The component study of fiber-to-the home passive optical network (FTTH-PON)--current and future implementation.
FTTH, or Fiber-to-the Home, refers to fiber optic cable that replaces the standard copper wire of the local Telco. FTTH is desirable because it can carry high-speed broadband services integrating voice, data and video, and runs directly to the junction box at the home or building. For this reason it is sometimes called Fiber-to-the Building, or FTTB. Traditional copper telephone wires carry analog signals generated by telephone equipment, including fax machines. Analog technology is by nature a less precise signaling technology than digital technology (Kayne, 2011). Though multiplexing has allowed digital signals to be transmitted across multiple channels over copper lines, fiber optic cable is superior for relaying these signals and allows for faster transfer rates and virtually unlimited bandwidth. This opens the door to better Internet speed, streaming video, and other demanding applications.
The Internet utilizes a backbone of fiber optic cables capable of delivering incredible bandwidth. This inherent ability makes the Internet a prime source for advancing network technologies that can be brought to the home or business. Most subscribers, however, log on to this network through copper lines with limited capacity. This creates a bottleneck for advancing technologies that increasingly require greater bandwidth. FTTH bridges this gap.
Fiber optic cables are made of glass fiber that can carry data at speeds exceeding 2.5 gigabits per second (Gbps). FTTH services commonly offer a fleet of plans with differing speeds that are price dependent. At the lower end of the scale, a service plan might offer speeds of 10 megabits per second (Mbps), while typical DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) service running on existing copper lines is 1.5 Mbps. A more expensive FTTH plan might offer data transfer speeds of over 100 Mbps - that's about 66 times faster than typical DSL (PFiber. 2010).
FTTH is cost-prohibitive in many cases. Installing FTTH can be expensive, and the monthly charge for broadband services thereafter can also be off-putting, though these figures vary widely. Expense is likely to drop with time as FTTH becomes more common. Because of the cost involved and the logistic difficulty in replacing existing copper lines in some neighborhoods, FTTH is more often being installed in newly built communities as an added selling feature. Installing FTTH raises the value of existing property.
FTTH can be installed as a point-to-point architecture, or as a passive optical network (PON). The former requires that the provider have an optical receiver for each customer in the field. PON FTTH utilizes a central transceiver and splitter to accommodate up to 32 clients. Optical electric converters, or OECs, are used to convert the signals to interface with copper wiring where necessary. Architecture of FTTH as in Figure 1 below.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Five (5) Existing Component of Fiber To The Home
In this paper we highlight five (5) basic components of FTTH-PON network as listed in Table 1. This components are significant and give much influenced to the network accessibility and performance. The sensitivity of photodetector will determine the number of users or ONU can be covered in the system. The package of OLT and ONU is determined the application and accessibility will be offered to the customers. Fiber and connectors define the dynamic range of the system.
PONs have only passive light transmission components in the neighborhood infrastructure with active components only in the central office and the customer premises equipment. The elimination of active components means that the access network consists of one bi-directional light source and a number of passive splitters that divide the data stream into the individual links to each customer. At the central office, the termination point is in PON optical line terminal (OLT) equipment. At the customer premises, the termination point is in optical network terminals or ONTs also called optical network units or ONUs. These are in the customer premises equipment or CPE. Between the OLT and the ONT/ONUs is the passive optical network comprising fiber links and passive splitters and couplers.
Passive Component (Fiber optic coupler):
Fiber optic coupler is an fiber optic equipment with at least three or more fiber optic ends; the function of fiber optic coupler is to split the input fiber optic light into several parts to the output fiber ends at a certain ratio. The fiber optic coupler can be made with single mode fiber optic cable or multi mode fiber optic cables. There are single window fiber optic couplers and dual window fiber optic couplers. Single window means single wavelength with a narrow wavelength window, dual window fiber optic couplers is with two wavelengths with a wide wavelength window for each.Fiber optic coupler specification include the numbers of input and output ports, usually input is one cable port while output is many cable ports, for example ,a 1x2 60:40 ratio fiber optic coupler can split a beam of the fiber optic light into two parts at the ratio of 60:40 and sent separately into the other two fibers on the other side of the fiber optic splitter. the fiber optic couplers can be with different kinds of fiber optic connectors, usually it is with SC, SC/APC,FC,FC/APC,ST, or LC fiber optic connectors. Input and output cables length is also optional, for example, 1 meter input cable length and 1 meter for each of the output cable length. Insertion loss refers to the attenuation caused by insertion of fiber optic components. Optical couplers and fiber optic splitters are available in various styles, sizes, connector types, splitting ratios, and wavelength. High quality, good looking and small size.
