
Votes, the Senate       evengelvke stemmen      gleiche Stimmen
shall chuse from        hebben. zo zal de       haben, so soll der
them by Ballot the      Senaat by ballot,       Senat aus denselben
Vice President.         uit dezelven den        durch Looszettel den
                        Vice-President          Vice-Prasidenten
                        verkiezen.              wahlen.

The Congress may        De Congress mag         Der Congress mag
determine the Time      bestemmen den tyd om    Zeit zur Wahl der
of chusing the          electors te             Erwahler und den Tag,
Electors, and the       verkiezen, en den       an welchem sie ihre
Day on which they       dag op welke sy haar    Stimme geben sollen,
shall give their        stemmen geeven          bestimmen; welcher
Votes; which Day        sullen; welke dag       Tag ein und eben
shall be the same       deselfde zal zyn        derselbe durch die
throughout the          door alle de            Vereinigten Staaten
United States.          Vereenigde Staaten.     seyn soll.

No Person except a      Geen persoon dan een    Niemand ausser ein
natural born            ingeebooren burger,     geborner Burger,
Citizen, or a           of die een burger is    oder der zu der Zeit,
Citizen of the          van de Vereenigde       da diese Verfassung
United States, at       Staaten op den tyd      angenommen wird, ein
the time of the         van de adoptie van      Burger der
Adoption of this        deese Constitute,       Vereinigten Staaten
Constitution, shall     zal verkiesbaar zyn     ist, soll zu dem
be eligible to the      tot het officie van     Amte eines
Office of President;    President; nog zal      Prasidenten
neither shall any       eenig persoon           wahlfahig seyn; auch
Person be eligible      verkiesbaar zyn tot     soll niemand zu
to that Office who      dat officie die den     diesem Amte
shall not have          ouderdom van vyf en     wahlfahig seyn, der
attained to the Age     dartig jaaren niet      nicht das Alter von
of thirty five Years,   bereikt heeft, en       funf und dreysig
and been fourteen       veertien jaaren een     Jahren erreicht hat,
Years a Resident        ingezeetene van de      und vierzehn Jahr
within the              Verenigde Staaten       ein Einwohner in den
United States.          geweest is.             Vereinigten Staaten
                                                gewesen ist.

In Case of the          In geval van't          Wenn der Prasidente
Removal of the          afzetten van den        vom Amte gesetzt
President from          President uit zyn       wird, oder stirbt,
Office, or of his       officie, of van zyn     oder es niederlegt
Death, Resignation,     dood, resignatie of     oder untuchtig ist,
or Inability to         onbequaamheyd ter       die Gewalt und
discharge the Powers    uitvoeringe van de      Pflichten des
and Duties of the       magten en pligten       besagten Amtes
said Office, the        van zyn officie, zo     auszuuben, so soll
Same shall devolve      zal hetselve            solches auf den
on the Vice             vervallen op den        Vice-Prasidenten
President, and the      Vice-President, en      fallen, und der
Congress may by Law     de Congress may by      Congress mag durch
provide for the Case    wet voorsien, voor      Gesetze, wenn
of Removal, Death,      sulk geval van          entweder der
Resignation or          verplaatsing,           Prasidente oder
Inability, both of      overlyden,              Vice-Prasidente
the President and       resignatie of           abgesetzt wird,
Vice President,         onbequaamhyd, beide     stirbt, das Amt
declaring what          van den President en    niederlegt oder
Officer shall then      Vice-President,         untuchtig ist,
act as President,       verklarende wat         Vorsorge machen und
and such Officer        officier [van staat]    erklaren, welcher
shall act               dan zal acten als       Beamte alsdenn als
accordingly, until      President, en sulck     Prasident handeln
the Disability be       een officier zal        soll, und solcher
removed, or a           acten overeenkomstig    Beamte soll demnach
President shall be      [dat ampt] tot dat      das Amt verwalten,
elected.                de [voornoemde]         bis die Untuchtigkeit
                        onbequaamheid           gehoben ist, oder
                        weggenomen, of een      ein Prasident wird
                        President zal           erwahlet werden.
                        verkooren zyn.

The President shall,    De President zal op     Der Prasident soll
at stated Times,        bestemde tyden, voor    zu bestimmten Zeiten
receive for his         zyn diensten            fur seine Dienste
Services, a             ontfangen een           eine Vergeltung
Compensation, which     vergoeding welke nog    empfangen, welche
shall neither be        vermeerdert nog         wahrend der Zeit,
increased nor           vermindert zal          fur welche er
diminished during       worden, gedurende       erwahlet worden,
the Period for which    den tyd, voor welken    weder vermehret noch
he shall have been      hy zal zyn verkooren    vermindert werden
elected, and he         geweest, en hy zal      soll, und er soll
shall not receive       in dat tyt stip geen    innerhalb solcher
within that Period      andere emolumenten      Zeit keine andere
any other Emolument     ontfangen van de        Benutzung von den
from the                Vereenigde Staaten      Vereinigten Staaten
United States,          of van eenige der       oder einem der
or any of them.         zelver.                 selben empfangen.

Before he enter on      Eer hy overga tot de    Ehe der die
the Execution of        aenvaerdiginge van      Verwaltung seines
his Office, he shall    zyn ampt, zo zal hy     Amtes antritt, soll
take the following      de volgende eed of      er den folgenden
Oath or                 bevesteging, nemen:     Eid oder Betheurung
Affirmation:--"I do     "Ik sweere plegtelyk    nehmen: "Ich schwore
solemnly swear          (of bevestige) dat      (oder betheure)
(or affirm) that I      ik getrouwlyk zal       feyerlich, dass ich
will faithfully         uitvoeren het ampt      das Amt eines
execute the Office      van President van de    Prasidenten treulich
of President of the     Vereenigde Staaten,     verwalten, und nach
United States, and      en zal myn beste        meinem besten
will to the best of     doen, na myne           Vermogen die
my Ability,             bequaamhyd om te        Verfassung der
preserve, protect       bewaren, te             Vereinigten Staaten
and defend the          beschermen, en te       erhalten, beschutzen
Constitution of the     verdeedigen de          und vertheidigen
United States."         Constitute van de       will."
                        Vereenigde Staaten."

Sect. 2. The            2 Afd. De President     2. ABSCH. Der
President shall be      zal zyn hoofd           Prasident soll
Commander in Chief      commandeur van de       Oberster
of the Army and Navy    armee en de             Befehlshaber der
of the United           scheepvloot der         Armee und Flotte der
States, and of the      Vereenigde Staaten,     Vereinigten Staaten,
Militia of the          en van de militie       und der Militz der
several States,         der byzondere           verschiedenen
when called into        Staaten, wanneer die    Staaten seyn, wenn
the actual Service      mochte geroepen         sie in wirkliche
of the United           worden, tot de          Dienste der
States; he may          dadelyk dienst van      Vereinigten Staaten
require the Opinion,    de Vereenigde           gerufen wird; er mag
in writing, of the      Staaten; hy mag, in     die Meinung von den
principal Officer in    schrifs, vraagen de     vornehmsten Beamten
each of the             opinie van de           in jedem
executive               principaalsten          vollziehenden
Departments, upon       officier in elke van    Department, wegen
any Subject relating    de executeerende        irgend eines
to the Duties of        posten, over eenig      Umstandes, die
their respective        onderwerp dat           Pflichten ihrer
Offices, and he         betrekking heeft op     respectiven Aemter
shall have Power to     de plighten van haer    betreffend,
grant Reprieves and     bysondere officien,     schriftlich fordern,
Pardons for Offences    en hy zal magt          und er soll die
against the United      hebben om reprieven     Gewalt haben,
States, except in       te vergunnen en         die Vollziehung des
Cases of Impeachment.   pardons van             Urtheils
                        misdaaden teegen de     aufzuschieben und
                        Vereenigde Staaten      Pardon fur
                        uitgenomen in de        Verbrechen gegen
                        gevallen van            die Vereinigten
                        impeachment.            Staaten zu ertheilen,
                                                ausgenommen in
                                                Fallen einer
                                                publiken Anklage.

He shall have Power,    Hy zal, by en met       Er soll Gewalt haben
by and with the         den raad en't           nach der Anweisung
Advice and Consent      consent van de          und mit Bewilligung
of the Senate, to       Senaat, magt hebben     des Senats,
make Treaties,          om tractaaten te        Tractaten zu
provided two thirds     maaken, mids twee       errichten, doch
of the Senators         derdens van de          mussen zwey
present concur; and     tegenwoordig synde      Drittheile der
he shall nominate,      senators daar in        gegenwartigen
public Ministers        meede toestemmen; en    Senatoren dazu
and Consuls, Judges     hy zal benoemen, en     stimmen; und er soll
of the supreme          met raad en consent     nach der Anweisung
Court, and all          van de Senaat, aan      und mit Bewilligung
other Officers of       stellen ambassadeurs,   des Senats,
the United States,      andere publijke         Abgesandte, andere
whose Appointments      ministers en consuls,   offentliche Minister
are not herein          judgen van de hooge     und Consuls, Richter
otherwise provided      court, en alle andere   des Obergerichts und
for, and which shall    officieren van de       alle andere Beamten
be established by       Vereenigde Staaten,     der Vereinigten
Law: but the Congress   vorwelker aan           Staaten, fur deren
may by Law vest the     stelling en hier in     Bestellung hierin
Appointment of such     nog niet anders         nicht auf andere
inferior Officers,      voorzien is, en welk    Weise gesorgt ist,
as they think proper,   by de wet zullen        und welche durch
in the President        bast gesteld worden.    Gesetze bestirnt
alone, in the Courts    Doch de Congress mag    werden sollen,
of Law, or in the       by wet de               ernennen und
Heads of                aanstelling van         bestellen, Aber der
Departments.            sulke laager            Congress mag durch
                        officieren vestigen,    Gesetze die
                        zo als zy zullen        Bestellung solcher
                        voegelyk oordeelen,     Unterbeamten als er
                        in den President        fur schicklich halt,
                        alleen, in de           dem Prasidenten
                        courten van de wet,     allein, denen
                        of in de hoofden van    Gerichtshofen oder
                        departments.            denen Hauptern der
                                                Departmenter,
                                                ertheilen.

The President shall     De President zal        Der Prasident soll
have Power to fill      magt hebben om all      Gewalt haben, alle
up all Vacancies        vacante plaatsen die    erledigte Stellen,
that may happen         mogen voorvallen        die sich wahrend
during the Recess of    gedurende de            dem, da der Senat
the Senate, by          afweezenthyd van de     nicht sitzt,
granting Commissions    Senaat, op te vullen    ereignen mogen,
which next Session.     door commissies te      durch Ertheilung der
                        vergunnen welke         Commissionen zu
                        zullen ophouden met     besetzen. welche am
                        het eijnde van haar     Ende der nachsten
                        naast volgende          Sitzung desselben
                        sitting.                aufhoren sollen.

Sect 3. He shall        3 Afd. Hy zal van       3. ABSCH. Er soll
from time to time       tyd tot tyd kennis      von Zeit zu Zeit dem
give to the             geeven aan de           Congress Nachricht
Congress Information    Congress aangaande      von dem Zustande der
of the State of the     den staat van unie,     Vereinigung geben
Union, and recommend    en recommendeeren       und demselben solche
to their                aan haare               Maassregeln zur
Consideration such      consideratie sulke      Erwagung empfehlen,
Measures as he          maat reegels als hy     als er fur nothig
shall judge             noodzakelyk en          und nutzlich halten
necessary and           dienstig zal            wird; er mag bey
expedient; he may,      oordeelen; hy mag,      ausserordentlichen
on extraordinary        op extraordinaire       Umstanden beyde
Occasions, convene      gelegentheeden, 't      Hauser, oder eines
both Houses, or         samen roepen byde de    derselben, zusammen
either of them, and     Huisen, of een          rufen. und wenn sie
in Case of              vandezelve, en in       in Absicht des
Disagreement            geval van               Zusammenkommens nicht
between them, with      oneenigheid tusschen    ubereinstimmen, mag
Respect to the Time     haar, ten opzigt van    er solches auf eine
of Adjournment, he      den tyd van             gewisse Zeit nach
may adjourn them to     adjoumement, so mag     seinem Gutdunken
such Time as he         hy ze adjournen tot     bestimmen; er soll
shall think proper;     sulken tyd als hy       Abgesandte und
he shall receive        gevoegelk zal           andere offentliche
Ambassadors and         vinden; hy zal          Minister empfangen;
other public            ambassadeurs en         er soll Sorge
Ministers; he shall     andere publijke         tragen, dass die
take Care that the      ministers ontfangen;    Gesetze treulich
Laws be faithfully      hy zal zorg draagen     vollzogen werden,
executed, and shall     dat de wetten           und soll allen
Commission all the      getrouwelyk worden      Beamten der
Officers of the         uitgevoered, en hy      Vereinigten Staaten
United States.          zal commissies          Commissionen
                        geeven aan alle de      ertheilen.
                        officianten van de
                        Vereenigde Staaten.

Sect. 4. The            4 Afd. De President,    4. ABSCH.
President. Vice         Vice-President en       Der Prasident.
President and all       all burgelyke           Vice-Prasident und
civil Officers of       officianten van de      alle burgerliche
the United States,      Vereenigde Staaten      Beamte der
shall be removed        zullen afgezet          Vereinigten Staaten
from Office on          worden van haar         sollen ihres Amtes
Impeachment for,        officie, op een         entsetzt werden,
and Conviction of,      impeachment voor,       wenn sie wegen
Treason, Bribery,       en overtuigen van,      Hochverraths,
or other high Crimes    verraad, bribery,       Bestechung oder
and Misdemeanors.       of andere sware         anderer hohen
                        misdaaden en            Verbrechen und
                        wangedragingen.         Uebelthaten
                                                offentlich angeklagt
                                                und davon uberfuhret
                                                werden.

