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The class of '84 one year after graduation.

The Class of '84 One Year After Graduation

Ask college students, "What's your major?" and you'll get a good clue to the kinds of occupations they might enter after graduation. Although graduates with a particular major are not restricted to a single occupation, their field of study is the principal factor used in determining the entry level jobs they are considered for, at least in the short run, according to a recent survey conducted by the Center for Education Statistics of the Department of Education.

This article describes the labor force status, occupation, and graduate or professional school status in April 1985 of college graduates who received their bachelor's degrees between July 1983 and June 1984. BLS has analyzed these data for the graduates as a group and for each of 20 major fields of study. Similar articles appeared in the summer 1984 OOQ (covering the class of 1980) and the summer 1982 OOQ (covering the class of 1977).

This information should be helpful to those selecting a major field of study because it indicates the range of job possibilities for graduates with a degree in the major fields that are discussed. However, the reader should keep a number of points in mind.

* The estimates are based on information obtained from a sample of about 10,000 graduates. The results of a survey of all graduates could differ.

* The information was collected only a short time after graduation. People are likely to change occupations as they gain experience or additional education. In particular, graduate and professional school students who work in an occupation that does not require a college education are likely to enter occupations that do require a college education when they finish their studies. Earlier studies indicate that liberal arts graduates are less likely than others to start out in jobs generally requiring a college degree but tend to take such jobs later on. It is not clear whether this trend will continue.

* The occupational patterns for each major reflect the relation between the number of graduates attracted to certain occupations and the number of graduates with particular qualifications that employers sought to hire in 1984 and 1985. A high proportion of graduates entering an occupation indicates that many of them found the occupation attractive, that sufficient openings existed, and that employers preferred them to other applicants. Conversely, if no graduates or a low proportion of graduates with a particular major entered an occupation, either those graduates did not seek jobs in the occupation or employers chose not to hire them.

* The major field of study is only one aspect of an individual's job qualifications. Employers also consider minor fields of study, other courses, extracurricular activities, work experience, grades, the quality of the school, the ability to express oneself, and personality traits such as motivation, self-confidence, and enthusiasm. Not everyone with a particular major is qualified for a job entered by some with that major. Conversely, some graduates enter occupations not mentioned in this article.

* The data understate the number who might eventually enroll in graduate school, since many people do not enroll until a year or more after graduation.

Labor Force Status

Eighty-eight percent of all class of '84 graduates were in the labor force in April 1985, as shown in the accompanying chart. Over two-thirds of all graduates who worked part time did so because they preferred to. Nine percent of the graduates were not in the labor force because they were attending school, 1 percent had family responsibilities, and the rest had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

The rate at which graduates participate in the labor force varied widely from major to major. (See table 1.) Graduates whose majors were closely linked to specific occupations--such as computer and information sciences, nursing, education, engineering, and accounting--had a higher than average labor force participation rate. Graduates in arts and sciences--which include biological sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, humanities, and psychology--had a lower than average labor force participation rate.

The difference between the two groups is largely explained by the different rate at which the group members attended graduate or professional school full time. Relatively few graduates in occupation-related majors did so. On the other hand, many arts and science graduates had taken preprofessional programs--such as prelaw and premedicine--or planned to enter occupations for which master's or doctorate degrees are usually required. A large proportion, therefore, were enrolled full time.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-four percent of the employed graduates in the civilian labor force worked in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations, jobs that generally require a college degree for entry. Thirty-seven percent were in professional occupations; 21 percent, managerial; 10 percent, technician; and 6 percent, nonretail sales.

Elementary and secondary school teaching was the most common occupation, with 10 percent of employed graduates. Eight percent were engineers; 6 percent each, accountants or computer specialists (programmers, systems analysts, and others); 4 percent, registered nurses; 2 percent, part-time teachers and research workers in colleges and universities (most of whom were graduate students); and 1 percent, social workers.

At least half of 1 percent of all employed graduates (or about 4,000) reported being in each of the following-occupations: Advertising agent; counselor; designer; editor or reporter; engineering technologist or technician; financial officer; health technologist or technician; health therapist; insurance agent; manager or administrator; personnel specialist; sales manager; and science technician. Many other occupations were also mentioned; these are listed in the sections on specific majors.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-six percent of the employed graduates worked in clerical (14 percent), retail sales (4 percent), service (4 percent), or blue-collar occupations (craft worker, operative, or laborer; 3 percent), or as farmers (1 percent). Most jobs in these groups do not require a degree for entry, although for some jobs, especially in clerical occupations such as adjuster and investigator or clerical supervisor, a large proportion said a degree was required. Some of these graduates were probably underemployed in the sense that they would have preferred a job requiring a college degree but couldn't obtain one. Many others may have been able to obtain a job requiring a college degree but didn't for a variety of reasons. For example, many were in graduate school.