Advantages of Passive
Passive optical networks, or PONs, have some distinct advantages. They're efficient, in that each fiber optic strand can serve up to 32 users. PONs have a low building cost relative to active optical networks along with lower maintenance costs. Because there are few moving or electrical parts, there's simply less that can go wrong in a PON.
Disadvantages of Passive
Passive optical networks also have some disadvantages. They have less range than an active optical network, meaning subscribers must be geographically closer to the central source of the data. PONs also makes it difficult to isolate a failure when they occur. Also, because the bandwidth in a PON is not dedicated to individual subscribers, data transmission speed may slow down during peak usage times in an effect known as latency. Latency quickly degrades services such as audio and video, which need a smooth rate to maintain quality.
a. Online Line Terminal (OLT)
In a passive optical network (PON), the device that terminates the optical local loop at the edge of the network. In a telco PON, the OLT is housed in the central office (CO). In a CATV PON, the OLT is housed in the headend. The OLT can either generate downstream optical signals on its own, or can pass optical signals from the optical backbone through a collocated optical cross connect or multiplexer. The OLT also receives upstream signals from the optical network terminals (ONTs) at the customer premises and optical network units (ONUs) in remote nodes
OLTs are located in central switching office; this equipment serves as the point of origination for FTTP (Fiber-to-the-Premises) transmissions coming into and out of the national network.
An OLT, in a nutshell, is where the PON (Passive Optical Network) cards reside. The OLT's also contain the CPU and the GWR (Gateway Router) and VGW (Voice Gateway) uplink cards. Each OLT can have a few or many dozens of PON cards. Each PON card transmits 1490nm laser data signal to the ONT, and receives the ONT transmission of the 1310nm laser data signal. The one-way 1550nm laser video signal to the ONT is injected into the fiber at the CO.
b. Online Network Terminal (ONT)
The ONT provides network termination for a Passive Optical Network (PON) in the home or business. The ONT connects via a high speed interface to the PON network and provides subscriber access to data (Ethernet), voice (POTS) and video services. The data rate that is supported can vary, for example a GPON network typically provides a 2.5Gbps downstream and 1.25Gbps upstream split among up to 32 users (i.e. ONT's) thus allowing data rates of up to 100Mbps. PON gives edge networks an unparalleled bandwidth advantage in their ability to offer truly high speed triple play service (i.e. voice, video and data) especially when compared with existing cable or DSL services.
ONT is a media converter that is installed by service provider either outside or inside customer home, during the network installation. This device will convert fiber-optic/light signals to copper/electric signals. The ONT is typically capable of delivering POTS (plain old telephone service), internet data and video services. Different models are used to connect to a GPON or a BPON fiber optic network. Some ONT models are better suited for individual locations, while others might be used in a MDU (multiple dwelling unit) installation. Your existing inside wiring for telephone, internet and video are connected to the ONT during installation.
c. Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
Customer premises equipment (CPE) is telephone or other service provider equipment that is located on the customer's premises (physical location) rather than on the provider's premises or in between. Telephone handsets, cable TV set-top boxes, and Digital Subscriber Line routers are examples. Historically, this term referred to equipment placed at the customer's end of the telephone line and usually owned by the telephone company. Today, almost any end-user equipment can be called customer premise equipment and it can be owned by the customer or by the provider.
The use of the light for the codification of signals is not new, old the Greeks used mirrors to transmit information, of rudimentary way, using solar light. In 1972, Claude Chappe designed a system of optical telegraphy that by means of the use of a code and towers and mirrors distributed throughout 200 km that separate Lille and Paris, was able to transmit a message in only 15 minutes (Fabila, 2006).
The great newness contributed at our time is the obtained salary "to tame" the light, so that it is possible that it propagates within a cable tended by the man. The use of the light guided, so that it does not expand in all directions, but in one very concrete and predefined has been obtained by means of the optical fiber, that we can think like a glass conduit - extreme fiber glass thin protected by an insulating material that, serves to transport the luminance signal from a point to another one.