ARTICLE III.            ARTYKELIII              3. ARTIKEL

Sect. 1. The            1 Afd.                  1. ABSCH. Die
judicial Power of       De judicial power       richterliche Gewalt
the United States       [of gerichtsmacht]      der Vereinigten
shall be vested in      van de Vereenigde       Staaten soll einem
one supreme Court.      Staaten, zal            Obergerichte und
and in such inferior    gevestigt zyn in een    solchen
Courts as the           hooge court, en in      Untergerichten, als
Congress may from       zulke laagere           der Congress von
time to time ordain     courten, als de         Zeit zu Zeit
and establish.          Congress van tyd to     anordnen und
The Judges, both of     tyd mag ordoneeren      errichten mag,
the supreme and         en vaststellen.         ertheilet werden.
inferior Courts,        De rechters, beyde      Die Richter der Ober
shall hold their        van de hooge en         und Untergerichte
Offices during good     laage courten,          sollen ihr Amt
Behaviour, and          sullen haare            behalten so lange
shall, at stated        officien houden,        sie sich wohl
Times, receive for      gedurende haer          verhalten, und
their Services a        goedgedrag, en          sollen zu bestimmten
Compensation, which     sullen opgezette        Zeiten fur ihre
shall not be            tyden, een              Dienste eine
diminished during       vergelding voor haar    Vergeltung bekommen,
their Continuance       diensten ontfange,      die nicht vermindert
in Office.              welke niet zal          werden soll, so
                        vermindert worden so    lange sie im
                        lang sy in              Amte bleiben.
                        officie zyn.

Sect. 2. The            2. Afd. De judicial     2. ABSCH. Die
judicial Power          [of gerigts] magt       richterliche Gewalt
shall extend to all     zal zig uitstrekken     der Vereinigten
Cases, in Law and       tot alle gevallen,      Staaten soll sich
Equity, arising         in wet en billykhyd,    auf alle Falle in
under this              die voorkomen onder     Recht und Billigkeit
Constitution, the       deese Constitutie,      erstrecken, die
Laws of the United      de wetten van de        unter dieser
States, and Treaties    Vereenigde Staaten,     Verfassung, den
made, or which shall    en gemaakte tracten,    Gesetzen der
be made, under their    of die sullen           Vereinigten Staaten
Authority;--to all      gemaakt worden,         und gemachten
Cases affecting         onder haar              Tractaten oder die
Ambassadors, other      authorityt; tot alle    unter ihrer Gewalt
public Ministers and    saaken rakende          werden gemacht werden
Consuls;-to all         ambassadeurs, andere    entstehen; auf alle
Cases of admiralty      publijke ministers      Falle betreffend,
and maritime            en consuls; tot alle    Abgesandten andere
Jurisdiction;-to        gevallen van            publike Minister und
Controversies to        admiraliteit, en        Consuls, auf alle
which the United        regtsgebied op, en      Falle der
States shall be a       aan de zee; tot         Gerichtsbarkeit der
Party;-to               geschillen. waar in     Admiralitat und des
Controversies           de Vereenigide          Seewesens, auf
between two or more     Staaten sullen          Streitigkeiten,
States;- between a      partyen zyn; tot        worin die Vereinigten
State and Citizens      verschillen tusschen    Staaten verwickelt
of another State,-      twee of meer Staaten,   seyn werden, auf
between Citizens of     tusschen een staat      Streitigkeiten
different States,-      en burgers van een      zwischen zween oder
between Citizens of     ander staat,            merern Staaten,
the same State          tusschen burgers van    zwischen einem
claiming Lands          differente Staaten,     Staate und Burgern
under Grants of         tusschen burgers van    eines andern Staats,
different States,       dezelve staat,          zwischen Burgern von
and between a State,    sig aanmatigende        verschiedenen
or the Citizens         landen onder grants     Staaten, zwischen
thereof, and            van onderschyde         Burgern desselbigen
foreign States,         Staaten, en tusschen    Staats, die
Citizens or             een staat, of de        Anspruche auf
Subjects.               burgers daar van, en    Landereyen unter
                        uitlandsche Staaten,    Verleihungen von
                        burgers of              verschiedenen
                        onderdanen.             Staaten, machen, und
                                                zwischen einem
                                                Staate oder den
                                                Burgern desselben
                                                und auswartigen
                                                Staaten, Burgern
                                                oder Unterthanen.

In all Cases            In alle gevallen        In allen Fallen, die
Ambassadors, other      rakende ambassadeurs,   Abgesandten, andere
Ministers and           ander publike           publike Minister und
Consuls, and            ministers en consuls,   Consuls betreffen,
those in which a        en die geenen waar      und in solchen, in
State shall be          in een staat party      welchen ein Staat
Party, the supreme      zal zyn, zal de         eine Parthey seyn
Court shall have        hooge court de          wird, soll das
original                oorspronkelyk           Obergerichte die
Jurisdiction, both      jurisdictie hebben.     ursprungliche
as to Law and Fact,     In all andere           Gerichtsbarkeit
with such               gevallen te vooren      haben. In allen
Exceptions, and         gemeld zal de hooge     andern zuvorerwehnten
under such              court een appellate     Fallen, soll das
Regulations             jurisdictie hebben      Obergericht, was so
as the Congress         beyde betreklyk tot     wohl Gesetze als
shall make.             de wet en tot de        That betrifft,
                        fact of daad, met       Appellations-
                        sondanige exceptien,    Gerichtsbarkeit
                        en onder sulke          haben, mit solchen
                        regulatien als de       Ausnahmen und unter
                        Congress zal maken.     solchen
                                                Einrichtungen als
                                                der Congress
                                                machen wird.

The Trial of all        De tryal van allen      Das Verhor aller
Crimes, except in       misdaaden, behalve      Verbrechen,
Cases of                in gevallen van         ausgenommen in
Impeachment, shall      impeachment, zal zyn    publiker Anklage,
be by Jury; and         by een jury; en zulk    soll durch Geschworne
such Trial shall be     een tryal, zal          geschehen; und
held in the State       gehouden worde in       solches Verhor soll
where the said          den staat waar in       in dem Staate, worin
Crimes shall have       die misdaaden sullen    das Verbrechen
been committed; but     begaan zyn; maar        begangen worden,
when not committed      wanneer niet begaan     gehalten werden;
wihtin any State,       in eenige staat,        wenn es aber in
the Trial shall be      so zal de tryal zyn     keinem Staate
at such Place or        in sulk een plaats      begangen worden, so
Places as the           of plaatsen, als de     soll das Verhor an
Congress may by         Congress by wet zal     solchen Orten
Law have directed.      gedirect hebben.        geschehen, als der
                                                Congress durch
                                                Gesetze mag
                                                angewiesen haben.

Sect. 3. Treason        3 Afd. Verraad tegen    3. ABSCH.
against the United      de Vereenigde           Hochverrath gegen
States, shall           Staaten zal bestaan     die Vereinigten
consist only in         alleenlyk in oorlog     Staaten soll nur
levying War against     tegen haar te           darin bestehen, wenn
them, or in adhering    maaken; of in't         jemand Krieg gegen
to their Enemies,       aankleeven van hare     dieselben erreget
giving them Aid and     vyanden, gevende        oder ihren Feinden
Comfort. No Person      haar bystand en         durch Hulfleistung
shall be convicted      onderhoud. Geen         und Unterstutzung
of Treason unless on    persoon zal schuldig    anhanget. Niemand
the Testimony of two    verklaart worden van    soll des
Witnesses to the        verraaad, 'tensy op     Hochverraths
same overt Act, or      het getuigenis van      schuldig erklart
on Confession           twee getuigen tot       werden, ausgenommen
in open Court.          deselve overtact, of    auf das Zeugnis
                        op eigene confessie     zweyer Zeugen zu
                        in de open court.       derselben offenbaren
                                                That oder auf das
                                                Bekenntniss in
                                                offentlichem
                                                Gericht.

The Congress shall      De Congress zal de      Der Congress soll
have Power to           magt hebben om te       Gewalt haben, die
declare the             verklaren de staffen    Strafe des
Punishment of           van verraad, maar       Hochverraths zu
Treason, but no         geen schuldig           bestimmen, aber
Attainder of            verklaring van          keine Ueberfuhrung
Treason shall work      verraad zal             des Hochverraths
Corruption of Blood,    corruptie van bloed     soll sich uber die
or Forfeiture except    te weegbrengen, of      Anverwandten
during the Life of      verbeurte van           erstrecken oder eine
the Person              goederen, behalven      Verwirkung
attainted.              gedurende het leeven    verursachen,
                        van den persoon die     ausgenommen so lange
                        schuldig                die uberwiesene
                        verklaart is.           Person lebt.

ARTICLE IV.             ARTYKEL IV.             4. ARTIKEL

Sect. 1. Full Faith     1 Afd. Volkomen         1. ABSCH. Volliger
and Credit shall be     geloof en crediet       Glaube und Credit
given in each State     zal in elke staat       soll in jedem Staate
to the public Acts,     gegeveen worden aan     den offentlichen
Records, and            de publike acten,       Acten, Registraturen
judicial Proceedings    records en gerichts     und gerichtlichem
of every other State.   proceduuren van elke    Verfahren eines
And the Congress may    andere staat.           jeden andern Staats
by general Laws         En de Congress mag,     gegeben werden.
prescribe the Manner    door generale           Und der Congress mag
in which such Acts,     wetten, voor            durch allgemeine
Records and             schrijven van de        Gesetze die Art und
Proceedings shall       maniere in welk         Weise vorschreiben,
be proved, and the      sulke acten,            wie solche Acten,
Effect thereof.         aanteekeningen en       Registraturen und
                        handelingen, als ook    Verfahren bewiesen
                        de uitwerking daar      werden soll, und die
                        van sullen waar         Wirkung davon.
                        gemaakt worden.

Sect. 2. The            2 Afd. De burgers       2. ABSCH. Die Burger
Citizens of each        van elke staat          eines jeden Staats
State shall be          sullen regt hebben      sollen zu allen
entitled to all         tot all voorregten      Vorrechten und
Privileges and          en vryheden van         Freyheiten der
Immunities of           burgers in de           Burger in den
Citizens in the         onderschydene           verschiedenen
several States.         Staaten.                Staaten berechtigt
                                                seyn.

A Person charged        Een persoon in          Wenn jemand in einem
in any State with       eenige staat            Staate des
Treason, Felony, or     beschuldigt van         Hochverraths, eines
other Crime, who        verraad, felony of      Haupt- oder andern
shall flee from         andere misdaad,         Verbrechens
Justice, and be         die van de justitie     beschuldigt wird,
found in another        zoude vlieden en        und der Gerechtigkeit
State, shall on         gevonden worden in      entfliehet, und in
Demand of the           een andere staat,       einem andern Staate
executive Authority     die zal op den eysch    gefunden wird, so
of the State from       van de executive        soll er auf Ansuchen
which he fled, be       authority van dien      der vollziehenden
delivered up, to be     staat van welken hy     Macht des Staats,
removed to the State    vlood, op geleevert.    aus welchem er
having Jurisdiction     en overgebracht         entflohen ist,
of the Crime.           worden, na den staat    ausgeliefert und in
                        die die jurisdictie     den Staat gebracht
                        heeft over die          werden, der die
                        misdaad.                Gerichtsbarkeit uber
                                                das Verbrechen hat.

No Person held to       Geen persoon            Niemand der in einem
Service or Labour       gehouden tot            Staate, nach den
in one State, under     dienstbaarhied of       Gesetzen desselben
the Laws thereof,       arbyd in eenen          zur Dienstbarkeit
escaping into           staat, volgens de       oder Arbeit
another, shall,         wetten daar van,        verbunden ist, und
in Consequence of       vlugtende in een        in einen andern
any Law or              andere staat, zal,      fliehet, soll,
Regulation therein,     ingevolge van eenige    zufolge eines
be discharged from      wet of regulatie        Gesetzes oder
such Service or         daar in, ontslagen      Einrichtung in
Labour, but shall       zyn van sulke dienst    demselben, von
be delivered up on      baarheid of arbyed,     solcher Dienstbarkeit
Claim of the Parly      maar zal opgeleverd     oder Arbeit frey
to whom such Service    worden op eisch van     gesprochen, sondern
or Labour may be        de party waar aan       auf Ansuchen der
due.                    sulke dienst of         Parthey, welcher er
                        arbyd mogt toekomen.    solche Dienstbarkeit
                                                oder Arbeit zu
                                                leisten schuldig ist,
                                                ausgeliefert werden.

Sect. 3. New States     3 Afd. Nieuw Staaten    3. ABSCH. Neue
may be admitted by      mogen toegelaaten       Staaten mogen von
the Congress into       worden by de            dem Congress in
this Union; but no      Congress tot deese      diese Vereinigung
new State shall be      unie; maar geen         aufgenommen werden;
formed or erected       nieuw staat zal         aber kein neuer
within the              geformeerd of           Staat soll innerhalb
Jurisdiction of any     opgericht worden        der Gerichtsbarkeit
other State; nor any    binnen de jurisdictie   eines andern Staats
State be formed by      van eenige andere       gemacht oder
the Junction of two     staat; noch eenig       errichtet werden;
or more States, or      staat zal geformeert    noch ein Staat durch
Parts of States,        worden door de          Vereinigung zweyer
without the Consent     samenvoeginge van       oder mehrerer
of the Legislatures     twee of meer Staaten,   Staaten, oder Theile
of the States           of gedeeltens van       der Staaten, ohne
concerned as well       staatrn, sonder der     Bewilligung der
as of the Congress.     consent van de          Gesetzgebenden Macht
                        legislatures der        der darin begriffenen
                        Staaten die daar in     Staaten und des
                        belang hebben so wel    Congresses errichtet
                        van van de Congress.    werden.

The Congress shall      De Congress zal         Der Congress soll
have Power to           magt hebben om te       Gewalt haben, das
dispose of and make     bestellen en alle       Land oder anderes
all needful Rules       noodzakelyke regelen    Eigenthum der
and Regulations         in regulatien te        Vereinigten Staaten
respecting the          maken aangaande den     zu verkaufen und
Territory or other      territorie of andere    deswegen die
Property belonging      eigendom behoorende     nothigen Verordnungen
to the United           aan de Vereeenigde      und Einrichtungen zu
States; and nothing     Staaten; en geen        machen; und nichts
in this Constitution    ding in deese           soll in dieser
shall be so             Constitutie zal so      Verfassung so
construed as to         beduid en uitgelegt     ausgelegt werden,
Prejudice any           worden, dat 'er door    dass es den
Claims of the           onstaan zoude't         Anspruchen der
United States,          minste vooroordeel      Vereinigten Staaten
or of any               tegen eenige claims     oder eines besondern
particular State.       of eyschen van de       Staats nachtheilig
                        Vereenigde Staaten,     seyn moge.
                        of van enige
                        bysondere staat.