Graduates of most occupation-related programs were more likely than average to be in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. (See chart.) Arts and sciences graduates--except for those in chemistry and mathematics--were less likely than average to have entered these occupations.

As table 2 shows, the proportion of employed graduates holding jobs in an occupation related to their field of study was higher for graduates of occupation-related majors, such as computer and information sciences and nursing. It was lower for many science and liberal arts fields; in many of these fields, an advanced degree is required for entry.

Comparison With the Classes of 1977

and 1980

The results of this survey show the same overall patterns as do the results of the survey reported in the 1982 and 1984 articles when adjusted for inclusion of the Armed Forces in the most recent data, in accordance with current BLS practice. The proportion employed remained virtually unchanged, while the unemployment rate declined slightly. The proportion of graduates in occupations generally requiring a degree for entry increased from 72 to 78 percent from the class of 1977 to the class of 1980. The increase probably reflected the increasing proportion of graduates in occupation-specific majors like accounting and engineering, which provide better job prospects. But the rate dropped to 74 percent for the class of 1984. The drop was unexpected, especially because the class of 1980 was surveyed in 1981, just before the onset of the severe recession of 1982, while the class of 1984 was surveyed in 1985, when the economy was rapidly recovering from the two recessions of the early 1980's. The most likely explanation for the drop is that a large number of experienced workers in college-related occupations lost their jobs during these recessions and that, in the recovery, employers often hired these workers in preference to new college graduates. One should also note that the Class of '84 was larger than the Class of '80 and that the number of graduates obtaining college-related jobs was higher.

Among fields of study with large numbers of graduates--such as business and education--patterns of labor force participation and occupations entered were fairly close in all three surveys. Among majors with relatively few graduates--agriculture and art, for example--patterns were quite different. It is possible that patterns did change radically; however, much of the difference may actually be due to sampling error because the sample for these majors is small (in some cases less than 100 people).

Graduate Study

Twenty-three percent of all graduates were enrolled in graduate or professional school. Eighteen percent were working toward an advanced degree, and 14 percent were attending school full time. (See table 3.) A lower than average proportion of those with occupation-related degrees were enrolled in graduate school, and an even lower proportion were enrolled full time, probably because a bachelor's degree in these majors is adequate preparation for most positions in these fields. A much higher than average proportion of arts and sciences graduates were enrolled, for reasons cited earlier.

Assessing the Need for a College

Degree

If we assume that all managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs require a college degree, 74 percent of the class of 1984 were in jobs that require a college degree. However, the graduates' own assessment of whether a college degree was required was less favorable. Only 59 percent said a degree was required for their job, 4 percent said they were not sure, and 37 percent said a degree was not required. Even in occupations such as engineering and teaching, where a degree is almost universally required by employers, some said a degree was not required.

Several factors may explain the discrepancy between the graduates' assessment of the need for a degree and the requirements usually indicated by employers. Graduates were asked, "Did your job require a college degree?" Some graduates probably responded negatively because they did not feel their work used particular skills or information learned in college even if those skills or that information served as a base on which they built. It is also likely that some graduates were expressing dissatisfaction with the duties assigned to them in occupations where most employers think a college degree is required. In addition, some technician, managerial, and nonretail sales occupations do not always require a college degree. For example, one can become a registered nurse with an associate's degree.

New graduates' assessments of whether their jobs require a degree varied by major. (See table 4.) In general, graduates whose major fields were linked to specific occupations, such as education and engineering, said their jobs required a degree. A lower proportion of graduates in arts and sciences generally reported that their jobs required a college degree.

Graduates' assessments of whether their work was related to their majors also varied by field, as shown in table 5. As would be expected, those with career-related majors were more likely to say that their work was closely related to their majors. Nursing was highest; 98 percent said their work was closely related to their major. This is not surprising since almost all entered nursing or other health-related occupations. However, in some fields, especially in liberal arts and sciences, only about a quarter said their work was closely related to their major.

Graduates were also asked whether they thought their job had career potential. The responses were analyzed both by occupational group (table 6) and major (table 7).

Forty-one percent thought their job had definite career potential and another 25 percent thought their job had possible career potential. Surprisingly, those in professional and managerial jobs had only slightly higher than average assessments of the career potential of their jobs. Many of those whose jobs were in occupational groups that are not thought of as requiring a college degree nevertheless thought that their job did have career potential. For example, 43 percent of those in clerical and administrative support occupations thought their jobs had definite or possible career potential. Of course, just because a job has career potential does not mean that the person holding that job is satisfied with it or intends to make a career of it.