Advantages of Optical fibers
Why are fiber-optic systems revolutionizing telecommunications? Compared to conventional metal wire (copper wire), optical fibers are (Craig Freudenrich. 2011):
* Less expensive Several miles of optical cable can be made cheaper than equivalent lengths of copper wire. This saves your provider (cable TV, Internet) and you money. * Thinner Optical fibers can be drawn to smaller diameters than copper wire. * Higher Because optical fibers are thinner than copper carrying wires, more fibers can be bundled into a given- capacity diameter cable than copper wires. This allows more phone lines to go over the same cable or more channels to come through the cable into your cable TV box. * Less signal The loss of signal in optical fiber is less than degradation in copper wire. * Light signals Unlike electrical signals in copper wires, light signals from one fiber do not interfere with those of other fibers in the same cable. This means clearer phone conversations or TV reception. * Low power Because signals in optical fibers degrade less, lower-power transmitters can be used instead of the high-voltage electrical transmitters needed for copper wires. Again, this saves your provider and you money. * Digital signals Optical fibers are ideally suited for carrying digital information, which is especially useful in computer networks. * Non-flammable Because no electricity is passed through optical fibers, there is no fire hazard. * Lightweight An optical cable weighs less than a comparable copper wire cable. Fiber optic cables take up less space in the ground. * Flexible Because fiber optics are so flexible and can transmit and receive light, they are used in many flexible digital cameras for the following purposes: * Medical imaging in bronchoscopes, endoscopes, laparoscopes * Mechanical inspecting mechanical welds in pipes and engines imaging (in airplanes, rockets, space shuttles, cars) * Plumbing to inspect sewer lines
Impact of Optical fibers
Because of these advantages, you see fiber optics in many industries, most notably telecommunications and computer networks. For example, if you telephone Europe from the United States (or vice versa) and the signal is bounced off a communications satellite, you often hear an echo on the line. But with transatlantic fiber-optic cables, you have a direct connection with no echoes.
The optical fiber is, to the being the faster means of transmission of the universe, the element with greater capacity of information transmission. This characteristic can be used to approach the home all the advantages of the broadband: Video on Demand (video on demand), games online, videoconferenceIn addition it has many other advantages, like low losses of reduced signal, size and weight, immunity as opposed to electromagnetic emissions and of radio frequency and security.
Connectors are critical to today's cars. Without them, it would be nearly impossible to build or service a car. Whenever a bundle of wires passes through or attaches to a component of the car that might have to be removed, there must be a connector there to allow for that removal. A single connector can have more than 100 wires. In the past, unreliable connectors have been the source of many electrical problems. Connectors have to be waterproof (modern connectors have several seals to keep out moisture), corrosion proof and provide good electrical contact for the life of the vehicle.
Advantages of Connectors
Most connectors nowadays are fitted by the installer although pre-fitted ones are still available. The benefit of using the pre-fitted and pigtailed version is that it is much quicker and easier to fit a mechanical splice or perform a fusion splice than it is to fit a connector, so there is some merit in allowing the factory to fit the connector since this saves time and guarantees a high standard of workmanship.
* No Need to Know the Targeted Components
* Single Event can Impact Multiple Components
* New Event Handlers can Easily be Added
* New Events Can then be Raised
Photo-detectors based on the photo electric emission usually take the form of vacuum tubes called phototubes. Convert light signals to a voltage or current. The absorption of photons creates electron hole pairs. Electrons in the CB and holes in the VB. Planar diffusion diode is a basic junction photodiode. A pn type junction describes a heavily doped p-type material (acceptors) that is much greater than a lightly doped n-type material (donor) that it is embedded into. Illumination window with an annular electrode for photon passage. Anti-reflection coating (Si3N4) reduces reflections.
The [P.sup.+] side is on the order of less than a micron thick (formed by planar diffusion into n-type epitaxial layer). A space charge distribution occurs about the junction within the depletion layer. The depletion region extends predominantly into the lightly doped n region (up to 3 microns max) Electrodes in the diagram are the external contacts. The degree to which photons penetrate through the layers is dependent upon radiation wavelength.