Sect. 4. The United     4 Afd. De Vereenigde    4. ABSCH. Die
States shall            Staaten sullen aan      Vereinigten Staaten
guarantee to every      elke staat in deese     sollen jedem Staate
State in this Union     unie versekeren een     in dieser
a Republican Form       republicke form van     Vereinigung eine
of Government, and      regeering, en sullen    Republikanische
shall protect each      elk van haar            Regierungsform
of them against         beschermen teegen       garantiren, und
Invasion; and on        een vyandelyken         jeden Staat gegen
Application of the      inval; en op            Eingriffe, und auf
Legislature, or of      applicatie van de       Ansuchen der
the Executive           legislature, or van     Gesetzgebenden oder
(when the               de executive magt       Vollziehenden Macht
Legislature cannot      (wanneer de             (wenn die
be convened),           legislature niet kan    Gesetzgebende nicht
against domestic        saam vergadert          kann zusammen
Violence.               worden) alsoo teegen    gebracht werden)
                        inlands geweld.         gegen innere
                                                Gewalthatigkeit
                                                schutzen.

ARTICLE V.              ARTYKEL V.              5. ARTIKEL

The Congress,           De Congress, so         Der Congress soll,
whenever two thirds     wanneer twee derdens    wenn zu irgendeiner
of both Houses shall    van byde de Huisen      Zeit zwey Drittheile
deem it necessary,      het noodzakelyk         von beyden Hausern
shall propose           sullen achten, zal      es fur nothig
Amendments to this      amendments op deese     erachten,
Constitution, or, on    Constitutie, mogen      Verbesserungen zu
the Application of      voostellen of, zal      dieser Verfassung
the Legislatures of     op applicatie van       vorschlagen; oder
two thirds of the       om amendments [of       soll auf Ansuchen
several States,         verbeetering] voor      der Gesetzgebenden
shall call a            te stellen, 't welk     Machte von zwey
Convention for          in een van deese        Drittheilen der
proposing               beyde gevallen zal      verschiedenen
Amendments, which,      soo kragtig en          Staaten eine
in either Case,         bondig zyn tot all      Convention, um
shall be valid to       eyndens en oogmerken    Verbesserungen
all Intents and         als een gedeelt van     vorzuschlagen
Purposes, as Part of    deese Consititute,      zusammen rufen,
this Constitution,      wanneer het ge          welche in beyden
when ratified by        ratificeert of          Fallen, in aller
the Legislatures of     bekragtigt zal zyn,     Absicht als ein
three fourths of        door de legislatures    Theil dieser
the several States,     van drie vierdens       Verfassung gultig
or by Conventions       der verschyde           seyn soll, wenn sie
in three fourths        Staaten, of door        durch die
thereof, as the one     conventions in drie     Gesetzgebenden
or the other Mode       vierdens daar van,      Machte von drey
of Ratification may     so als de een of de     Viertheilen der
be proposed by the      andere wyse van         verschiedenen
Congress;               ratificatie mag         Staaten, oder durch
                        voorgesteld worden      Conventionen in drey
                        door de Congress;       Viertheilen derselben
                                                bestatigt werden, wie
                                                die eine oder die
                                                andere Art
                                                Bestatigung von dem
                                                Congress mag
                                                vorgeschlagen werden:

Provided that no        wel verstaande dat      Mit dem Vorbehalt,
Amendment which may     geen amendment't        dass keine
be made prior to the    welk gemaakt mogt       Verbesserung, die
Year One thousand       worden voor het jaar    vor dem Jahr ein
eight hundred and       een duisen acht         tausend acht hundert
eight shall in any      hondert en acht, zal    und achte gemacht
Manner affect the       in enige manier         werden mag, auf
first and fourth        raaken de eerste en     keinerley Weise der
Clauses in the Ninth    vierde clauses, in      ersten und vierten
Section of the first    de negende sectie,      Clausei in dem
Article; and            van de eerste           neunten Abschnitte
that no State,          artykel; en dat geen    des ersten Artikels
without its Consent,    staat, sonder           zuwider seyn soll;
shall be deprived of    desselfs, consent,      und dass kein Staat
its equal Suffrage      zal berooft worde       ohne seine
in the Senate.          van desselfs            Bewilligung seines
                        even gelyke             gleichen Rechts im
                        stemminge in de         Stimmen in dem
                        Senaat.                 Senate beraubt
                                                werden soll.

ARTICLE VI.             ARTYKEL VI.             6. ARTIKEL

All Debts contracted    All schulden gemaakt    Alle Schulden und
and Engagements         en verbintenissen       Contracte, die vor
entered into, before    ingegaan voor de        der Annehmung dieser
the Adoption of         adoptie [of             Verfassung gemacht
this Constitution,      aanneming] van deese    und geschlossen
shall be as valid       Constitutie, sullen     worden, sollen so
against the United      so bondig zyn teegen    gultig gegen die
States under this       de Vereenigde           Vereinigten Staaten
Constitution, as        Staaten onder deese     unter dieser
under the               Constititutie, als      Verfassung sevn, als
Confederation.          onder de                unter der
                        Confederatie.           Bundesgenossenschaft.

This Constitution,      Deese Constitutie,      Diese Verfassung und
and the Laws of         en de wetten van        die Gesetze der
the United States       de Vereenigide          Vereinigten Staaten,
which shall be made     Staaten, die gemaakt    welche zufolge
in Pursuance            sullen worden in        derselben werden
thereof; and all        gevolge daar van; en    gemacht werden, und
Treaties made, or       all treaties die        alle gemachten
which shall be made,    gemaakt zyn of          Vertrage, die unter
under the Authority     sullen gemaakt          der Gewalt
of the United           worden, onder de        der Vereinigten
States, shall be the    authorityt van de       Staaten werden
supreme Law of the      Vereenigde Staaten,     gemacht werden,
Land; and the Judges    sullen de hoogste       sollen das hochste
in every State          wet van 't land zyn,    Landesgesetz seyn;
shall be bound          en de judges in elke    und die Richter in
thereby, any Thing      staat, sullen daar      jedem Staate sollen
in the Constitution     aan gebonden zyn,       daran gebunden seyn,
or Laws of any          niet tegenstaande       des Gegentheils
State to the            eenige saak in de       einer Sache in der
Contrary                Constitutie of          Verfassung oder den
notwithstanding.        wetten van eenige       Gesetzen eines
                        staat daar teegen       Staats ohnerachtet.
                        strydende.

The Senators and        De senators en          Die erwahnten
Representatives         representatives van     Senatoren und
before mentioned,       te voren genoemt, en    Reprasentanten und
and the Members of      de leeden van           die Glieder der
the several State       onderschyden staats     verschiedenen
Legislatures, and       legislatures, en        Gesetzgebenden
all executive and       alle executive en       Machte, und alle
judicial Officers,      judicial officiers,     vollziehende und
both of the United      byde van de             richterliche Beamte,
States and of the       Vereenigde Staaten,     so wohl der
several States,         en van de ondeschyde    Vereinigten Staaten
shall be bound by       Staaten, sullen by      als der
Oath or Affirmation,    eed of affirmatie       verschiedenen
to support this         verbonden zyn, om       Staaten, sollen
Constitution; but       deese Constitute        durch einen Eid oder
no religious Test       te Supporten;           Betheurung
shall ever be           maar geen religie       verpflichtet seyn,
required as a           test zal vereyst        diese Verfassung zu
Qualification to        worden als een          unterstutzen; aber
any Office or           qualificatie tot        kein Religions-Eid
public Trust under      eenige officie of       soll je als eine
the United States.      publijke trust,         erforderliche
                        onder de Vereenigde     Eigenschaft zu
                        Staaten.                einem offentlichen
                                                Amte unter den
                                                Vereinigten Staaten
                                                gefordert werden.

ARTICLE VII.            ARTYKEL VII.            [7. ARTIKEL]

The ratification of     De ratificatie van      Die Bestatigung der
the conventions         de Conventions van      Conventionen von
of nine States,         neegen Staaten zal      neun Staaten soll
shall be sufficient     genoegzaam zyn tot      zur Vestsetzung
for the                 de establishment        dieser Verfassung
establishment of        [of vast stelling]      zwischen den
this Constitution       van deese               Staaten, welche die
between the States      Constitutie tusschen    selbe bestatigen,
so ratifying the        de Staaten welke        hinreichend seyn.
Same.                   dezelve dus
                        ratificeeren.

done in Convention      GEDAAN in de            Geschehen in der
by the Unanimous        Conventie, by 't        Convention, mit
Consent of the          eenparig consent van    der einmuthigen
States present the      de Staaten              Bewilligung der
Seventeenth Day of      teegenwoordig, den      Staaten, die
September in the        seeventieende dag       gegenwartig sind,
Year of our Lord        van September, in       den siebenzehnten
one thousand            het jaar van            Tag des Septembers,
seven hundred and       onses Heeren een        in dem Jahre
Eighty seven and of     duisend seven           unsers Herrn tausend
the Independance        honderd seven en        sieben hundert und
of the United States    tachtig, en 't          sieben und
of America the          twaalvde van de         achtzig, und der
Twelfth In witness      indpendentie van de     Unabhangigkeit der
whereof We have         Vereenigde Staaten      Vereinigten Staaten
hereunto subscribed     van Amerika. In         von America im
our Names,              getuide waarvan         zwolften. Zeugniss
                        wy hier onze naamen     dessen haben wir
                        hebben onder            hierzu unsere Namen
                        geschreven.             unterschrieben.

Go. Washington          GEORGE WASHINGTON

Presidt. and deputy     President, en
from Virginia           Deputie van Virginia

                        Commentary on the       Commentary on the
                        Dutch Translation       German Translation
Original Text           (De Ronde 1788)         (Billmeyer Print)

WE. the People of       De Ronde translates     Instead of "defence"
the United States,      "in Order to" as        ("Vertheidigung"), the
in Order to form a      "ten einde om,"         translation says,
more perfect Union,     meaning "towards        "Beschutzung"
Union, establish        the end" or "towards    ("protection"). We
Justice, insure         the goal of." "More     see the same
domestic                perfect" becomes        translation in Art.
Tranquility, provide    "volkmaaktere," or      I. [section] 8, cl.
for the common          "more fully made."      1. In Art. II,
defence, promote the    Instead of              [section] 2, cl. 9.
general Welfare, and    "provide," De Ronde     however,
secure the Blessings    uses "to care for"      "vertheidigen" is
of Liberty to           ("om zorg te            used to translate
ourselves and our       dragen").               the the verb "to
Posterity, do ordain                            defend." That choice
and establish this                              also appears in Art.
Constitution for                                II. [section] 1, cl.
the United                                      8, where "protect
                                                and defend" is
                                                translated as
                                                "beschutzen und
                                                vertheidigen."

                                                The letters "f" and
                                                "v" were
                                                interchangeable in
                                                the late 1700s. The
                                                translator often
                                                uses "v instead of "f
                                                throughout the
                                                print, so
                                                "vestzusetzen"
                                                denotes the same as
                                                "festzusetzen."

ARTICLE I.

Sect. 1. All            DeRonde translates
legislative Powers      the word "granted"
herein granted shall    as "toegestaan,"
be vested in a          which means
Congress of the         "allowed." So the
United States,          translation
which shall consist     literally reads,
of a Senate and         "All the legislative
House of                powers allowed ..."
Representatives.

Sect. 2. The House      De Ronde uses           For "Legislature,"
of Representatives      "bysonder" or           the German
shall be composed of    "particular"            translator uses
Members chosen every    instead of              means "law-giving
second Year by the      "several." He uses      estate." By of an
People of the           the English             "estate," the
several States,         "representatives"       translator may have
and the Electors in     instead of the          been referencing the
each State              Dutch                   German notion that
shall have the          "vertegenwoordigers."   society was separated
Qualifications                                  into a three-estate
requisite for                                   system, comprising
Electors of the                                 clergyman, nobles,
most numerous Branch                            and free citizens
of the State                                    ("Burger"). During
Legislature.                                    the rest of the
                                                translation. however,
                                                he refers to the
                                                "legislative power"
                                                ("gesetzgebende
                                                Macht") when talking
                                                about Legislature.
                                                "Qualifications" is
                                                translated as
                                                "properties" Art. I,
                                                ("Eigenschaften").
                                                In  [section] 5, cl.
                                                1, the translator
                                                instead renders
                                                "qualifications" as
                                                Tuchtigkeit"
                                                ("competency,
                                                capability").

No Person shall be      De Ronde has chosen     "Burger" is used to
a Representative        the English/French      translate "citizen."
who shall not have      word                    Although the term
attained to the Age     "representatief"        'Burger' is now
of twenty five          when he could have      mainly used to refer
Years, and been         used the synonym        to the Bourgeoisie,
seven Years a           "vertegenwoordiger."    it was also
Citizen of the          Both were and are       historically, for
United States, and      acceptable common       lack of a more
who shall not, when     Dutch words.            proper word in
elected, be an                                  German, used when
Inhabitant of that                              translating the word
State in which he                               "citizen" from
shall be chosen.                                other languages
                                                and to denote the
                                                positions people held
                                                in republics and
                                                democracies. In the
                                                late 1700s, it
                                                referred primarily to
                                                inhabitants of
                                                (usually fortified)
                                                cities who possessed
                                                rights the
                                                inhabitants of the
                                                country did not have.

Representatives and     There appears to be     "Taxes" is
direct Taxes shall      a typo in the Dutch     translated as
be apportioned          translation; "wer"      "Taxen," which is
among the several       should be "wet" for     the German word
States which may be     "Law." The word         traditionally used to
included within this    "taxen" for taxes       denote the fixed
Union, according to     is another example      price of a good,
their respective        of De Ronde using       usually fixed by
Numbers, which shall    an English loan word    authority. The
be determined by        when the common Dutch   primary meaning
adding to the whole     would have been         used to be an
Number of free          "belasting." This       appraisal or
Persons, including      also results in         estimation of
those bound to          the odd verb            especially in older
Service for a Term      "getaxt" for "to be     texts. "Taxen" was
of Years, and           taxed." Standard        also used to
excluding Indians       Dutch here would be     indicate the fee
not taxed, three        "belast." Above he      paid for an
fifths of all other     "representatief"        appraisal. For taxes
Persons. The actual     for a singular          in the modern sense,
Enumeration shall       representative,         "Steuer" could have
be made within          but in this section,    been used, or "Datz/
three Years after       he uses the English     Datz." The word
the first Meeting       spelling                "term" is translated
of the Congress         "representative"        as literally "point
of the United           DeRonde uses "tyd"      as literally "point
States, and             or "time of years"      of time." The in
within every            instead of "Term of     this paragraph and
subsequent Term         years."                 partly paraphrases
of ten Years, in                                the English text.
such Manner
as they shall by
Law direct.
The Number of
Representatives
shall not exceed one
for every thirty
Thousand, but each
State shall have at
Least one
Representative;
and until such
enumeration shall be
made, the State of
New Hampshire shall
be entitled to chuse
three, Massachusetts
eight, Rhode-
Island and
Providence
Plantations one,
Connecticut five.
New-York six, New
Jersey four,
Pennsylvania eight.
Delaware one,
Maryland six,
Virginia ten, North
Carolina five,
South Carolina five,
and Georgia three.