Analysis of the responses by major field of study revealed no surprises. Higher than average proportions of those in occupation-specific majors--such as accounting, engineering, and nursing--thought their jobs had definite or possible career potential. Many fields in which respondents reported lower than average career potential are also fields with high proportions in graduate school; graduate students often take jobs with little career potential because they expect these jobs to be temporary.

Information for Each Major Field

A great deal of information about various college graduates appears in these pages. Because the graduates' experiences vary so much from major to major, the sections differ in detail. All are organized along the same lines, however.

Labor force status is given in graphic form according to five classifications: In the labor force, employed full time, employed part time (less than 35 hours a week), unemployed (not employed but seeking employment), and not in the labor force (not employed and not seeking employment). When possible, the text explains why graduates worked part time or were not in the labor force.

Occupations of employed graduates are grouped in two categories: Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry and occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. For this article, all managerial, professional, technician, administrative, and nonretail sales jobs are considered as requiring a degree; retail sales, clerical, craft, operative, laborer, and service jobs are considered as not requiring a degree.

Among occupations usually requiring a degree, those related to the graduate's major are listed first, beginning in most cases with the occupation that employed the most graduates. Next, occupations not related to the major are listed, also beginning with the occupation that employed the most graduates. Finally, occupations entered by only a few of the graduates are listed in alphabetical order. For occupations not generally requiring a degree, occupational groups are listed according to the number of graduates employed, with occupations within each group listed afterwards.

Accounting

Labor Force Status

Ninety-five percent of accounting graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Accounting and nursing had the lowest percentage of graduates not in the labor force. Two percent of accounting graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, 1 percent did not want to work, 1 percent had secured jobs which started later, and 1 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Eighty-three percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs.

Seventy-one percent were in occupations directly related to accounting. Sixty-seven percent were accountants, and 4 percent were financial managers. Another 12 percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations, including 2 percent who were computer specialists and 10 percent who were in a variety of other occupations, such as counselor, nonretail sales worker, and social worker.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventeen percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. Fifteen percent were clerical workers, including 8 percent who were bookkeepers. Almost all the bookkeepers said their work was closely or somewhat related to their majors, and about half said their job required a college degree. One percent were service workers, and 1 percent were craft workers, operatives, or laborers. The low proportion in these occupations may be partly related to the low proportion of accounting graduates in graduate school--the lowest proportion (9 percent) of the majors covered.

Agriculture and

Natural Resources

Labor Force Status

Ninety percent of agriculture and natural resources graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Most of those working part time did not want full-time work. Most of those not in the labor force were attending school.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Sixty-eight percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs or were farm owners or managers.

Twenty-nine percent were in agriculture and natural resources-related jobs. Thirteen percent of the graduates were farm operators and managers. Eleven percent were science technicians (mainly biological and agricultural technicians), most of whom said their work was closely related to their majors. Three percent were graduate student teachers and researchers, and 2 percent were forestry and conservation scientists.

Thirty-nine percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Sixteen percent were in managerial occupations; 7 percent, nonretail sales occupations; 4 percent, health technologists and technicians; 3 percent, secondary school teachers; and 2 percent, electrical and electronics technicians. Seven percent were in other professional and technician occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirty-two percent of the employed graduates were in jobs not usually requiring a degree. Nine percent were in other agricultural and related occupations, such as agricultural products inspector, animal caretaker, groundskeeper, farm worker, or agricultural occupation supervisor. All in these occupations said their work was closely or somewhat related to their majors, but most also said a degree was not required for their jobs. Eight percent were in clerical occupations; 5 percent were in service occupations; 4 percent were in retail sales occupations; 3 percent were in forestry and logging occupations; 2 percent were craft workers; and 1 percent were freight, stock, and material handlers.

Art

Labor Force Status

Eighty-nine percent of art graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Most of those working part time did not want fulltime work. Seven percent of art graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school; 2 percent had family responsibilities, and the rest had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Sixty-eight percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. However, only 40 percent of art graduates, the lowest proportion of all the majors covered, said a degree was needed for their jobs. This is reasonable because a good portfolio (samples of one's best work) is the main qualification for obtaining many art-related jobs. However, many people obtain an art degree to develop the abilities needed to produce a good portfolio.

Forty-nine percent were in occupations directly related to art. Twenty-three percent were designers, and 9 percent were teachers, mostly in elementary schools. Since most elementary school teachers said their work was closely related to their majors, many likely were art teachers. Eight percent were painters, sculptors, or artists, and 6 percent were in the occupational category of other artists, performers, or related workers. Most of the latter probably were artists; almost all said their work was closely related to their majors. One percent worked part time as art teachers in colleges and universities; they were probably graduate students. One percent were drafters, and 1 percent were photographers.