Impact of Photo-detectors
Short wavelengths (ex. UV) are absorbed at the surface. Longer wavelengths (IR) will penetrate into the depletion layer. Lower doping levels cause depletion region to become thicker which in turn reduces diode capacitance. the absorption of photons occurs over a distance that is dependent on wavelength. Remembering that the distribution of the field is not uniform tells us that determining the time dependence of the photocurrent signal is difficult. The resultant photocurrent is a result of electron flow only not hole migration.
Optical fiber cable solutions for very-high bit transmission and FTTH (fiber to the home) applications:
* Very-high definition TV,
* Very-high speed Internet,
* Very-high bit data transmission,
* High definition pictures,
* Interactive video and games,
Advantages of Optical cables
In particular major telecommunication operators. These leading-edge high performance cables suit all types of networks (long haul backbones as well as city-rings or distribution, local access) covering all FTTH applications. They can be supplied with all types of standard or advanced fibers, as for example low-bending fibers (G 657), and can be adapted to various types of rights-of way, installation and environment conditions (ducted, directly buried, aerial, sewers, buildings, fire-hazard areas, etc). ENGINEERING, CIVIL WORKS,
INSTALLATION, EXTENSION and UPGRADE due to their combined outstanding features:
* Modular design over a wide range of fiber counts, currently up to 864-fibres;
* Remarkably easy handling, installation (through all conventional or up-to-date laying techniques), jointing (both by individual and mass-splicing), fiber management and mid-span access;
* Ultra-compactness, lightweight and functional versatility;
* Compatibility with all laying techniques (unwinding, pulling, blowing, air-floating, water-floatin) and micro-ducting solutions.
Impact of Optical
These directly result in significant benefits regarding the overall economics of building new fiber and cable plants. Indeed, numerous new opportunities are opened for planning and deployment of the network to become easier, faster, flexible and scalable. Optical cables provide key time- and cost-savings at all levels of network implementation
Drawback Analysis of current FTTH-PON architecture
Passive optical networks, or passive star topologies, have no active components between the provider's central office and the subscriber. The remote node contains an optical splitter in a passive star topology. PONs is point-to-multipoint systems with all downstream traffic broadcast to all ONTs. The PONs under development is ATM-based PONs (asynchronous transfer mode; APONs), gigabit-capable PONs (GPONs), and Ethernetbased PONs (EPONs). The network offer low cost but survivability aspect is not the significant feature. Any breakdown occurs in the network will affect the major portion of the service area. Therefore many research institutions start their interest on designing the effective restoration scheme that can be offered by PON (Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman et al., 2011). As well as the monitoring process, the only way that can be implemented is by injecting the OTDR test signal upwardly in which may cause of time and cost misspending due to OTDR need to be brought from home to home. The cost of deployment is cheaper because not active devices used in this architecture and the traffic is shared over one fiber additionally. Figure 2 show the analysis of drawback section on current deployment fiber-to-the Home system. The area of improvement consideration interest is also highlighted means that something need to be done here to improve the network efficiency and increase the survivability and monitoring aspect.
Potential Point of Upgrading
To achieve this several point or location in the PON network are potentially to be upgraded is determined, such as:
1. Redesigning Optical Splitter Function towards Self Automated Controlling and Line Routing
2. Line Monitoring Application is done at the CO point
3. ONU Sharing with Other to Increase the Protection Scheme
Network Upgrading Using New Designed Component
Towards to have a customer access network equipped with feature of survivability, safety and ease of maintenance, SPECTECH has proposed several new solution as following below:
Towards the efficient and high reliability optical network development and to preserve the standard of FTTH-PON, some element should be embedded in the conventional passive optical network. These elements are:
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Real Time Line Status Monitoring
Live-monitoring is one the factor that can be used to increase the efficiency and reliability of FTTH-PON network. The only one location that suitable to be embedded with the system is in the OLT which is installed in the central office (Yeh and Chi, 2005). With the innovative technique using OTDR and with little configuration set up, the line monitoring can be carried out centrally although the power splitting elements installed in the network by means of optical splitter. For instance, UKM Spectrum Technology Research Group (SPECTECH) has developed the Smart Access Network_ Testing, Analysis and Database to achieve the objective in which all the line status connected to the ONUs' premises can be monitored onto one display with the database to save the historical information (Boonchuan et al., 2010). Actually, SANTAD is focusing on