When vacancies          De Ronde uses the       "Reprasentation" is
happen in the           English "executive      a literal
Representation from     authority" instead      translation of the
any State, the          of any possible         common noun
Executive Authority     Dutch equivalent        "representation,"
thereof shall issue     (while the German       presumably chosen
Writs of Election to    translation presents    here for lack of a
fill such Vacancies.    a German equivalent,    better German term.
                        "Vollziehende           "Vacancies" is
                        Macht").                translated as
                                                "erledigte Stellen"
                                                ("positions that
                                                have been vacated").
                                                "[E]rledigt" usually
                                                means "completed."
                                                It comes from
                                                the root "ledig"
                                                which means "free,"
                                                and which was
                                                formerly used when
                                                one was being freed
                                                from a burden or
                                                when a position that
                                                previously was
                                                filled became vacant.

The House of            DeRonde adds            "Impeachment" is
Representatives         "aanklachte" or         translated as
shall chuse their       "accusation, charge.    public indictment
Speaker and other       indictment"             ("offentliche
Officers; and shall     alongside               Anklage"). Later,
have the sole Power     Impeachment."           the translation will
of Impeachment.                                 use the synonymous
                                                "publice Anklage"
                                                instead.

Sect. 3. The Senate                             "Legislature" is
of the United States                            translated as
shall be composed                               "law-giving power"--
of two Senators                                 the phrase that is
from each State,                                used throughout the
chosen by the                                   translation, except
Legislature thereof                             for Art. I,
for six Years; and                              [section] 2, cl. 1,
each Senator shall                              where "estate" is
have one Vote.                                  used instead of
                                                "power."

Immediately after       The Dutch               "[S]ollen sie so
they shall be           translation of          gleich als sein
assembled in            "during the Recess"     mag" is a very
Consequence of          is "when the            literal translation
the first Election,     Legislature is not      of "they shall be
they shall be           sitting. not in         divided as equally
divided as equally      session." De Ronde      as may be,"
as may be into three    gives "appointments     which makes little
Classes. The Seats      for a certain time"     sense in German.
of the Senators of      instead of              "Recess" is
the first Class         "temporary              paraphrased as
shall be vacated at     appointments."          "while ... has
the Expiration of                               parted/dispersed
the second Year,                                ("wahrend ...
of the second Class                             auseinander
at the Expiration                               gegangen ist").
of the fourth Year,                             In Art. II.
and of the third                                [section] 2,
Class at the                                    however, "recess"
Expiration of the                               is paraphrased with
sixth Year, so that                              "while ... does not
one third may be                                sit" ("wahrend ...
chosen every second                             nicht sitzt").
Year; and if
Vacancies happen by
Resignation,
or otherwise, during
the Recess of the
Legislature of any
State, the Executive
thereof may make
temporary
Appointments until
the next Meeting of
the Legislature,
which shall then
fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be      Typo in the Dutch       "[Citizen]" again
a Senator who shall     print; should be        is translated
not have attained to    "tot," not "tor".       as "burger.
the Age of thirty
Years, and been nine
Years a Citizen of
the United States,
and who shall not,
when elected, be an
Inhabitant of that
State for which he
shall be chosen.

The Vice President      Instead of using        "[V]ote" is
of the United States    the pronoun "they"      translated as
shall be President      in reference to the     "voice" ("Stimme"),
of the Senate but       votes of the Senate,    the German word
shall have no Vote,     DeRonde uses "the       commonly used for
unless they             votes" (de stemmen).    "vote."
be equally divided.

The Senate shall        De Ronde translates     As in the Dutch
chuse their other       the Latin phrase        translation. "pro
Officers, and also a    "pro tempore" as        tempore" is not kept
President pro           "for a time" ("voor     in Latin, but is
tempore, in the         een tyd").              translated to "for
Absence of the                                  the time" ("fur die
Vice President, or                              Zeit").
when he shall
exercise the Office
of President of the
United States.

The Senate shall        De Ronde's text here    "[T]o try" is
have the sole           diverges slightly       translated as
Power to try all        from the original       "gerichtlich
Impeachments. When      English. He writes,     verhoren." Although
sitting for that        "The Senate alone       "verhoren" stems
Purpose, they shall     shall have the power    from "horen"
be on Oath or           to judge all so-        ("to hear"), the
Affirmation. When       called                  prefix ("ver-")
the President of        impeachments." De       makes the meaning
the United States       Ronde translates "No    more pointed. "To
is tried, the Chief     Person shall be         hear someone" would
Justice shall           convicted" as "No       not be "verhoren"
preside: And no         one shall be            but "anhoren."
Person shall be         declared guilty."       "[V]erhoren"
convicted without                               presumes a certain
the Concurrence of                              coercien and is
two thirds of the                               closer to "to
Members present.                                interrogate."
                                                [G]erichtlich" means
                                                "by court." When
                                                translating "trial"
                                                as "Verhor"
                                                ("Interrogation") in
                                                Art. II, [section]
                                                2, cl. 12, the term
                                                "gerichtlich" ("by
                                                law") is. however,
                                                omitted.
                                                "Impeachment" is
                                                again translated as
                                                "public indictment"
                                                ("publike Anklage").

Judgment in Cases       De Ronde's term for     "Office of honor.
of Impeachment shall    "disqualification"      Trust orProfit" is
not extend further      could either be         translated as "an
than to removal from    understood as           Office of Honor, an
Office, and             "disqualification"      important or
disqualification to     or "declaration of      profitable Office."
hold and enjoy any      incompetence"           "Party" is
Office of honor,        (onbequaam-             translated as "Part"
Trust or Profit         verklaring).            ("Teil"), an
under the United                                adequate word used
States: but the                                 in legal speech.
Party convicted                                 However the
shall nevertheless                              translator could
be liable and                                   have used the more
subject to                                      literal "Partei,"
Indictment, Trial,                              that he uses
Judgment and                                    elsewhere.
Punishment,                                     "[A]ccording to
according to Law.                               law" is translated
                                                repeatedly in
                                                this text as
                                                "according to the
                                                laws" (plural).

Sect. 4. The Times,     De Ronde's              "[T]imes" is
Places and Manner of    translation             translated as "time"
holding Elections       discusses the           ("Zeit"), singular.
for Senators and        election "of'
Representatives,        Senators, instead       "[A]t any time" is
shall be prescribed     of "for" the            translated
in each State by the    Senators.               literally as "zu
Legislature thereof;                            irgend einer Zeit,"
but the Congress may    DeRonde writes          which misleadingly
at any time by          "except relating to"    reads as "at any one
Law make or alter       instead of "except      time. A less
such Regulations,       as to."                 misleading
except as to the                                translation would
Places of chusing                               have been
Senators.                                       "jederzeit,"
                                                "any time."

The Congress shall      De Ronde adds the
assemble at             word "when" to the
least once in every     final clause,
Year, and such          yielding "unless
Meeting shall be on     when they shall ...."
the first Monday
in December, unless
they shall by Law
appoint a different
Day.

Sect. 5. Each House     For quorum. De Ronde    "Qualifications" is
shall be the Judge      uses "a sufficient      translated
of the Elections,       number" (een            as "Tuchtigkeit"
Returns and             genoegsaam getaal).     ("competency,
Qualifications of                               capability"). In
its own Members, and    For "Penalties," De     Art. I, [section]
a Majority of each      Ronde uses an           2, cl. 1, the
shall constitute a      archaic term for        translator instead
Quorum to do            penalities that must    renders it
Business; but a         be paid off or          "properties"
smaller Number may      relieved,               ("Eigenschaften").
adjourn from day        "verbeurten." This
to day, and may be      type of penalty was     In Art. II,
authorized to compel    like a like a           [section] 1, cl. 7,
the Attendance of       xrequire to be paid     the privation
absent Members, in      on imported goods.      "Untuchtigkeit"
such Manner, and                                is correctly used
under such Penalties                            to translate
as each House may                               "inability."
provide.

Each House may          The Dutch               "[P]roceedings" is
determine the Rules     translation contains    translated as the
of its Proceedings,     a typo; the first       singular "Verfahren"
punish its Members      "dessels" should        ("proceeding").
for disorderly          read "desselvs"         "Verfahrens" is the
Behaviour, and,         with a v.               genitive case
with the                                        singular.
Concurrence of two
thirds, expel a
Member.

Each House shall        DeRonde replaces        Here the singular is
keep a Journal of       "Secrecy" with "to      also used for
its Proceedings, and    be kept Secret."        "proceedings".
from time to time       DeRonde adds "the       "[O]f either house"
publish the same,       votes for and           is translated as "of
excepting such Parts    against" (de stemmen    a house" ("eines
as may in their         voor en teegen) to      Hauses"). The "may"
Judgment require        reinforce the           is completely
Secrecy; and the        meaning of "yeas        omitted; the
Yeas and Nays of        and nays."              translation reads:
the Members of                                  "except such parts
either House on any                             that in their
question shall, at                              judgment require to
the Desire of one                               be kept secret."
fifth of those
Present, be entered
on the Journal.

Neither House,                                  The translation is
during the Session                              less literal here
of Congress, shall,                             than in the
without the Consent                             majority of the
of the other,                                   document: "no house
adjourn for more                                ... shall part for
than three days,                                longer than three
nor to any other                                days, and also not
Place than that in                              meet at any other
which the two Houses                            place."
shall be sitting.

Sect. 6. The            De Ronde's Dutch        "[A]nd for any
Senators and            reads, "have the        speech or debate"
Representatives         privilege to not be     is considerably
shall receive a         arrested." De Ronde     changed in the
Compensation for        omits "Speech or        translation: "and
their Services, to      Debate" and uses        for their speaking,
be ascertained by       "any words or           may it be about or
Law, and paid out       different reasons"      against a matter."
of the Treasury of      (eenige woorden of      Presumably there is a
the United States.      verschil redenen).      typographical error
They shall in all       "Zu" is a typo,         here: "von" could be
Cases, except           which should read       "vur" in the
Treason, Felony and     "Ze" (they). There      original, "fur" in
Breach of the Peace,    is no 'zu' in Dutch.    modem spelling. Then
be privileged from                              it would read: "and
Arrest during their                             for their speaking,
Attendance at the                               may it be in favor
Session of their                                or against a
respective Houses,                              matter." A similar
and in going to and                             error seems to be
returning from the                              in [section] 7, cl.
same; and for any                               l.The literal
Speech or Debate in                             translation of
either House, they                              "questioned" would
shall not be                                    have been "befragt"
questioned in any                               or "vernommen."
other Place.                                    Instead, the
                                                translation reads,
                                                "Instead, they shall
                                                not be demanded to
                                                account [for
                                                something].' In
                                                general, in this
                                                paragraph the
                                                translation changes
                                                the sentence
                                                structure
                                                considerably. For
                                                "Hauptverbrechen,"
                                                see supra Art. I,
                                                [section] 8.

No Senator or           DeRonde translates      "Bill" is not a
Representative          "created" as            German word. but an
shall, during the       "aangesteld"            Anglicism. There used
Time for which he       (appointed.             to be a German word
was elected, be         instituted, put         "bill" which meant
appointed to any        in place).              "equity," but it
civil Office under      Emoluments" is          18th century. The
the Authority of the    translated as           correct German terms
United States, which    benefits" or            would have been
shall have been         advantages."            "Gesetzesantrag" /
created, or the                                 "Gesetzvorlage"/
Emoluments whereof                              "Gesetzesvorlage"/
shall have been                                 "Gesetzentwurf" or
encreased during                                "Gesetzesentwurf."
such time; and no                               However. a
Person holding any                              contemporary
Office under the                                dictionary. Ebers
United States, shall                            (1794, Vol.2), lists
be a Member of                                  "die Bill" as a
either House                                    loanword. "[Njo
during his                                      Person holding any
Continuance in                                  office" is
Office.                                         translated as "no-
                                                one that
                                                administers any
                                                office" ("Niemand,
                                                der irgend ein
                                                Amt ... verwaltet").
                                                The rest of the
                                                sentence "during his
                                                Continuance in
                                                office" is
                                                paraphrased: "while
                                                one fills an
                                                office" ("etwas
                                                bekleiden" literally
                                                means "to clothe
                                                something").

                                                "Amendments" are
                                                translated
                                                as "Verbesserungen"
                                                ("Improvements,"
                                                "Corrections").

Sect. 7. All Bills                              "Amendments" are
for raising Revenue                             translated
shall originate in                              as "Verbesserungen"
the House of                                    ("Improvements,"
Representatives; but                            "Corrections").
the Senate may
propose or concur
with Amendments as
on other Bills.

Every Bill which                                For "Bill," see
shall have passed                               discussion of Art.
the House of                                    I, [section] 6, cl.
Representatives and                             2. "[A]nd proceed to
the Senate, shall,                              reconsider it": the
before it become a                              "it" in the German
Law, be presented to                            translation refers
the President of the                            to the President's
United States:                                  objection, and not
If he approve he                                to the bill (as in
shall sign it, but                              the English text).
if not he shall                                 The translator
return it, with his                             creates the error
Objections to that                              by translating
House in which it                               literally while
shall have                                      trying to maintain
originated, who                                 the English sentence
shall enter the                                 structure. The
Objections at large                             German sentence is
on their Journal,                               also grammatically
and proceed to                                  incorrect and
reconsider it. If                               resultingly hard to
after such                                      understand.
Reconsideration two
thirds of that House
shall agree to pass
the Bill, it shall
be sent. Together
with the Objections,
to the other House,
by which it shall
likewise be
reconsidered, and if
approved by two
thirds of that
House, it shall
become a Law.