Nineteen percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Nine percent were in managerial occupations, including 3 percent who were marketing, advertising, and public relations managers. Two percent were engineers, 2 percent were public relations specialists, 1 percent were social workers, and 5 percent were in other college-level occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirty-two percent of the employed graduates were in occupations which generally do not require a degree for entry; few in these occupations said a degree was required for their jobs. Eleven percent were retail sales workers; 8 percent were clerical workers; 6 percent, operatives; 5 percent, craft workers; and 2 percent, service workers. Some of the craft and operative workers said their work was closely related to their major; most of these were in occupations such as photographic process machine operator or metal lay-out worker.

Biological

Sciences

Labor Force Status

Sixty-eight percent of biological sciences graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. The great majority of those working part time did not want full-time jobs; many were graduate students. Almost half of all biological science graduates were enrolled in graduate school. Thirty percent were not in the labor force because they were in school, and 2 percent had family responsibilities.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs.

Twenty-eight percent were in biological science-related occupations. Twelve percent were biological technicians. Five percent were elementary and secondary school teachers. Most were secondary school teachers; since most of these teachers said their work was closely related to their majors, they probably were biology teachers. Four percent were biological scientists. That few were biological scientists is understandable since most professional jobs in biology require an advanced degree. Four percent were graduate student teachers and researchers; all worked part time. Two percent were chemists, and 1 percent were forestry and conservation scientists.

Twenty-four percent were in health-related occupations. Twenty percent were health technologists and technicians; almost all reported that their work was closely or somewhat related to their major. Four percent were in health diagnosing and treating occupations.

Eighteen percent were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations that were not related to health. Six percent were in managerial occupations; 3 percent were science technicians; and 9 were in various other professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirty percent of the employed graduates were in jobs that do not usually require a college degree. Ten percent were in clerical occupations, including clerical supervisor, information clerk, and teacher's aide. Seven percent were in service occupations, including 2 percent who were nursing aides, health aides, and orderlies. Six percent were in blue-collar occupations, 4 percent were retail sales workers, and 3 percent were in agriculture, forestry, and fishing occupations. Few in any of the nonclerical occupations said a degree was necessary for their job; however, many of the clerical workers said their work was somewhat related to their major.

Business and

Management

Except Accounting

Labor Force Status

Ninety-three percent of business and management, except accounting, graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Four percent of these graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, 1 percent had secured a job which started later, and 2 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Sixty-six percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs.

Forty-one percent were in managerial occupations. Eight percent were accountants; 4 percent were marketing, advertising, and public relations managers; and 2 percent each were financial managers, public administration officials, or personnel, training, and labor relations specialists. One percent each were management analysts or purchasing agents and buyers, and 21 percent were in other managerial occupations.

Nine percent were nonretail sales workers. Three percent were sales supervisors or proprietors.

Thirteen percent were in other professional and technician occupations. Four percent were computer specialists; 1 percent, engineers; and 8 percent, other professional and technician occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirty-four percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a degree. Nineteen percent were clerical workers. Although a college degree is an entry requirement for only a very small proportion of all clerical jobs, more than one-third of the business graduates in clerical jobs said a degree was required to obtain the job they held. Three percent were bookkeepers, 3 percent were clerical supervisors, 2 percent were secretaries, and the rest worked in a number of other clerical occupations.

Eight percent were retail sales workers; most said their work was at least somewhat related to their majors. Five percent were blue-collar workers. Two percent were service workers; almost half said their work was related to their major.

Chemistry

Labor Force Status

Seventy-five percent of chemistry graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Almost none of those working part time wanted full-time work; many were graduate students. Almost all those not in the labor force were in school.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Eighty-five percent of the employed graduates were in professional, technician, and managerial occupations.

Fifty-four percent were in chemistry-related jobs. Twenty percent were teachers and researchers in colleges and universities; most were graduate students who worked part time. Nineteen percent were chemists; 11 percent, chemical technicians; 2 percent, chemical engineers; and 2 percent, secondary school teachers, most of whom were probably chemistry teachers because they all said their work was closely related to chemistry.

Thirty-one percent were in other professional, technician, and managerial occupations. Eight percent were health technologists and technicians; over one-third said their work was closely related to their major. Three percent were other natural scientists, 3 percent were other science technicians, 2 percent were biological technicians, 2 percent were managers, and 13 percent were in other occupations, including airplane pilot, legal assistant, surveyor, and survey technician.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Fifteen percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. Five percent were service workers, 4 percent were blue-collar workers, 4 percent were clerical workers, and 2 percent were retail sales workers. Except for those who were teacher aides and health aides, almost all said their work was not related to their major. Most said they took these jobs because they could not find a job in their field.