providing survivability through event identification against losses and failures. SANTAD involves the fiber fault detection, notification, verification, and restoration functions. In normal operation (good condition), it allows the network operators and field engineers to determine the path used by the services through the network, whereas under failure (breakdown) conditions, it allows the fields engineers to identify the faulty fiber and failure location without making a site visit. SANTAD enables network operators and field engineers to analyze the optical fiber line's status, display the line's detail, track the optical signal level, and losses as well as monitor the network performance (Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman et al., 2009). In combination of the distinctive features, SANTAD provides a convenient way to solve the particular upwardly or downwardly measuring issues with OTDR and produces capability of fiber fault localization in an optical access network. SANTAD will be designed to operate by itself with a minimum need for operator action. SANTAD ensures that when the detection of a fiber fault occurs on the primary entity in optical access network, it will is automatically reports the failure status to the field engineers, and the field engineers can determine sharply the break point before taking some appropriate actions. In the meantime, it activates the restoration scheme to switch the traffic from failure line to protection line to ensure the traffic flow continuously (Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman et al., 2009). This functionality alerts the service providers and field engineers on any fiber fault before being reported by the customer of premises or subscribers.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Protection Scheme at Feeder and Distribution Link
In dedicated protection FTTH-EPON scheme, each ONU is connected to splitter output terminal by two fibers; working line and protection line through two OXADM switches that is controlled by ACS (Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman et al., 2006). The function of OXADM is to switch the signal to the protection line when failure occurs in the working line. The route depends on the restoration mechanism that is activated according to the types of failure (Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman et al., 2010).
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Figure 6(a) depicted the signal flows through the working line in normal condition for both line A and line B. The OXADM switches are in bypass state that allows signals to pass through the device and be received at ONUs. The two OXADMs are allocated in the transmission line in which both ONU and splitter are located. First OXADM is used to switch the signal to protection line at local transmission or switch to protection line at transmission line nearby. The second OXADM will switch the signal in protection line back to the original path before sending it to the local ONU. When the failure occurs in the working line, the first OXADM will switch the signal to the local protection line and the second OXADM will be activated simultaneously to switch the signal back to the transmission line (Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman et al., 2006). The restoration scheme is referred to dedicated protection similar to that deployed in ring configuration (1). Figure 6(b) shows the mechanism of dedicated protection in FTTH access network.
Figure 6(c) shows the shared protection scheme which diverts the signal to the adjacent protection line. The interruption in both working and protection lines need the shared protection scheme to be activated. The first OXADM is activated directly but the second OXADM is activated by sending the activation signal utilizing the adjacent protection line by ACS (Aswir Premadi et al., 2010). The protection line is connected to the drop-port of OXADM 1 and add-port of OXADM 2 and it will become the third route of transmission in case of both local lines breakdown.
The proposed restoration functions above are essential for ensuring signals flow continuously and survivability of drop region in optical access network. The architecture of restoration scheme embedded in the FTTH-EPON is illustrated in Figure 6.
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
Fast Tracking Failure Line
A fault detection method for multiple access communication is proposed. By using the occupancy term of a time-domain equalized signal as a detection system. The MADS is embedded in ACS used to detect any line fault occurs in the network which purposely focused on passive optical network (PON). MADS used the tapping mechanism to verify the status of each line by using 10 dB couplers. With the assisting of optical switch matrix and microcontroller system, the status of each line connected to ONU will be identified. The result is the fault number represent occupancy counter which means the number of none traffic flow detected in the specified line during the detection process.
MADS plays an important role in failure detection in Access Control System (ACS). Although the mechanism is more on monitoring but with the combination of SANTAD, the error occurs in the line can be sensed efficiently. Figure 7 shown the mechanism fault detection in Access Control System with used the combine concept of MADs and CFDS/SANTAD (Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman et al., 2010).