But in all such         In Dutch, "in a like    Again, there seems
Cases the Votes of      Manner as if" is        to be a typo in the
both Houses shall be    translated as "just     phrase "vor oder
determined by yeas      as if" ("even als       gegen die Bill
and Nays, and the       of"). "Unless" can      stimmen," as there
Names of the            be read as either       was in Art. I,
Persons voting for      "unless" or "except     [section] 6, cl. 1,
and against the Bill    when" ("ten ware").     "von oder gegen eine
shall be entered on                             Sache." "[V]or"must
the Journal                                     mean "fur" or "vur,"
of each House                                   which would have
respectively. If any                            translated the
Bill shall not be                               phrase as "to vote
returned by the                                 for or against."
President within ten                            "[A]ny Bill" is
Days (Sundays                                   translated as "a
excepted) after it                              bill" ("eine Bill").
shall have been                                 For more on the term
presented to him,                               "Bill." see the
the Same shall be a                             discussion in Art.
Law, in like Manner                             I, [section] 6,
as if he had                                    cl. 2.
signed it, unless
the Congress by
their Adjournment
prevent its Return,
in which Case it
shall not be a Law.

Every Order,            De Ronde preserves      "Vote" is translated
Resolution, or Vote     the word "effect,"      as "Meinung"
to which the            which is an             ("opinion"). "[T]ake
Concurrence of the      acceptable Dutch        Effect" is
Senate and House of     word. As well, he       translated as "Platz
Representatives may     keeps the English       nimmt": "to take
be necessary (except    "bill" instead of       place.' For "Bill,"
on a question of        using the Dutch         see Art. I.
Adjournment) shall      "wetsontwerp."          [section] 6, cl. 2.
be presented to the
President of the
United States; and
before the Same
shall take Effect,
shall be approved by
him, or being
disapproved by
him, shall be
repassed by two
thirds of the Senate
and House of
Representatives,
according to the
Rules and
Limitations
prescribed in the
Case of a Bill.

Sect. 8. The
Congress shall have
Power

To lay and collect      In Dutch, "lay" can     "[D]efence" is again
Taxes, Duties,          be read as either       translated as
Imposts and Excises,    "lay" or "impose"       "Beschutzung"
to pay the Debts        (opleggen), and         ("protection'),
and provide for the     "Duties" as "duties"    instead of
common Defence and      or "tolls" (tollen).    "Vertheidigung"
general Welfare of      The Dutch word used     ("defense").
the United States;      for "Imposts" is
but all Duties,         "schattingen," which
Imposts and Excises     can mean "tributes"
shall be uniform        or, "assessments,
throughout the          estimates."
United States;

To borrow Money on      In Dutch, To "take
the credit of the       up" (opnemen) for
United States;          "borrow/

To regulate Commerce    For "commerce," De      For "commerce," the
with foreign            Ronde chooses           German translator
Nations, and among      "koopmanschap," a       chose the term
the several States,     word that speaks to     "Handelschaft."--
and with the Indian     the actions of          exchanging goods
Tribes;                 "koopmanen"             with the purpose of
                        (merchants).            profit. For
                        De Ronde chose a        "regulate," he chose
                        Dutch cognate of the    the verb
                        English word            'einrichten,'
                        "regulate."             meaning to establish
                        [R]eguleeren,           or furnish, or to
                        means to subject to     establish oneself
                        imposition of rules     somewhere. It is the
                        or control, or to       same term that will
                        supervise.              be used to translate
                                                "regulate" in the
                                                1807 translation of
                                                the First Amendment,
                                                below. In the
                                                Preamble, however "to
                                                establish" is
                                                translated as "zu
                                                setzen" ("to set").

To establish an                                 "Naturalizaton" is
uniform Rule of                                 paraphrased
Naturalization, and                             as "Ertheilung der
uniform Laws on the                             Burgerrechts" ("the
subject of                                      granting of a
Bankruptcies                                    citizen's right"),
throughout the                                  although a German
United States;                                  cognate,
                                                Naturalisation"
                                                existed at the time.

To coin Money,          The Dutch for "to
regulate the Value      coin" is "slaan",
thereof, and of         which also means "to
foreign Coin, and       strike." De Ronde
fix the Standard of     translated "to fix"
Weights and             as "vaststellen,"
Measures;               which also means "to
                        determine,
                        establish."

To provide for the      In Dutch, "To
Punishment of           provide for" is
counterfeiting the      translated as "om
Securities and          zorg te dragen,"
current Coin of the     literally, "to take
United States;          care." The Dutch
                        text reads "of the"
                        Securities.

                        De Ronde translates
                        "current" as
                        "gangbaar," which
                        can mean both
                        "current" and
                        "accepted."

To establish Post
Offices and post
Roads;

To promote the          De Ronde translates     In German, the
Progress of Science     "for limited Times"     plural form of
and useful Arts, by     to "voor bepaalde       "Science" is usually
securing for limited    ztyden"--"for some      used when referring
Times to Authors        time" or "for           to the sciences in
and Inventors the       certain time". The      general, instead of
exclusive Right to      spelling "voordgang"    to a concrete
their respective        was an acceptable       science, since there
Writings and            Southern variant        are a number of
Discoveries;            in the late 18th        scientific fields.
                        century, but the        Accordingly the
                        common spelling was     translator uses the
                        and is "voortgang."     plural form
                        The "t" and "d"         ("Wissenschaften").
                        sounds are very         For "promote," the
                        similar. De Ronde's     German translator
                        roots in the South      chose "Aufnahme,"
                        of the Netherlands      meaning something
                        explain this and        closer to "start"
                        perhaps other           instead of using
                        variants.               "Fortschritt,"
                                                "progress." The
                                                German translation
                                                of "for limited
                                                Times" is "fur eine
                                                gewisse Zeit,"
                                                literally meaning
                                                "for a known time."
                                                In this context,
                                                "gewiss" would
                                                usually mean "for a
                                                period of time" or
                                                "for a certain
                                                time," also in the
                                                literal sense of the
                                                Latin "certus"
                                                ("sure"). See supra
                                                Art. I, [section] 8.

To constitute
Tribunals inferior
to the supreme
Court;

To define and punish    For "Felonies," De      For "Felony,"
Piracies and            Ronde uses              "Hauptverbrechen"
Felonies committed      "doodwaardige           ("capital crime")
on the high Seas,       misdaaden" ("crimes     is used.
and Offences against    worthy of death").      "Hauptverbrechen"
the Law of Nations;                             initially meant
                                                crimes punished or
                                                punishable by death,
                                                but bv the 18th
                                                century was already
                                                also used to
                                                describe severe, but
                                                not capital, crimes.
                                                See Art. I,
                                                [section] 7. "[H]igh
                                                seas" is translated
                                                as "offene See"
                                                ("open sea").
                                                Offences" is
                                                translated as
                                                Verbrechen,"
                                                meaning crimes or
                                                grave wrongdoings.

To declare War,         In the Dutch print,     "Letters of Marque
grant Letters of        "zelfsverdes dinge"     and Reprisal" is
Marque and Reprisal,    is a mistake or         imperfectly
and make Rules          typo; it should be      paraphrased:
concerning Captures     read                    "authorizations to
on Land and Water;      "zelfsverdedinge."      defend oneself and
                                                to use reprisals."
                        In Dutch, "Letters      For "to defend," the
                        of Marque and           closer translation,
                        reprisal becomes        "sich vertheidigen,"
                        "Letters of self-       is used, and not. as
                        defense and             in the case of
                        reprisal."              "defence,"
                                                "Beschutzung"
                                                ("protection").
                                                which the translator
                                                usually uses.

                                                "Rule" is translated
                                                as "Verordnung"
                                                ("order," "decree"),
                                                and not as "rule,"
                                                the literal
                                                translation the
                                                translator uses in
                                                Art. I, [section]
                                                8, cl. 3 & 14.

To raise and support    De Ronde translates
Armies, but no          "support" as
Appropriation of        "onderhouden," which
Money to that Use       can also mean
shall be for a          "maintain, keep."
longer Term than
two Years;

To provide and          De Ronde uses the
maintain a Navy;        same word
                        "onderhouden" (for
                        "maintain") that he
                        did in the previous
                        line for "support."

To make Rules for       In Dutch, "land and
the Government          naval Forces"
and Regulation of       becomes "armed
the land and naval      forces on land and
Forces;                 at sea" ("krygs magt
                        te land en op zee").
                        A space between "de
                        and "schikking" is
                        missing here in the
                        Dutch translation
                        print.

To provide for                                  "[T]o provide for"
calling forth the                               is translated with
Militia to execute                              "make rules/orders
the Laws of the                                 for.'
Union, suppress
Insurrections and
repel Invasions;

To provide for          DeRonde uses            "[P]rovide for" is
organizing, arming,     "power" (magt/macht)    translated more
and disciplining,       for "Authority."        literally here than
the Militia, and                                in the previous
for governing such                              clause, and reads as
Part of them as may                             "to make provision
be employed in the                              for" ("Vorsorge zur
Service of the                                  [...] zu machen").
United States,                                  "[Discipline" is
reserving to the                                translated as
States respectively,                            "Verordnung"
the Appointment                                 ("order," "decree,"
of the Officers,                                "regulation"), the
and the Authority                               word the tranlsator
of training the                                 also used to
Militia according                               translate "rule."
to the discipline                               The structure of this
prescribed by                                   clause is changed
Congress;                                       considerably by the
                                                translator.

To exercise             There is a spacing      "[T]o exercise
exclusive               error in the Dutch      exclusive
Legislation in all      print: the print        Legislation" is
Cases whatsoever,       reads "afstantv an"     translated "to
over such District      instead of "afstant     exercise the
(not exceeding ten      van." DeRonde gives     exclusive right to
Miles square) as        "aannemen" (adopt,      give laws."
may, by Cession of      assume, accept) for     "[According to law"
particular States,      "Acceptance."           is translated
and the Acceptance      [N]eedful" is           repeatedly in
of Congress,            translated as           this text as
become the Seat of      "necessary"             "according to the
the Government of       (noodzakelyke).         laws" (plural).
the United States,                              "Party" is
and to exercise like                            translated as
Authority over all                              "Part" ("Teil"),
Places purchased by                             an adequate word
the Consent of                                  used in legal
the Legislature of                              speech. However the
the State in which                              translator could
the Same shall be,                              have used the more
for the Erection                                Art. III. [section]
of Forts, Magazines,                            2. This clause
Arsenals,                                       sticks very closely
dock-Yards, and                                 to  the English
other needful                                   sentence structure.
Buildings:--And

To make all Laws        In the Dutch            In the German
which shall be          translation, 'proper'   translation,
necessary and proper    became 'bequaam'        "Powers" is
for carrying into       (spelled 'bekwaam       singular. For Power,
Execution the           in modern Dutch)        the translator here
foregoing Powers,       meaning competent,      uses "Gewalt, in
and all other           able, or capable.       other instances
Powers vested by        For a law to be         "Macht." Both are
this Constitution       "noodig en bequaam,"    synonymous. The
in the Government       it would have to be     German translation
of the United           necessary and           used "erforderlich"
States, or in any       capable of achieving    for "proper,' which
Department or           the end it sought.      means required,
Officer thereof.                                requisite to have
                                                happen, or "what the
                                                situation demands."
                                                The translated
                                                phrase as a whole,
                                                "nothig und
                                                erforderlich," is
                                                thus somewhat
                                                redundant--laws must
                                                be "necessary and
                                                required." The
                                                redundant form could
                                                be understood to
                                                have a rhetorical
                                                function: it
                                                emphasizes that the
                                                power given is
                                                essentially
                                                restricted.

Sect. 9. The            The Dutch
Migration or            translation for
Importation of such     "duty" could also
Persons as any of       mean "assessment"
the States now          ("schatting").
existing shall think
proper to admit,
shall not be
prohibited by the
Congress prior to
the Year one
thousand eight
hundred and eight,
but a Tax or duty
may be imposed on
such Importation.
not exceeding ten
dollars for
each Person.

The Privilege of the    De Ronde uses the       In German, "The
Writ of Habeas          congate "Privilegie"    Privilege of the
Corpus shall not be     when the Dutch word     Writ of Habeas
suspended, unless       "voorrecht" would be    Corpus," becomes the
when in Cases of        more common. De         right of the Habeas
Rebellion or            Ronde uses              Corpus Order."
Invasion the public     "opgeschort" for        "[S]uspended" is
Safety may require      "suspended"; the        translated
it.                     verb "opschoren"        incorrectly as
                        means to postpone,      "aufgehoben"
                        reserve, or adjourn.    ("abrogated"),
                                                instead of using the
                                                correct
                                                "aufgeschoben"
                                                which means
                                                "deferred."

No Bill of Attainder    Rather than             "Bill of Attainder
or ex post facto Law    paraphrase phrases      or ex post facto
shall be passed.        that lacked a Dutch     Law" is paraphrased
                        equivalent, De Ronde    in the German
                        simply writes "bill     translations: "No
                        van attainder" and      Law, that declares
                        "ex post facto wet."    someone guilty
                                                without forensic
                                                conviction (court
                                                decision), or that
                                                will be made after
                                                the deed [has been]
                                                committed and that
                                                declares someone
                                                guilty, shall be
                                                made.' "Bill" is
                                                translated as "law
                                                here, unlike in Art.
                                                I, [section] 7,
                                                cl.l, 2, & 3, where
                                                the translator uses
                                                the loanword "Bill."

No Capitation, or       De Ronde gives the
other direct, Tax       literal "head money"
shall be laid,          or "head tax"
unless in Proportion    ("hooft geld").
to the Census or
enumeration herein
before directed to
be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall
be laid on Articles
exported from any
State.

No Preference shall     DeRonde uses "ships"    "[0]f another" is
be given by any         (scheepen), instead     translated in the
Regulation of           of "vessels"            plural form "in
Commerce or Revenue     (voetuigen). He         others," meaning in
to the Ports of one     omits the word          other states.
State over those        "Duties," assuming
of another; nor         it from the context
shall Vessels bound     of the paragraph.
to, or from, one
State, be obliged to
enter, clear, or pay
Duties in another.

No Money shall be       De Ronde uses the       The term "worzu"
drawn from the          English "treasury"      seems like a typo
Treasury, but in        instead of the          but is a very dated
Consequence of          Dutch "schatkist."      form of the word
Appropriations made                             "wozu", which would
by Law; and a                                   have been more
regular Statement                               commonly used at the
and Account of the                              time. "Statement and
Receipts and                                    Account" is
Expenditures of all                             translated
public Money shall                              "Rechnung, which can
be published from                               mean "calculation"
time to time.                                   as well as "invoice."