Communications

Labor Force Status

Ninety-four percent of communications graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Half of those working part time wanted full-time work. Three percent of communications graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, 1 percent did not want to work, 1 percent had family responsibilities, and 1 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, or nonretail sales occupations.

Thirty-one percent were in occupations directly related to communications. Most reported doing work closely related to their major field of study. Eleven percent were editors and reporters; 7 percent, marketing, advertising, and public relations managers; 7 percent, public relations specialists; 2 percent, announcers; 2 percent, business and promotion agents; and 2 percent, photographers.

Thirty-nine percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Ten percent were in managerial occupations, and 10 percent were in nonretail sales occupations, including 3 percent who were advertising sales workers and 1 percent who were insurance sales workers. Three percent were elementary and secondary school teachers; 2 percent each were actors and directors, broadcast equipment operators, counselors, and personnel, training, and labor relations specialists; and 1 percent were electrical and electronics technicians. Seven percent were in a number of other professional and technician occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirty percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. About 14 percent were in clerical jobs; the largest number were general office clerks, production coordinators, secretaries, and transportation ticket and reservation agents. Nine percent were in retail sales occupations; 4 percent were service workers; and 3 percent were in blue-collar jobs.

Computer

and Information

Sciences

Labor Force Status

Ninety-six percent of computer and information sciences graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Computer and information sciences had the lowest proportion of graduates not in the labor force of all the major fields covered. Three percent of these graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school; 1 percent had a job which started later.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Eighty-seven percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Although this proportion is high, it is significantly lower than that of the class of 1980, when almost all (97 percent) were in this category. Seventy-five percent were in jobs directly related to computer science, the third highest of all the majors covered with directly related jobs. Forty-five percent were computer programmers; 20 percent, computer systems analysts and scientists; 7 percent, engineers--including 4 percent who were in the "other engineers" category; many of these probably were computer engineers--2 percent, operations and systems researchers and analysts, and 1 percent, graduate student teachers and researchers. Most of these graduates said their work was closely related to their majors.

Twelve percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations, including 6 percent who were in managerial occupations and 6 percent who were in a number of other professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirteen percent of the employed graduates were in occupations which do not usually require a college degree. Eight percent were in clerical jobs; of these, 2 percent were computer operators, and 2 percent were clerical supervisors. Two-fifths of those in clerical jobs said a college degree was required for their job. Two percent were in blue-collar occupations; 2 percent, retail sales occupations; and 1 percent, service occupations.

Economics

Labor Force Status

Eighty-two percent of economics graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Most of those working part time did not want a full-time job. Fourteen percent of these graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school; 4 percent gave other reasons.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-two percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Even though this proportion is near the average for all majors, only 18 percent of economics graduates (the lowest of all majors covered) said their work was closely related to economics. Only 2 percent were economists; this relatively small percentage is understandable because an advanced degree is required for most economist jobs.

Seventy percent were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations other than economics. These occupations were mostly business related, and most in these occupations said their work was at least somewhat related to economics. Thirty-nine percent were in managerial occupations, including 12 percent who were financial managers and officers; 5 percent, accountants; 5 percent, management analysts; 3 percent, marketing, advertising, and public relations managers; 2 percent, personnel and labor relations managers; 2 percent, purchasing agents and buyers; and 10 percent, other managerial occupations.

Eleven percent were in nonretail sales occupations; of these, 3 percent were insurance sales workers, and 3 percent were real estate sales workers. In addition, 7 percent were computer specialists; 2 percent, elementary school teachers; 2 percent, legal assistant; 2 percent, public relations specialists; and 7 percent, other professional and technician occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-eight percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree for entry. Twenty-one percent were clerical workers. These include 4 percent who were clerical supervisors; 3 percent, bank tellers; 3 percent insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators; and 11 percent, in other clerical occupations.

In addition, 3 percent were in blue-collar occupations, 2 percent were retail sales workers, and 2 percent were in service occupations. Most said their work was not related to their majors.

Education

Except

Physical Education

Labor Force Status

Ninety-three percent of education, except physical education, graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. About half of the graduates working part time wanted full-time work. Three percent of these graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, 2 percent had family responsibilities, and 2 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Eight-four percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial technician, and nonretail sales jobs.

Sixty-eight percent were school-teachers; about half were elementary school teachers; over one-fourth were secondary school teachers; and the rest were preschool, kindergarten, special education, and other teachers. About one-fifth of the teachers worked part time. Almost all said they were doing work closely related to their major.

