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The bases of derivation of old English affixed nouns: status and category.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this journal article is to carry out a complete analysis of the category, status and patterns of the bases of derivation of Old English affixal nouns. The results of the analysis are discussed in the light of the evolution from stem-formation to word-formation. The corpus of analysis of this research is based on data retrieved from the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which contains 30170 predicates. 16694 out of these are nouns, of which 4115 are basic and 12579 qualify as non-basic. Within non-basic nouns there are 3488 affixed nouns (351 by prefixation and 3137 by suffixation) and 9091 compound nouns. The line of argumentation is that, under certain circumstances, the existence of more than one base available for the formation of a derivative does not reinforce the explanation of invariable bases; on the contrary, it goes in the direction of variable bases produced by inflectional processes and made ready for derivation. The following conclusions are reached. In the first place, the importance is underlined of formations on stems in Old English, involving, at least, nouns. Secondly, the analysis evidences that the importance of stem-formation in Old English might be higher than has been acknowledged by previous studies. If Old English made extensive use of words as bases of derivation, a single base should be available; if, on the contrary, Old English is still dependent on stem-formation, more than one base is likely to be found for a single derivative. Such alternative bases of derivation reflect stemformation that may result from inflectional means and be eventually used for derivational purposes.

1. Introduction

The derivational morphology of Old English is not only generalized but also fairly regular and predictable, as has been put forward by Kastovsky (1992) and Lass (1994). (2) As for the generalization of Old English derivation, it can be largely attributed to the recursive character of the system (Martin Arista forthcoming a, b), which often inputs derived bases to morphological processes of word-formation. Regarding the regularity and predictability of derivations, the system is mainly gradual (affixes are attached in a stepwise manner, in such a way that the insertion of an affix requires the attachment of the previous one) and clusters around strong verbs and their derivatives, which represent a significant part of the lexicon (Hinderling 1967; Seebold 1970; Kastovsky 1992; Martin Arista forthcoming c). (3)

In spite of the overall transparency of the system, some authors have insisted on the difficulty of identifying the bases of some derivatives. Thus, Karre (1915: 11) states: "Often ... suffixes pass over from forming desubstantive agent nouns to forming derivative, there existing or arising cases where the derived word permits of a double interpretation: as a formation from a substantive or as a formation from a verb generally derived from that very substantive".

Kastovsky (1986: 243) insists on the same idea: "[-ing was-EGT] originally a denominai suffix, it was extended to deverbal derivation via nouns like leasing, flyming, where there was a verb (leasian, flieman), which was in turn derived from a noun (leas, fleam), thus allowing a dual connection".

Although these authors have already pointed out possible ambiguities when establishing the bases of some derivational processes producing nouns in Old English, their analyses are partial or their theoretical framework is outdated and these ambiguities are treated as mere exceptions. This work aims at filling this gap by carrying out a complete analysis of the category, status and patterns of the bases of derivation of Old English affixal nouns. The results of the analysis are discussed in the light of the evolution from stem-formation to word- formation identified by Kastovsky (1986, 1989, 1990, 1992, 2005, 2006) and Lass (1994). Although I concur with these authors on the fact that the change is complete by the end of the Old English period, this article explores the synchronic variation associated with diachronic change from the perspective of the bases of derivation. That is, the derivation of Old English affixal nouns is studied in terms of the evolution from variable base morphology to invariable base morphology. In this sense, the difference with Kastovsky's approach lies in two aspects: word-formation processes are central to the discussion, rather than the output of such processes; and derivational morphology has pride of place over inflectional morphology, which is stressed by Kastovsky, who draws his main conclusions by analysing the inflectional paradigm of derivatives. Moreover, the results are less predictable than those of previous works, because the evolution from stem-formation to word-formation is a direct consequence of the well-known processes of the loss of productivity of the strong verbal paradigm and the decay and practical disappearance of inflectional morphemes. (4) For this reason, to consider the question from the angle of derivational rather than inflectional morphology may turn out a more fruitful undertaking. The line of argumentation is that, under certain circumstances, the existence of more than one base available for the formation of a derivative does not reinforce the explanation of invariable bases; on the contrary, it goes in the direction of variable bases produced by inflectional processes and made ready for derivation. It seems necessary, therefore, to look at the question in detail by examining all the lexical categories and affixes involved in the formation of Old English nouns.

This journal article is organized as follows: section 2 presents the data under scrutiny and offers a general assessment of some quantitative aspects of the derivational morphology of Old English. Section 3 reports the analysis of the input categories, the affixes and the bases of Old English nominal affixation. Section 4 discusses the results of the analysis and, to round off, an exhaustive list is offered in the appendix of those derived nouns for which more than one base may be available.