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
Network Extendable Scheme
Designing the splitter with various splitting ratio has offer many advantages in many part of optical communication system (Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman et al., 2009). In our proposed ACS system which contains a new optical splitting device named MROS for improving the efficiency of data delivery to the customer premises/subscribers through optimizing the magnitude power distribute to each line connected to ONU (see Figure 8 (a)) (Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman et al., 2009). In the real condition, the optical line for every home is terminated unevenly; therefore this device is designed to overcome such problem. MROS splits the input power to output power with ratio 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. It reduces the losses during data transmission because the optical power of input signal is distributed according to the distance between the MROS and ONU sides. Apart from that, various usage of this device does not require any amplifier to amplify the optical power of sharing signal to different distance. With MROS, the maximum achievable distance of the network system (from OLT to ONUs) can be expanding more than 20 km as compared to the conventional
MROS is designed based on Y arm 1x2. At the first phase, the arm design has different width of wave guide where at the first arm the width of wave guide 4.6 Lim while the width of wave guide second arm is 6.5 Lim. The ratio of power that produced at the first phase is 3:7, means 30% of power produced from the first arm and 70% from second arm. While at the second phase, the arm of wave guide is designed with different angles in order to produce the needed power that are 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% at every arms as showed in Figure 8 (b). The width of arm 3 and 4 are same as arm1, while the width of arm 5 and 6 are the same as arm2. This is to prevent the lost of power produced from first phase.
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
In this paper we have introduced the new upgraded network by means of improved Fiber-to-the Home (i-FTTH). It involves the function of monitoring, failure troubleshooting, restoration, communication and maintenance. i-FTTH consist of 4 main subsystem that support the operations, they include SANTAD, ACS and OXADM with a device to improve the network scalability and routing which is MROS. The other prototype such as customer access Protection Unit (CAPU), Moderator and Passive In-Line Monitoring (PIM) device are already be discussed in our previous publication. i-FTTH is recommended to be used in our today's networking to enhance the business growth for providing effectively survivable and highly secure of information transmission. The technology ensures business enhancement by introducing survivability, security, monitoring and low cost in installation and also maintenance. With this approach, the traffic is ensured to flow continuously although failures occur in the type for every type of level.
Boonchuan Ng, Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Aswir Premadi. 2010. Development of monitoring system for FTTH-PON Using Combined ACS and SANTAD. International Journal of Communication System, 23: 429-446.
Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, 2009. Rekabentuk Peranti Optik Baru -Pencerai Optik Pelbagai Nisbah (MROS) Berasaskan Pandu Gelombang Planar Untuk Penggunaan Kuasa Berkesan. Jurnal Kejuruteraan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Edisi., 22: 107-113.
Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Mastang Tanra, Suria Che Rosli, Boonchuan Ng, Aida Baharudin & Siti Aishah Mohamad Khithir, 2011. Analysis of Components Failure, Malfunction Effect and Prevention Technique in Customer Access Network FTTH-PON. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11(1): 201-211.
Aswir Premadi & Boon Chuan Ng & Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman & Kasmiran Jumari. 2010. Access network survivability: an architecture approach for monitoring, protection and restoration in FTTH application. Annals of Telecommunications. 65: 263-269.
Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Boonchuan Ng, Siti Asma Che Aziz, Mastang, Aswir Premadi, Mohamad Najib Mohd Saupe, Kasmiran Jumari. 2010. High Efficiency of FTTH Network Management through SANTAD. Journal of Network and Systems Management, 18(2): 210-231.
Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Boon Chuan Ng & Kasmiran Jumari. 2009. Detecting faulty fiber with Centralized Failure Detection System (CFDS) in FTTH access network. Optica Applicata. 39(2): 241-250.
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Yeh, C.H. & Chi, S. 2005. Optical fiber-fault surveillance for passive optical networks in S-band operation window. Optics Express. 13(14): 5494-5498.
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Corresponding Author: Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Spectrum Technology Research Group (Spectech) Depart. Of Electrical, Electronics and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environmental Space Science Institute (ANGKASA) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia E-mail: email@example.com
Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman
Spectrum Technology Research Group (Spectech) Depart. Of Electrical, Electronics and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environmental Space Science Institute (ANGKASA) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Table 1: Five (5) basic components of FTTH-PON network Component Type Characteristics or Use Passive components Optical filters, optical Wavelength response, isolators, and power loss, size, cost, couplers reliability Transceivers Indoor or outdoor Environmental (OLT, ONT, or ONU) ruggedness, size, cost, reliability, electric power use Optical fibers Single-mode or multimode Attenuation, dispersion, SBS tolerance Connectors Single or multiple Loss, size, mounting channel type Photodetectors pin or APD Sensitivity, responsivity Optical cables Aerial, duct, or Fiber count, strength underground members, FTTP segment application
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Article Type:||Technical report|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2011|
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