Sixteen percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Four percent were in managerial occupations, and 3 percent were graduate student teachers and researchers. Nine percent were in other professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations, including counselor, engineer, health technologist and technician, and therapist.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Sexteen percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a degree for entry. Nine percent were clerical workers. Two percent were teacher aides, most of whom reported doing work closely related to their major, although a degree was not needed to obtain their job. Another 2 percent were secretaries. Three percent were service workers; 2 percent, blue-collar workers; and 2 percent, retail sales workers.

Engineering

Labor Force Status

Ninety-three percent of engineering graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Most of those with part-time jobs did not want full-time work. Most of the graduates who were not in the labor force were in school. Many of the rest had accepted a job but had not yet begun working.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Ninety-two percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs. After nursing, this was the highest proportion among all majors covered. Furthermore, engineering graduates had the highest proportion who said a college degree was needed for their job (84 percent).

Seventy-eight percent were in jobs directly related to engineering; again after nursing, this was the highest proportion working in jobs directly related to their major. Sixty-seven percent were engineers; almost three-fourths of them said their work was closely related to their major field of study; only 4 percent said it was not related. Twenty-two percent were electrical and electronics engineers; 12 percent, mechanical engineers; 9 percent, civil engineers; and the remainder, engineers in various other specialties. In addition, 5 percent were engineering technicians and technologists. All said their work was at least somewhat related to their majors. Many in this occupation, especially those with degrees in engineering technology, probably were doing work very similar to that of those who reported themselves as engineers. Also, 4 percent were computer specialists, and 2 percent were graduate student teachers and researchers.

Fourteen percent of the employed graduates were in other managerial, professional technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Seven percent were in managerial occupations; over two-thirds said their work was closely related to their major. In addition, 2 percent were in nonretail sales occupations, and 5 percent were in other professional and technician occupations not directly related to engineering, including architect and teacher, mostly secondary school or other teachers.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Eight percent of the employed graduates were in blue-collar (4 percent), clerical (3 percent), or service (1 percent) occupations.

English

Labor Force Status

Eighty-four percent of English graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Over three-quarters of the graduates working part time preferred part-time employment, probably because many were in graduate school. Thirteen percent of these graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school; 1 percent did not want to work; and 2 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Fifty-nine percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs.

Twenty-five percent were in occupations directly related to English. Ten percent were elementary and secondary school teachers; almost three-quarters said their work was closely related to their major. Four percent were editors and reporters; and 4 percent were technical writers. Three percent were marketing, advertising, and public relations managers, 2 percent were graduate student teachers and researchers, and 2 percent were public relations specialists.

Thirty-four percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Twelve percent were in managerial occupations not related to English; 3 percent were legal assstants, 2 percent were public administration officials, and 2 percent were social workers. Fifteen percent were in a number of other occupations, such as archivist or curator, counselor, and finance or business services sales worker.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Forty-one percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. Twenty-eight percent were clerical workers, including 8 percent who were secretaries and others who were bookkeepers, clerical supervisors, computer equipment operators, file clerks, insurance adjusters, receptionists, and stock clerks. About a fifth of the clerical workers said a degree was required for their job. Six percent were in service occupations; many were part-time waiters and waitresses. Four percent were retail sales workers, and 3 percent were in blue-collar occupations.

History

Labor Force Status

Seventy-eight percent of history graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. About a quarter of those working part time wanted full-time work. Almost all of the history graduates who were not in the labor force were in school.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Sixty-seven percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs. None were historians, which is understandable since an advanced degree is required to enter most jobs in this occupation.

Elementary and secondary school teaching was the largest single occupation entered, with 20 percent of the employed graduates. About two-thirds of the teachers said their work was closely related to their major, but another quarter said their work was not related to their major.

Fifteen percent were in managerial occupations such as finance, purchasing, marketing, or labor relations manager. Seven percent were legal assistants, 4 percent were public relations specialists, and 3 percent each were insurance sales workers, sales occupations supervisors and proprietors, and securities and financial services sales workers. Two percent each were counselors, graduate student teachers and researchers, operations and systems researchers and analysts, or social workers. One percent were librarians, and 3 percent were in other professional and technician occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirty-three percent of the employed graduates were in jobs that do not usually require a college degree. Few in these jobs said their work had any relation to their major. Fourteen percent were clerical workers, including bookkeepers, clerical supervisors, computer operators, library clerks, secretaries, and teacher aides. Twelve percent were in service occupations, mainly guards and food preparation and service workers. Three percent each were blue-collar workers or retail sales workers, and 1 percent were gardeners and groundskeepers.

Home Economics

Labor Force Status

Eighty-nine percent of home economics graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Among those graduates who worked part time, almost half did so because they could not find full-time work. Nine percent of these graduates were not in the labor force because they were attending school. One percent had family responsibilities, and 1 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Sixty-four percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional technician, and nonretail sales occupations.