No Title of Nobility                            "[C]onsent" is
shall be granted by                             translated as
the United States:                              "Verwillung," a
And no Person                                   legal term that
holding any Office                              was already dated by
of Profit or Trust                              the late 18th
under them, shall,                              century. It can mean
without the Consent                             "consent, ' but more
of the Congress,                                frequently would be
accept of any                                   used in a more
present. Emolument,                             formal legal sense,
Office, or Title, of                            to denote a
any kind whatever,                              binding statement or
from any King,                                  declaration of one's
Prince, or foreign                              will, such as for
State.                                          the last will and
                                                testament. It can
                                                also mean "law," if
                                                understood as the
                                                will of the ruler,
                                                as in the case of
                                                "Reichs-Verwillung"
                                                ("kingdom's
                                                will/law").

Sect. 10. No State      De Ronde changes        "Tracktat" or
shall enter into any    "enter into any         "Tractat" means
Treaty, Alliance, or    treaty" to              "contract." It
Confederation;          "negotiate any          can refer to a
grant Letters of        contract." (eenige      private contract or
Marque and Reprisal;    onderhandeling          contracts between
coin Money; emit        verbintenis).           states. Again, "Bill
Bills of Credit;        "Alliance" and          of Attainder" and
make any Thing but      "confederation"         "ex post facto Law"
gold and silver Coin    are collapsed           are paraphrased by
a Tender in             into a single term      the translator.
Payment of Debts;       "bondgenootschap."
pass any Bill of        Again. "Letters of
Attainder, ex post      Marque" becomes
facto Law, or Law       "Letters of self-
impairing the           defense" (zelfs
Obligation of           verdediging). DeRonde
Contracts, or grant     chooses
any Title of            "wederneeming,"
Nobility.               literally "taking
                        back," for
                        "Reprisal." The
                        word "emit" is
                        translated to "give
                        out" ("uitgeven").
                        Instead of
                        "impairing," the
                        Dutch translation
                        uses the word
                        "verkortende," which
                        means "abridging,
                        shortening,
                        curtailing." The
                        intent in the Dutch
                        translation seems to
                        be to prevent
                        debtors from
                        escaping
                        obligations, but not
                        creditors.

No State shall,         DeRonde uses the        The phrase
without the Consent     English "consent"       "unumganglich
of the Congress, lay    instead of an           notig" is somewhat
any Imposts or          equivalent Dutch        redundant.
Duties on Imports or    word such as            "[N]otig" means
Exports, except what    "toestemming." In       "necessary."
may be absolutely       Dutch. "Produce"        "[Ujnumganglich"
necessary for           is translated to        literally means
executing it's          "Amounts"               something you cannot
inspection Laws:        (bedraginge).           walk around. It is
and the net Produce                             usually used to mean
of all Duties and                               "inevitable." This
Imposts, laid by any                            particular
State on Imports or                             redundancy is
Exports, shall be                               however found
for the Use of the                              frequently in 18th
Treasury of the                                 century texts,
United States; and                              presumably as a
all such Laws shall                             means of rhetorical
be subject to the                               amplification,
Revision and                                    stressing the
Controul of the                                 necessity of the
Congress.                                       subject referred to.
                                                In this case, it
                                                also serves to
                                                mirror the English
                                                phrase structure
                                                ("absolutely
                                                necessary").

No State shall,         In Dutch, "troops"      "Vergleich" is a
without the Consent     becomes "war troops"    peculiar translation
of Congress, lay        ("krygstroepen"). De    for "Agreement."
any Duty of Tonnage,    Ronde adds the word     In the field of law,
keep Troops, or         "themselves             it refers to a
Ships of War in         ("haerselve") in        compromise or
time of Peace, enter    this clause. "As        settlement
into any Agreement      will not admit of       agreement, made to
or Compact with         delay" becomes "as      end an existing
another State, or       can not suffer          dispute. Outside the
with a foreign          (lyden) delay."         field of law, it
Power, or engage in                             simply means
War, unless actually                            "comparison. The term
invaded, or in such                             "einlassen ' does
imminent Danger as                              not mirror the
will not admit of                               activity implied
delay.                                          with the word
                                                "engage." Literally,
                                                it means to let
                                                oneself or someone
                                                into something, to
                                                let something
                                                happen. It
                                                presupposes consent,
                                                but not much active
                                                behavior.
                                                "[I]mminent" is
                                                translated as
                                                "augenscheinlich,"
                                                meaning
                                                "obvious."

ARTICLE II.

Sect. 1. The            De Ronde added a        "[Executive Power" is
executive Power         synonym for             translated as
shall be vested in      executive power in      "vollziehende term
a President of the      brackets,               that is almost
United States of        "uitvoerende macht."    exclusively used for
America. He shall                               executive power in
hold his Office                                 German. More modern
during the Term of                              German also uses the
four Years, and,                                Latin cognate
together with the                               "Exekutive." When
Vice President,                                 translating the
chosen for the same                             notion of legislative
Term, be elected,                               power, he does not
as follows:                                     use "Gewalt" but
                                                "Macht" ("might").

Each State shall        In Dutch, the           "Legislature" is
appoint, in such        translation for         translated as
Manner as the           "direct" could be       "law-giving might."
Legislature thereof     read as "ordain,        This is the term
may direct, a Number    decide" (beschikken).   that is used
of Electors, equal      De Ronde adds "any"     throughout the
to the whole Number     before the phrase       translation, except
of Senators and         "Person holding an      for Art. I,
Representatives to      Office of Trust or      [section] 2. cl. 1,
which the State may     Profit."                where  "Stand"
be entitled in the                              ("estate") is used
Congress: but no                                instead of "Macht"
Senator or                                      ("might", "power").
Representative, or                              When referring to
Person holding an                               the "executive
Office of Trust or                              power," he uses
Profit under the                                "Gewalt" ("force,"
United States, shall                            "power") instead.
be appointed an
Elector.

The Electors shall      De Ronde uses the       "[R]espective" is
meet in their           English "by ballot"     translated
respective States,      instead of              "respectiven," a
and vote by Ballot      translating it,         rather formal
for two Persons, of     probably because        term that the
whom one at least       there was no            translator probably
shall not be an         equivalent Dutch        uses to stay most
Inhabitant of the       idiom. He also uses     literal. As the term
same State with         the English verb        is also used when
themselves. And         "directed to" in a      meaning "or rather,"
they shall make a       unique                  the synonymous
List of all the         transliteration         "jeweilig" would
Persons voted for,      "gedirect aan."         have been preferable
and of the Number of                            if the translator
Votes for each;         In Dutch, "one of       would have been
which List they         them" becomes "one      interested in making
shall sign and          of the same"            the text easier to
certify, and            ("dezelve").            understand. He
transmit sealed to                              instead, as in
the Seat of the                                 general in this
Government of the                               translation, stays
United States,                                  as literal is
directed to the                                 possible, often even
President of the                                keeping the original
Senate. The                                     sentence structure.
President of the                                which makes longer
Senate shall, in                                passages hard to
the Presence of the                             understand.
Senate and House of
Representatives,                                "[T]wo" is
open all the                                    translated as
Certificates, and                               "zween," which
the Votes shall then                            either a typo
be counted. The                                 of "zweien" or a
Person having the                               sudden use of
greatest Number of                              an older or
Votes shall be the                              colloquial German
President, if such                              Dialect, in which
Number be a Majority                            "zween" was
of the whole Number                             understood as the
of Electors                                     male variant
appointed;                                      of "two."
and if there be more
than one who have
such Majority, and
have an equal Number
of Votes, then the
House of
Representatives
shall immediately
chuse by Ballot one
of them for
President; and if no
Person have a
Majority, then from
the five highest on
the List the said
House shall in
like Manner chuse
the President. But
in chusingthe
President, the Votes
shall be taken by
States, the
Representation from
each State having
one Vote; A quorum
for this purpose
shall consist of a
Member or Members
from two thirds of
the States, and a
Majority of all
the States shall be
necessary to a
Choice. In every
Case, after the
Choice of the
President, the
Person having the
greatest Number of
Votes of the
Electors shall be
the Vice President.

But if there should                             For "zween," see
remain two or more                              Art. II, [section]
who have equal                                  1, cl. 4.
Votes, the Senate
shall chuse from
them by Ballot the
Vice President.

The Congress may        De Ronde translates
determine the Time      "determine" as
of chusing the          "bestemmen," which
Electors, and the       means "assign,
Day on which they       designate."
shall give their
Votes; which Day
shall be the same
throughout the
United States.

No Person except a      De Ronde translates     Although "burger"
natural born            "natural born           is not a perfect
Citizen, or a           Citizen" to             substitute for
Citizen of the          "ingeebooren            citizen; "ein
United States, at       burger," literally      geborner Burger'
the time of the         "a citizen born in,"    roughly means "born
Adoption of this        an inborn or innate     a citizen," dropping
Constitution, shall     citizen.                the term "natural
be eligible to the                              entirely. See also
Office of President;                            Art. I, [section] 2
neither shall any                               ("Burger").
Person be eligible
to that Office who
shall not have
attained to the Age
of thirty five Years,
and been fourteen
Years a Resident
within the
United States.

In Case of the          In Dutch, "Officer"     "Inability" is
Removal of the          is rendered "Officer    translated with the
President from          of state." De Ronde     correct German term
Office, or of his       translates the end      "Untuchtigkeit"
Death, Resignation,     of the clause as        ("Incapability"),
or Inability to         "both of the            that the translator
discharge the Powers    President and           less appropriately
and Duties of the       Vice-President,         also uses when
said Office, the        declaring what          translating
Same shall devolve      officer [of state]      Qualification,"
on the Vice             then shall act as       supra. "Law" is
President, and the      President, and such     again turned into
Congress may by Law     an officer shall act    its plural form in
provide for the Case    accordingly             the translation.
of Removal, Death,      [that office]."
Resignation or
Inability, both of
the President and
Vice President,
declaring what
Officer shall then
act as President,
and such Officer
shall act
accordingly, until
the Disability be
removed, or a
President shall be
elected.

The President shall,                            "Benutzung" is an
at stated Times,                                odd translation of
receive for his                                 "Emolument." It
Services, a                                     means "Use," but in
Compensation, which                             the active sense of
shall neither be                                someone using
increased nor                                   something; it is not
diminished during                               used in German when
the Period for which                            talking about
he shall have been
elected, and he
shall not receive
within that Period
any other Emolument
from the
United States,
or any of them.

Before he enter on                              "[Execution" is
the Execution of                                translated as
his Office, he shall                            "Verwaltung"
take the following                              ("administration").
Oath or
Affirmation:--"I do
solemnly swear
(or affirm) that I
will faithfully
execute the Office
of President of the
United States, and
will to the best of
my Ability,
preserve, protect
and defend the
Constitution of the
United States."

Sect. 2. The            For "require,"          "[P]rincipal" is
President shall be      De Ronde uses the       translated as
Commander in Chief      slightly gentler        "vornehmst," meaning
of the Army and Navy    "ask" (vragen).         "precious" or "most
of the United           For "Offenses,"         worthy." The term is
States, and of the      De Ronde uses the       mainly used in a
Militia of the          Dutch "crimes"          narrow sense, to
several States,         (misdaden).             describe noblemen
when called into                                and other equally
the actual Service                              distinguished
of the United                                   persons as "elegant"
States; he may                                  or "gentle" (See
require the Opinion,                            Adelung Dictionary).
in writing, of the                              Ebers Dictionary
principal Officer in                            lists "vornehm"
each of the                                     as a proper
executive                                       translation for
Departments, upon                               principal. Other
any Subject relating                            possible choices
to the Duties of                                such as "oberste"
their respective                                ("highest") or
Offices, and he                                 "wichtigste"
shall have Power to                             ("most important")
grant Reprieves and                             might have
Pardons for Offences                            been more
against the United                              appropriate.
States, except in                               "Power to grant
Cases of Impeachment.                           Reprieves and
                                                Pardons" is
                                                paraphrased as
                                                "Power to suspend the
                                                execution of a
                                                verdict and
                                                give pardon."
                                                Impeachment is
                                                translated as
                                                "publice Anklage"
                                                "public
                                                indictment"). The
                                                translator has
      already used another
      but synonymous term
      to translate the
      same word:
                                                "offentliche
                                                Anklage," supra.

He shall have Power,    In this paragraph.
by and with the         De Ronde uses the
Advice and Consent      cognates of English
of the Senate, to       words, "publijke"
make Treaties,          common in standard
provided two thirds     Dutch. The Dutch
of the Senators         translation of
present concur; and     "concur" could also
he shall nominate,      be understood as
public Ministers        "consent" or "agree"
and Consuls, Judges     (toestemmen).
of the supreme          For "supreme Court,"
Court, and all          De Ronde gives a
other Officers of       literal translation,
the United States,      "high court."
whose Appointments
are not herein
otherwise provided
for, and which shall
be established by
Law: but the Congress
may by Law vest the
Appointment of such
inferior Officers,
as they think proper,
in the President
alone, in the Courts
of Law, or in the
Heads of
Departments.

The President shall     In Dutch,               "[D]uring the recess
have Power to fill      "vacancies" is          of the Senate"
up all Vacancies        rendered "Vacant        becomes "da der
that may happen         places." De Ronde       Senat nicht sitzt"
during the Recess of    gives the word          ("when the Senate
the Senate, by          "absence"               is not sitting").
granting Commissions    (afweezenthyd) for      In Art. I, [section]
which next Session.     "recess;" the modern    3, cl. 2, "recess"
                        Dutch would be          was instead
                        "afwezigheid."          paraphrased as "while
                        So the phrase           [the Senate] has
                        "during the Recess      parted/dispersed"
                        of the Senate"          ("wahrend ...
                        becomes "during the     Auseinander
                        extended absence of     gegangen ist").
                        the Senate.'

Sect 3. He shall                                "[N]ecessary and
from time to time                               expediant" is
give to the                                     translated "notig
Congress Information                            and nutzlich"
of the State of the                             ("necessary and
Union, and recommend                            useful").
to their                                        "[A]djournment" is
Consideration such                              veryweakly
Measures as he                                  paraphrased to say
shall judge                                     "he may determine
necessary and                                   the meeting for
expedient; he may,                              a certain (later)
on extraordinary                                time." "Time of
Occasions, convene                              Adjounment" is
both Houses, or                                 incorrectly
either of them, and                             translated as
in Case of                                      "Meeting." This
Disagreement                                    is surprising, since
between them, with                              it is correctly
Respect to the Time                             translated earlier
of Adjournment, he                              as "Aufschiebung"
may adjourn them to                             ("postponement").
such Time as he                                 In Art. I,
shall think proper;                             [section] 5, cl. 1,
he shall receive                                the verb "to
Ambassadors and                                 adjourn" is
other public                                    translated
Ministers; he shall                             as "aufschieben"
take Care that the                              ("to postpone"). The
Laws be faithfully                              literal translation
executed, and shall                             of "to adjourn"
Commission all the                              ("vertagen"), that
Officers of the                                 is most commonly
United States.                                  used term nowadays,
                                                was considered
                                                outdated at the
                                                time, per Adelung's
                                                dictionary, but
                                                became heavily used
                                                again thereafter,
                                                according to
                                                Kruenitz's
                                                dictionary.