Twenty-nine percent were in occupations directly related to home conomics; almost all reported doing work closely related to their major. Seventeen percent were teachers, including over 10 percent who were preschool and kindergarten teachers. Eight percent were dietitians, 2 percent were buyers, and 2 percent were designers.

Thirty-five percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Twelve percent were in managerial occupations; two-thirds said their work was closely related to their major. Six percent were in nonretail sales occupations, 4 percent were health technologists and technicians, 3 percent were editors and reporters, and 10 percent were in other professional and technician occupations, including chemical technician, computer systems analyst, legal assistant, painter or sculptor, public relations specialist, and social worker.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirty-six percent of the employed graduates were in other occupations. Although few of these occupations require a degree for entry, over 40 percent said their work was closely related to their major. Twenty percent were in clerical occupations, including 6 percent who were secretaries; 2 percent, clerical supervisors; and 2 percent, teacher aides. Eight percent were service workers, mainly food preparation and service workers. Four percent were retail sales workers, 3 percent were supervisors of agricultural workers, and 1 percent were operatives.

Mathematics

Labor Force Status

Ninety-one percent of mathematics graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. The great majority of those working part time preferred to do so. Six percent of mathematics graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school; 3 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Eighty-five percent of the employed graudates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs.

Sixty percent were in mathematics-related occupations. Thirty-six percent were computer specialists: 23 percent, programmers; 12 percent, systems analysts and computer scientists; and 1 percent, operations and systems researchers and analysts. Ten percent were elementary and secondary school teachers. Most of the secondary school teachers said their work was closely related to mathematics, so they probably were mathematics teachers. Eight percent were graduate students teaching mathematics or conducting research in colleges and universities part time; 5 percent were actuaries; and 1 percent were statisticians. Most in these occupations said their work was closely related to their major.

Twenty-five percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Twelve percent were in managerial occupations, including 2 percent who were accountants. Four percent were engineers, and 9 percent were in other occupations, including airplane pilot, designer, and nonretail sales occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. fifteen percent of the employed graduates were in jobs that do not usually require a college degree. Nine percent were clerical workers, including bookkeepers, computer operators, secretaries, and teacher aides. Three percent were in nonretail sales occupations, 2 percent in blue-collar occupations, and 1 percent in service occupations.

Nursing

Labor Force Status

Ninety-five percent of nursing graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Three-quarters of those working part time preferred part-time work. Three percent of nursing graduates were not in the labor force because they were attending school; most of the rest had family responsibilities.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Nursing was the highest of all the fields covered in three categories: Proportion of employed graduates in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations (97 percent); proportion in occupations directly related to the field of study (86 percent were registered nurses); and proportion who said their work was closely related to their major (98 percent). In addition to registered nurses, another 5 percent were in health diagnosing occupations, and 2 percent were health technologists and technicians.

Four percent were in other managerial, technician, and nonretail sales occupations, most of whom also reported doing work closely related to their major. One percent were in managerial occupations, most probably in health and hospital management. Most others were also in health-related occupations, for example health specialty teachers or counselors.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Only 3 percent of nursing graduates were in occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry; most said their jobs were closely related to their majors. Most were receptionists (probably in hospitals or doctor's offices), nursing aides, and orderlies.

Physical

Education

Labor Force Status

Ninety-four percent of physical education graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. About two-thirds of the physical education graduates working part time did so because they could not find full-time work. Five percent of these graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school; 1 percent had family responsibilities.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupation generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-two percent of employed physical education graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs.

Fifty-four percent were in occupations directly related to physical education. Forty percent were elementary and secondary school teachers. Since three-quarters said their work was directly related to physical education, most probably taught physical education. Seven percent were college coaches and physical education teachers, 6 percent were recreation workers, and 1 percent were athletes.

Eighteen percent were in other managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales occupations. Seven percent were in managerial occupations, 3 percent were health therapists, and 8 percent were in a number of other occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-eight percent of the employed graduates were in occupations for which a degree is not generally required. Eleven percent were in service occupations, including 3 percent who were police and detectives; 2 percent, recreation and amusement attendants; 2 percent, waiters and waitresses; and 1 percent, guards. Ten percent were clerical workers, 5 percent were blue-collar workers, and 2 percent were retail sales workers. Most in these jobs said their work was not related to their major, and most said they took these jobs because they could not find a job in their field.