Sect. 4. The            In the Dutch            For "high Crimes and
President. Vice         translation,            misdemeanors," the
President and all       "misdemeanors" could    German translator
civil Officers of       be read as              writes, "hohen
the United States,      "misconduct" or         Verbrechen und
shall be removed        "misbehavior"           Uebelthaten," or
from Office on          (wangedragingen).       "high Crimes and
Impeachment for,        "[H]igh Crimes"         Misdeeds."
and Conviction of,      becomes "sware
Treason, Bribery,       misdaaden" -"serious
or other high Crimes    crimes." De Ronde
and Misdemeanors.       uses "officie" for
                        "office" instead of
                        servant's position.
                        Spelling the word
                        ampt with a "p"
                        instead of a "b"
                        probably reflects a
                        Southern variant,
                        which is, curiously,
                        still alive in
                        Afrikaans.

ARTICLE III.

Sect. 1. The            "[S]upreme and          "[S]upreme and
judicial Power of       inferior" courts are    inferior Courts '
the United States       rendered "high ' and    are translated to
shall be vested in      "low" courts ("hooge    "upper and lower
one supreme Court.      en laage"). De          courts" ("Ober und
and in such inferior    Ronde translates the    Untergerichte").
Courts as the           end of the clause to    "[S]tated" is
Congress may from       "So long as they are    translated
time to time ordain     in office." There is    "bestimmt"
and establish.          a typo in the Dutch;    ("determined").
The Judges, both of     "tyd to" should read
the supreme and         "tyd tot."
inferior Courts,
shall hold their
Offices during good
Behaviour, and
shall, at stated
Times, receive for
their Services a
Compensation, which
shall not be
diminished during
their Continuance
in Office.

Sect. 2. The            "[M]aritime" is         "Tracktat" or
judicial Power          translated to           "Tractat" means
shall extend to all     "on and at sea."        "contract." It can
Cases, in Law and                               refer to a between
Equity, arising                                 states. "Citizens or
under this                                      Subjects" is
Constitution, the                               translated as
Laws of the United                              "Burgern und
States, and Treaties                            Unterthanen."
made, or which shall                            "Unterthan" is also
be made, under their                            synonymous with the
Authority;--to all                              German word
Cases affecting                                 "Subject." "[T]wo" is
Ambassadors, other                              translated as
public Ministers and                            "zween," which
Consuls;-to all                                 either a typo of
Cases of admiralty                              "zweien" or a sudden
and maritime                                    use of an older or
Jurisdiction;-to                                colloquial German
Controversies to                                Dialect, in which
which the United                                "zween" was
States shall be a                               understood as the
Party;-to                                       male variant of
Controversies                                   "two." "Burger oder
between two or more                             Unterthanen": In
States;- between a                              contrast to
State and Citizens                              "Unterthan,"
of another State,-                              which means someone
between Citizens of                             being subject to
different States,-                              someone's reign.
between Citizens of                             "Burger" in the
the same State                                  narrow sense
claiming Lands                                  connotes a position
under Grants of                                 with certain
different States,                               rights, see supra
and between a State,                            Art. I, [section] 2.
or the Citizens
thereof, and
foreign States,
Citizens or
Subjects.

In all Cases            "Fact" is expanded      "[P]ublic Ministers"
Ambassadors, other      to "fact or deed"       is almost translated
Ministers and           ("fact of daad").       too literally,
Consuls, and                                    creating an unusual/
those in which a                                foreign term in
State shall be                                  German (Anglicism),
Party, the supreme                              "publike Minister."
Court shall have                                Although
original                                        "offentliche" would
Jurisdiction, both                              be more suitable,
as to Law and Fact,                             and is used by the
with such                                       translator at
Exceptions, and                                 another instance,
under such                                      "publik" is the
Regulations                                     adjective he mostly
as the Congress                                 uses when
shall make.                                     translating
                                                "Impeachment".
                                                Party' is translated
                                                "Partei" here, while
                                                in Art. I, [section]
                                                3, cl. 7, he uses
                                                "Theil" ("Part")
                                                instead. Both,
                                                however, are correct
                                                usages.

The Trial of all        De Ronde uses           "Trial" is
Crimes, except in       "tryal" for "trial."    translated as
Cases of                This is not a common    "interrogation"
Impeachment, shall      Dutch word, but         ("Verhor"). The
be by Jury; and         another instance of     translator choses
such Trial shall be     the Americanization     similar words in
held in the State       of De Ronde's           Art. I, [section]
where the said          language.               3, cl. 6, when
Crimes shall have                               translating "to try"-
been committed; but                             "gerichtlich
when not committed                              verhoren" ("to
wihtin any State,                               interrogate in a
the Trial shall be                              court of law"). In
at such Place or                                the translation
Places as the                                   of "said crime," the
Congress may by                                 word "said" is
Law have directed.                              missing. The phrase
                                                "by Law" is again
                                                translated as a
                                                plural: "durch
                                                Gesetze" ("by Laws").

Sect. 3. Treason                                "Treason" is
against the United                              translated
States, shall                                   '"Hochverrath"
consist only in                                 ("high treason").
levying War against                             "[Ojpen court" is
them, or in adhering                            translated as
to their Enemies,                               "public court"
giving them Aid and                             ("offentlichen
Comfort. No Person                              Gericht").
shall be convicted
of Treason unless on
the Testimony of two
Witnesses to the
same overt Act, or
on Confession
in open Court.

The Congress shall      De Ronde translates     "Corruption of
have Power to           "Attainder of           Blood" is explained:
declare the             Treason" to             "shall extend to
Punishment of           "Declaration of         its relatives." The
Treason, but no         guilt" ("schuldig       noun "Anverwandten"
Attainder of            verklaring").           is used here, which
Treason shall work      The term "attainted"    means some relation
Corruption of Blood,    is rendered             by blood (possibly
or Forfeiture except    "declared guilty"       including brothers/
during the Life of      ("schuldig              sisters-in-law).
the Person              verklaart").
attainted.

ARTICLE IV.

Sect. 1. Full Faith                             "[C]redit" is
and Credit shall be                             translated
given in each State                             literally, rendered
to the public Acts,                             "Credit." In German,
Records, and                                    the phrase "Glaube
judicial Proceedings                            und Credit" is
of every other State.                           redundant and has
And the Congress may                            only rhetorical
by general Laws                                 relevance, but is
prescribe the Manner                            found frequently.
in which such Acts,                             (The Latin verb
Records and                                     "credere" means
Proceedings shall                               the same as
be proved, and the                              "glauben" ("to
Effect thereof.                                 believe')). "Acts"
                                                is translated
                                                "Acten," which can
                                                both mean "act" in
                                                the sense of deed,
                                                as well as "files."

Sect. 2. The            De Ronde's              For "Burger," see
Citizens of each        translation of          Art. I, [section] 2.
State shall be          privileges as           For privileges,
entitled to all         'voorregten'            the German
Privileges and          reflects the notion     translator uses
Immunities of           that privileges were    'Vorrechte', meaning
Citizens in the         benefits granted by     a special benefit
several States.         the state, instead      granted. But for
                        of rights. For          for immunities, he
                        'immunities',           uses 'Freyheiten' or
                        De Ronde uses           freedoms. The
                        'vryheden' or           translation is not
                        freedom, a word that    very elegant here,
                        reflects a notion of    particularly
                        natural liberty         because "Vorrechte"
                        rather than a           and "berechtigt"
                        special grant           ("entitled") are
                        by the state.           somewhat redundant.
                                                This is likely the
                                                result of the
                                                literalness of the
                                                translation.

A Person charged        DeRonde uses            "[C]harged" is
in any State with       "Brought over to"       translated as
Treason, Felony, or     ("overgebracht"),       "beschuldigt"
other Crime, who        instead of              ("accused") which
shall flee from         "removed."              does not necessarily
Justice, and be                                 refer to a court
found in another                                charge but can also
State, shall on                                 simple mean "blamed."
Demand of the                                   "[Djemand" is
executive Authority                             translated
of the State from                               Ansuchen"
which he fled, be                               ("request") which
delivered up, to be                             has a weaker
removed to the State                            connotation than
having Jurisdiction                             "Hauptverbrechen,"
of the Crime.                                   see Art. I, [section]
                                                [section] 7. 8.

No Person held to
Service or Labour
in one State, under
the Laws thereof,
escaping into
another, shall,
in Consequence of
any Law or
Regulation therein,
be discharged from
such Service or
Labour, but shall
be delivered up on
Claim of the Parly
to whom such Service
or Labour may be
due.

Sect. 3. New States
may be admitted by
the Congress into
this Union; but no
new State shall be
formed or erected
within the
Jurisdiction of any
other State; nor any
State be formed by
the Junction of two
or more States, or
Parts of States,
without the Consent
of the Legislatures
of the States
concerned as well
as of the Congress.

The Congress shall                              The first part of
have Power to                                   this clause's
dispose of and make                             translation says:
all needful Rules                               "The Congress shall
and Regulations                                 have the power to
respecting the                                  sell the land or
Territory or other                              other property of the
Property belonging                              United States and
to the United                                   for this to make the
States; and nothing                             necessary rules/
in this Constitution                            orders and
shall be so                                     establishments."
construed as to
Prejudice any
Claims of the
United States,
or of any
particular State.

Sect. 4. The United     In Dutch, "Invasion"    "Invasion" is
States shall            is expanded to          translated
guarantee to every      "enemy invasion"        "Eingriffe," which
State in this Union     ("vyandelyken           has a less
a Republican Form       inval").                aggressive meaning
of Government, and                              than invasion. It
shall protect each                              literally means to
of them against                                 put your hand in."
Invasion; and on                                It is also used when
Application of the                              referring to
Legislature, or of                              infringements,  and
the Executive                                   can also mean
(when the                                       "to intervene." A
Legislature cannot                              more appropriate and
be convened),                                   more frequently used
against domestic                                term would have been
Violence.                                       "Einfall,"or the
                                                more literal but
                                                much less frequent
                                                "Invasion."

ARTICLE V.

The Congress,           DeRonde gives both      "Amendments" are
whenever two thirds     "geratifcieert"         again translated as
of both Houses shall    (ratified) and the      "Verbesserungen"
deem it necessary,      Dutch equivalent        ("Improvements,"
shall propose           "bekragtigt."           "Corrections"). For
Amendments to this      De Ronde uses the       "Intents and
Constitution, or, on    English                 Purposes," the term
the Application of      "legislatures"          "purposes" is
the Legislatures of     instead of any Dutch    missing in the
two thirds of the       equivalent, possibly    German translation.
several States,         because he is           "[T]o affect"
shall call a            speaking of the         is translated
Convention for          American legislatures   "zuwider sein" which
proposing               specifically. DeRonde   means "to be
Amendments, which,      follows "Amendments"    contradictory to" or
in either Case,         with the word           "to be against."
shall be valid to       "improvement"
all Intents and         (verbeetering).
Purposes, as Part of    He uses
this Constitution,      "understanding
when ratified by        (verstaande) for
the Legislatures of     "Provided."
three fourths of
the several States,
or by Conventions
in three fourths
thereof, as the one
or the other Mode
of Ratification may
be proposed by the
Congress;

Provided that no
Amendment which may
be made prior to the
Year One thousand
eight hundred and
eight shall in any
Manner affect the
first and fourth
Clauses in the Ninth
Section of the first
Article; and
that no State,
without its Consent,
shall be deprived of
its equal Suffrage
in the Senate.

ARTICLE VI.

All Debts contracted                            Instead of "all Debts
and Engagements                                 contracted,'' the
entered into, before                            translation says
the Adoption of                                 "all Debts and
this Constitution,                              Contracts ... that
shall be as valid                               were made and
against the United                              closed." It is
States under this                               unclear whether the
Constitution, as                                translator wanted
under the                                       to translate
Confederation.                                  "Engagement" as
                                                "contract." which
                                                would have been
                                                possible, although a
                                                little narrow, or
                                                whether he misread
                                                the sentence,
                                                initally taking the
                                                verb for a noun,
                                                which made the rest
                                                of the sentenced
                                                difficult for him to
                                                to get right.

This Constitution,      De Ronde uses the       "[I]n Persuance
and the Laws of         English words           thereof" is
the United States       "treaties" and          translated
which shall be made     "judges" instead of     correctly, but with
in Pursuance            the Dutch               a weaker tone than
thereof; and all        equivalents             in the original:
Treaties made, or       "verdragen" and         "in Folge" which
which shall be made,    "rechteren." Again,     means "as a result
under the Authority     one might presume he    of." The following
of the United           is preparing a          clause is not
States, shall be the    Dutch American          translated correctly
supreme Law of the      audience for words      and as a result does
Land; and the Judges    that will appear in     not make sense in
in every State          the context of the      German: "[A]nd all
shall be bound          new country.            treaties made, or
thereby, any Thing                              which shall be made"
in the Constitution                             becomes "and all
or Laws of any                                  Treaties made that
State to the                                    will be made" ("alle
Contrary                                        gemachten Vertrage,
notwithstanding.                                die ... gemacht
                                                werden"). Presumably
                                                this results from
                                                the translator's
                                                attempt to keep the
                                                English sentence
                                                structure as much as
                                                possible.

The Senators and        The word "zal"          "Qualifications" is
Representatives         (shall), has been       translated as
before mentioned,       added by pen on the     "Eigenschaft"
and the Members of      Dutch translation's     ("property"). as in
the several State       original typeset        Art. I, [section] 2,
Legislatures, and       printing.               cl. 1. In Art. I,
all executive and                               [section] 5, cl. 1,
judicial Officers,                              however, he used
both of the United                              "Tuchtigkeit"
States and of the                               ("competency,
several States,                                 capability").
shall be bound by
Oath or Affirmation,
to support this
Constitution; but
no religious Test
shall ever be
required as a
Qualification to
any Office or
public Trust under
the United States.

ARTICLE VII.

The ratification of     De Ronde gives both
the conventions         "establishment" and
of nine States,         "vast stelling," the
shall be sufficient     first word being
for the                 only used in
establishment of        English. It seems
this Constitution       that he wants to
between the States      maintain the literal
so ratifying the        language as much as
Same.                   possible and provide
                        another word to
                        explain to a Dutch
                        audience.

done in Convention
by the Unanimous
Consent of the
States present the
Seventeenth Day of
September in the
Year of our Lord
one thousand
seven hundred and
Eighty seven and of
the Independance
of the United States
of America the
Twelfth In witness
whereof We have
hereunto subscribed
our Names,

Go. Washington

Presidt. and deputy
from Virginia


Bill of Rights                                  Bill of Rights
Original Text                                   German Translation
                                                (1807 Print)

                                                Anderungen von
Amendments                                      1789/91

[1.] Congress shall                             Der Congress soll
make no law                                     kein Gesez machen,
respecting an                                   welches eine
establishment of                                Religion festsezt
religion, or                                    oder welches die
prohibiting the free                            freye Ausubung
exercise thereof;                               derselben verbietet:
or abridging the                                oder welches die
freedom of speech,                              Freyheit im
or of the press; or                             Reden und der
the right of the                                Presse, oder das
people peaceably to                             Recht des Volks,
assemble, and to                                sich auf eine
petition the                                    friedliche Art zu
Government for a                                versammlen und sich
redress of                                      an die Regierung um
grievances.                                     Abhulfe von
                                                Beschwerden zu
                                                wenden, verkurzt.

[2.] A well                                     Da eine gut
regulated Militia,                              eingerichtete Miliz
being necessary to                              zu der Sicherheit
the security of a                               eines freyen Staats
free State, the                                 nothig ist, so soll
right of the people                             dem Recht des Volks,
to keep and bear                                Waffen zu tragen
                                                kein Eintrag
                                                geschehen.

[3.] No Soldier                                 Kein Soldat soll in
shall, in time of                               Friedenszeiten in
peace be quartered                              ein Haus ohne
in any house,                                   Erlaubnis des
without the consent                             Eigenthumers
of the Owner, nor                               einquartirt werden,
in time of war, but                             und in Kriegszeiten
in a manner to be                               nur auf eine Art,
prescribed by law.                              wie das Gesez
                                                vorschreibt.

[4.] The right of                               Das Recht des Volks,
the people to be                                an ihren Personen.
secure in their                                 Haussern.
persons, houses,                                Briefschaften und
papers, and effects,                            Gutern fur
againts unreasonable                            unbilligen
searches and                                    Nachsuchungen und
seizures, shall not                             Wegnahmen sicher zu
be violated, and                                seyn, soll nicht
no Warrants shall                               verlezt werden; und
issue, but upon                                 es soll nur
probable cause,                                 aus einer
supported by Oath or                            wahrscheinlichen
affirmation, and                                Ursach, welche durch
particularly                                    einen Eyd oder
describing                                      feyerliche
the place to be                                 Versicherung Gewicht
searched, and the                               erhalt, ein
persons or things                               Verhafts-Befehl, in
to be seized.                                   welchem ganz
                                                besonders der Ort,
                                                welcher untersucht
                                                und die Personen
                                                oder Sachen, welche
                                                verhaftet werden
                                                sollen, beschrieben
                                                sind, ausgegeben
                                                werden.

[5.] No person shall                            Niemand soll
be held to answer                               gehalten seyn sich
for a capital, or                               wegen eines Haupt-
otherwise infamous                              Verbrechens zu
crime, unless on a                              verantworten, es sey
presentment or                                  denn auf eine
indictment of a                                 Anklage von einer
Grand Jury, except                              Grand Jury, ausser
in cases arising in                             in Fallen, welche
the land or naval                               sich bey der Land-
forces, or in the                               und See-Macht oder
Militia, when in                                der Miliz, wenn
actual service                                  dieselbe, in
in time of War or                               Kriegszeiten und
public danger; nor                              offentlicher Gefahr,
shall any person be                             in wirklichen
subject for the same                            Diensten ist; auch
offence to be twice                             soll niemand fur ein
put in jeopardy of                              und dassselbe
life or limb; nor                               Verbrechen zweymal
shall be compelled                              einen Prozess zu
in any criminal case                            untergehen haben, wo
to be a witness                                 es auf Leib- oder
against himself,                                Lebens-Strafe
nor be deprived of                              ankommt; auch soll
life. liberty, or                               in einer peinlichen
property, without                               Sache niemand
due process of law;                             gezwungen werden,
nor shall private                               Zeuge gegen sich
property be taken                               selbst zu seyn; auch
for public use,                                 soll niemand ohne
without just                                    gehorigen
compensation.                                   gesezlichen Prozess
                                                seines Lebens,
                                                Freyheit oder
                                                Eigenthums beraubt
                                                werden; auch soll
                                                kein privat
                                                Eigenthum zu einem
                                                offentlichen
                                                Gebrauch ohne
                                                billige
                                                Entschadigung
                                                genommen werden.

[6.] In all criminal                            Bey allen peinlichen
prosecutions, the                               Prozessen soll der
accused shall enjoy                             Angeklagte das Recht
the right to a                                  eines baldigen und
speedy and public                               offentlichen Verhors
trial, by an                                    vor einem
impartial jury of                               unpartheyischen
the State and                                   Gericht von
district wherein                                Geschworenen des
the crime shall                                 Staats und Bezirks
have been committed,                            haben, worinn das
which district shall                            Verbrechen begangen
have been previously                            seyn wird und
ascertained by law,                             welcher Bezirk
and to be informed                              vorher durch ein
of the nature and                               Gesez bestimmt seyn
cause of the                                    soll; und (das
accusation; to be                               Recht) vor der Art
confronted with                                 und Ursache der
the witnesses                                   Anklage unterrichtet
against him; to have                            werden; dass ihm die
compulsory process                              Zeugen gegen ihn
for obtaining                                   vor Augen gestellt
witnesses in his                                werden; Zwangs-
favor, and to have                              Befehl zu erlangen,
the Assistance of                               um Zeugen zu seinen
Counsel for his                                 Gunsten beyzubringen
defence.                                        und zu seiner
                                                Vertheidigung
                                                Rechts- Beystande zu
                                                haben.

[7.] In Suits at                                In burgerlichen
common law, where                               Klagesachen soll,
the value in                                    wenn der Werth der
controversy shall                               streitigen Sache
exceed twenty                                   uber zwanzig Thaler
dollars, the right                              ist, das Recht eines
of trial by jury                                Verhors vor einer
shall be preserved,                             Jury unverlezt
and no fact tried by                            bleiben; und eine
a jury, shall be                                Sache, welche vor
otherwise re-                                   einem Gericht von
examined in any                                 Geschworenen verhort
Court of the United                             werden, soll, in
States, than                                    irgend einem Gericht
according to the                                der Vereinigten
rules of the common                             Staaten auf keine
law.                                            andere Art wieder
                                                untersucht werden,
                                                als nach den Regeln
                                                des gemeinen Rechts.

[8.] Excessive bail                             Es soll keine
shall not be                                    ausserordentuch
required, nor                                   grosse Burgschaft
excessive fines                                 gefordert, keine
imposed, nor cruel                              ausserordentlich
and unusual                                     grosse Geld-Strafen
punishments                                     auferlegt und keine
inflicted.                                      grausamen und
                                                ungewohnliche
                                                Leibes-Strafen
                                                ausgeubt werden.

[9.] The enumeration                            Die Namhaftmachung
in the Constitution,                            gewisser Rechte in
of certain rights,                              der Regierungs-
shall not be                                    Verfassung soll
construed to deny                               nicht so ausgelegt
or disparage others                             werden, dass andere
retained by the                                 Rechte, welche dem
people.                                         Volk Vorbehalten
                                                sind, dadurch
                                                abgeleugnet oder
                                                geschmalert wurden.

[10.] The powers not                            Die Rechte, welche
delegated to the                                die Regierungs-
United States by                                Verfassung nicht
the Constitution,                               den Vereinigten
nor prohibited by                               Staaten ubertragen,
it to the States,                               noch den Staaten
are reserved to the                             abgesagt hat, sind
States respectively,                            den verschiedenen
or to the people.                               Staaten oder dem
                                                Volke Vorbehalten.

Bill of Rights                                  Commentary on the
Original Text                                   German Translation

Amendments

[1.] Congress shall                             The term
make no law                                     "respecting" is
respecting an                                   missing in the
establishment of                                translation. Instead
religion, or                                    "or the press," the
prohibiting the free                            translation reads
exercise thereof;                               "and the press."
or abridging the                                "[T]o
freedom of speech,                              petition for" is
or of the press; or                             translated weaker,
the right of the                                with "sich wenden
people peaceably to                             an' ("to turn to").
assemble, and to
petition the
Government for a
redress of
grievances.

[2.] A well                                     "[T]o keep and bear
regulated Militia,                              arms" is translated
being necessary to                              in a reduced form:
the security of a                               as "to carry arms."
free State, the
right of the people
to keep and bear

[3.] No Soldier                                 The sentence has
shall, in time of                               been slightly
peace be quartered                              modified and reads,
in any house,                                   "No soldier shall in
without the consent                             time of peace be
of the Owner, nor                               quartered in a house
in time of war, but                             without the
in a manner to be                               permission of the
prescribed by law.                              owner and in times
                                                of war only in a
                                                manner, as
                                                the law
                                                prescribes."

[4.] The right of                               Here again, the text
the people to be                                has been modified
secure in their                                 slightly and is hard
persons, houses,                                to read.
papers, and effects,                            "[Affirmation" is
againts unreasonable                            translated as
searches and                                    "feyerlichen
seizures, shall not                             Versicherung"
be violated, and                                ("solemn
no Warrants shall                               affirmation").
issue, but upon
probable cause,
supported by Oath or
affirmation, and
particularly
describing
the place to be
searched, and the
persons or things
to be seized.

[5.] No person shall                            "[C]apital or
be held to answer                               otherwise infamous
for a capital, or                               crime" is translated
otherwise infamous                              in a truncated
crime, unless on a                              manner as
presentment or                                  "Hauptverbrechen"
indictment of a                                 ("capital crime")
Grand Jury, except                              which points to a
in cases arising in                             broad understanding
the land or naval                               of the term "capital
forces, or in the                               crime" by the
Militia, when in                                translator. See
actual service                                  supra Art. 1.
in time of War or                               [section][section]
public danger; nor                              7, 8. [P]resentment
shall any person be                             and indictment" is
subject for the same                            truncated, as
offence to be twice                             "Anklage"
put in jeopardy of                              ("indictment").
life or limb; nor                               "[P]ut in to "to
shall be compelled                              have to endure a
in any criminal case                            trial, where
to be a witness                                 punishments
against himself,                                regarding life and
nor be deprived of                              limb are relevant."
life. liberty, or                               "[Criminal" is
property, without                               translated
due process of law;                             "peinlich"
nor shall private                               ("painful"), an old.
property be taken                               commonly used to
for public use,                                 fill in for the
without just                                    Latin "criminalis"
compensation.                                   (since nearly all
                                                criminal offenses
                                                were punished
                                                painfully, mostly
                                                by death).

[6.] In all criminal                            Again, "peinlich" is
prosecutions, the                               used to translate
accused shall enjoy                             "criminal." See
the right to a                                  supra. "[T]rial" is
speedy and public                               again translated as
trial, by an                                    "Verhor"
impartial jury of                               ("interrogation").
the State and                                   See supra.
district wherein                                "[C]ompulsory
the crime shall                                 process" is
have been committed,                            translated "Zwangs-
which district shall                            Befehle"
have been previously                            ("compelling
ascertained by law,                             orders"). The last
and to be informed                              part reads as a
of the nature and                               whole "...
cause of the                                    the right ...
accusation; to be                               to obtain
confronted with                                 compelling orders,
the witnesses                                   in order to produce
against him; to have                            witnesses in
compulsory process                              favour of him."
for obtaining                                   "[C]ounsel" is
witnesses in his                                translated "Rechts-
favor, and to have                              Beystande" ("legal
the Assistance of                               counsels").
Counsel for his
defence.

[7.] In Suits at                                "[D]ollar" is
common law, where                               translated as
the value in                                    "Thaler," also the
controversy shall                               word for the German
exceed twenty                                   silver coin still
dollars, the right                              in use during the
of trial by jury                                18th century
shall be preserved,                             ("Conventionsthaler,"
and no fact tried by                            or abbreviated,
a jury, shall be                                "Thaler" or
otherwise re-                                   "Taler"). "Tried"
examined in any                                 is again translated
Court of the United                             as "verhort"
States, than                                    ("interrogated").
according to the                                See supra. The
rules of the common                             Translation of the
law.                                            phrase "and no fact,
                                                tried by a jury ..."
                                                is grammatically
                                                incorrect and
                                                therefore does not
                                                make sense. Either
                                                an auxiliary verb is
                                                missing, or the
                                                present verb
                                                ("werden") has the
                                                wrong tense. In the
                                                present form, it
                                                can't even be re-
                                                translated into
                                                English.

[8.] Excessive bail                             "[E]xcessive" is
shall not be                                    translated as
required, nor                                   "unusually large."
excessive fines                                 "[I]nflicted" is
imposed, nor cruel                              translated as
and unusual                                     "ausgeubt"
punishments                                     ("exercised").
inflicted.                                      "[P]unishments"
                                                reads more
                                                specifically as
                                                "punishments [of
                                                the] body"
                                                ("Leibes-Strafen").

[9.] The enumeration                            "Enumeration" is
in the Constitution,                            translated
of certain rights,                              "Nahmhaftmachung,"
shall not be                                    which means
construed to deny                               "nomination. '
or disparage others                             "Aufzahlung" would
retained by the                                 have been the
people.                                         correct translation.
                                                For "retained," he
                                                uses "Vorbehalten
                                                ("reserved").
                                                "[Disparaged" is
                                                translated as
                                                "geschmalert"
                                                ("narrowed").

[10.] The powers not                            "[P]owers" are
delegated to the                                translated as
United States by                                "Rechte" ("Rights").
the Constitution,                               "Prohibited" is
nor prohibited by                               translated
it to the States,                               "abgesagt," which
are reserved to the                             is less strong than
States respectively,                            "prohibited." It
or to the people.                               literally means
                                                "called off," and
                                                this meaning is used
                                                outside the field of
                                                law.
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Title Annotation:Appendix, p. 99-147; response to article by Christina Mulligan and others in this issue, p. 1
Author:Balkin, Jack M.
Publication:Constitutional Commentary
Date:Mar 22, 2016
Words:25185
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