Political Science

Labor Force Status

Seventy-one percent of political science graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Most of the part-time workers did not want full-time work. s Twenty-seven percent of these graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school; 2 percent did not want to work.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Fifty-six percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs. None of the graduates were political scientists, which is understandable since an advanced degree is usually required to enter this occupation. Twenty-one percent were in managerial occupations, and almost a third said their work was closely related to their major. Five percent of these were marketing, advertising, and public relations managers, 3 percent were public administration administrators and officials, 2 percent were accountants, and 11 percent were in other managerial occupations.

In addition, 8 percent were in nonretail sales occupations, including insurance and advertising sales. Seven percent were legal assistants; 3 percent, elementary and secondary school teachers; 3 percent, graduate student teachers and researchers; 3 percent, social workers; 2 percent, editors and reporters; 2 percent, public relations specialists; and 2 percent, social scientists and urban planners. Five percent were in other professional and technician occupations, including announcer, computer programmer, counselor, and health technologist and technician.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Forty-four percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that usually do not require a college degree. Most in these occupations said there was no relationship between their work and their major, although about two-fifths in clerical and retail sales occupations said a degree was necessary for their jobs.

Twenty-two percent were in clerical occupations, including 3 percent who were general office clerks and 2 percent each who were clerical supervisors or records clerks. Others were computer operators, hotel clerks, interviewers, and library clerks.

Thirteen percent were service workers, including 5 percent who were guards, 4 percent who were in food preparation and service occupations, and 3 percent who were janitors and cleaners. Seven percent were in retail sales occupations, and 2 percent were in blue-collar occupations.

Psychology

Labor Force Status

Eighty percent of psychology graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. About one-third of the part-time workers wanted full-time jobs but could not find them. Sixteen percent of psychology graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, and 4 percent had a variety of other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Fifty-eight percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs. Most of those in health-related, therapy, and counseling occupations said there was a close relationship between their major and their jobs.

Only 1 percent reported being psychologists. This is not surprising since an advanced degree is required for almost all jobs in the occupation. Thirteen percent were in managerial occupations. Of these, 2 percent were personnel, training, and labor relations specialists; 2 percent, public administration administrators and officials; and 9 percent, other managerial occupations. About two-thirds of those in managerial occupations said their jobs were at least somewhat related to their major.

Eight percent were social workers; two-thirds said their work was closely related to their major. Six percent were elementary and secondary school teachers; 5 percent, counselors; 4 percent, computer specialists; 3 percent each, health technologists and technicians and nonretail sales workers; and 2 percent each, graduate student teachers and researchers, registered nurses, and science technicians. Nine percent were in other professional and technician occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Forty-two percent of employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. Most indicated that their work was unrelated to psychology.

Twenty-three percent were clerical workers--5 percent were interview clerks; 3 percent, secretaries; and 2 percent each, bank tellers clerical supervisors, and insurance adjusters.

Twelve percent were service workers, including amusement attendants child-care workers, and police officers. Five percent were in retail sales occupations, and 2 percent were in blue-collar occupations.

Sociology

Labor Force Status

Eighty-six percent of sociology graduates were in the labor force, as shown in the accompanying chart. Two out of five sociology graduates who worked part time wanted full-time work. Twelve percent of sociology graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, and 2 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force.

Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Fifty-four percent of the employed graduates were in managerial, professional, technician, and nonretail sales jobs. None said they were sociologists, which is understandable since an advanced degree is usually required to enter the occupation. However, 1 percent said they were "other social scientists," a category which includes areas close to sociology. In addition, 11 percent were social workers, 4 percent were counselors, and 4 percent were graduate student teachers and research workers. Most in these occupations said their work was closely related to their major.

Fourteen percent were in managerial occupations; most said their work was not related to their major. These include 2 percent who were health administrators, all of whom said their work was closely related to their major; 2 percent, advertising, marketing, and public relations officials; and 2 percent, eduuation and related administrators. Eight percent were in a variety of other managerial occupations.

Five percent were in nonretail sales occupations, 4 percent were elementary and secondary school teachers, and 2 percent were therapists. Nine percent were in other professional and technician occupations, including clergy, designer, editor or reporter, health technologist or technician, legal assistant, other religious worker, physician assistant, and public relations specialist.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Forty-six percent of employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree; 54 percent said a degree was not required for their jobs. Both of these proportions were the highest of all the major fields covered. Twenty-five percent were clerical workers, including 3 percent each who were secretaries and receptionists, and 2 percent who were clerical supervisors. Fourteen percent were service workers--including bartenders, police officers (most of whom said their work was somewhat related to sociology), and waiters and waitresses. Five percent were retail sales workers, and 2 percent were in blue-collar occupations.
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Author:Braddock, Douglas J.; Hecker, Daniel E.
Publication:Occupational Outlook Quarterly
Date:Jun 22, 1988
Words:8706
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