2. Data

The corpus of analysis of this journal article is based on data retrieved from the lexical database of Old English Nerthus (www.nerthusproject.com), which contains 30170 predicates. 16694 out of these are nouns, of which 4115 are basic and 12579 non-basic. Within non-basic nouns there are 3488 derived nouns (351 by prefixation and 3137 by suffixation) and 9091 compound nouns. The genders of the derived nouns are distributed as follows: feminine (2332), masculine (938) and neuter (130), the rest showing more than one gender or being ambiguous with respect to this morphological feature. What these figures are telling us is, to begin with, that the nominal lexicon of Old English is mainly derived: approximately three quarters of the total amount of nominal predicates are non-basic. Within these, three quarters are compounds and the other quarter consists of affixal nouns. The conclusion that can be drawn from these figures is that compounding is much more widespread than affixation for word-formation purposes. Considering affixal nouns, suffixation outnumbers prefixation at practically a ratio of 9 to 1. Overall, there is no doubt that the formation of Old English nouns is mainly the product of compounding and, when it results from affixation, it is clearly suffixal.

3. Analysis

In the analysis reported below, lexical items have been divided into predicates (lexemes) and affixes (derivational morphemes). The inventory of affixes analysed throughout this research includes the prefixes a- 1, a- 2, ae-, and-, ante-, arce-, be-, ed-, el-, for-, in-, med-, mis-, of-, on-, or-, sam-, sam-, sin-, sub-, to- and un-; and the suffixes -els, -en 1, -en 2, -end, -ere, -estre, -ett, -icge, - incel, -ing 1, -ing 2, -l, -ling, -ness, -scipe, and -t. The analysis is strictly synchronic.

Beginning with prefixes, a-1 is affixed to 3 derivatives, all the bases of which belong to the category Noun. A- 2 is involved in the derivation of one predicate whose base belongs to the category "other" (which includes minor grammatical classes). AE- derives 3 predicates; 2 of these derivatives have nominal bases and there is one instance whose base has not been identified. And- is present in the derivation of 18 predicates, whose bases are distributed as follows: 16 are nouns and 2 have not been identified. Ante- derives 1 noun showing a nominal base. Arce- is involved in the derivation of 2 predicates, whose bases are nouns. Be- is affixed to 5 derivatives whose bases are nouns, except one instance, in which the base has not been identified. Ed- derives 16 predicates; the bases are nouns, except one, for which the base has not been identified. El- is involved in the derivation of 4 predicates, whose bases qualify as nouns. For- derives 11 predicates, all of which show nominal bases. In- creates 35 derivatives whose bases are distributed as follows: 31 are nouns and 4 bases are of unknown category. Med- derives one predicate from a noun. Mis- derives 12 predicates, from nouns in all instances. Of- creates 10 derivatives; in 6 cases the base is a noun, whereas the base has not been identified for four instances. On- is involved in the creation of 41 derivatives; 39 of the bases are nouns and 2 are of unknown category. Sam- 1 takes part in the formation of 3 derivatives, from nouns in all cases. Sam- 2 derives 1 predicate and the base is a noun. Sin- derives 11 predicates; in 10 instances the base is a noun and the remaining one the base has not been found. Sub- is attached to 1 noun. To- derives 19 predicates; the bases are nouns, except one instance in which the base has not been identified. Un- is involved in the derivation of 146 predicates. The bases are distributed as follows: 136 are nouns, 3 are adjectives and 7 are unknown.

The analysis has shown that the bases of derivation of prefixal nouns are overwhelmingly nominal, leaving aside the relatively low number of problematic formations (24). Regarding frequency, the following hierarchy of prefix type-frequency can be proposed: a- 2, ante-, med-, sam- 2, sub- (1) < arce- (2) < a-1, sam- 1 (3) < ae-, el- (4) < be- (5) < or- (6) < of- (10) < for-, sin- (11) < mis- (12) < ed- (16) < and- (18) < to- (19) < in- (35) < on- (41) < un- (146). This hierarchy ranks the prefix un- as the most type-frequent: leaving aside problematic cases, nearly one half of the derivatives are un-derivatives. (5)

Turning to suffixes, the quantitative results can be summarized as follows. The suffix -els attaches to 19 derivatives. 12 present one base (1 belongs to the category Noun and 11 to the category Verb) and 7 have more than one base. -En 1 derives 42 nouns. The bases are distributed as follows: 24 show one base (5 are nouns, and 19 are verbs) and 18 present more than one base. -En 2 derives 12 predicates: all the bases are nouns. -End gives rise to 269 derivatives and the distribution of the bases runs like this: 174 derivatives have one base (1 adjective, 4 nouns and 169 verbs), 91 present more than one base and 4 are bases of an unknown category. -Ere derives 218 predicates; 124 of them have one base (4 adjectives, 29 nouns and 91 verbs), for 89 more than one base has been identified, in 4 instances the base has not been identified, and in one instance the base is hypothetical. -Estre derives 47 predicates with the following distribution of bases: 29 derivatives have one base (10 nouns and 19 verbs), 17 present more than one base and in one instance the base has not been identified. -Ett is attached to 16 derived nouns; in 13 cases the base belongs to one category (1 adjective, 3 nouns and 9 verbs), in one case the base belongs to more than one category and in one case the base is unknown. -Icge derives 9 predicates; 7 predicates have one base (3 nouns and 4 verbs), 1 predicate has more than one base and for one predicate the base has not been identified. -Incel is involved in the derivation of 14 nouns whose bases are as follows: 12 belong to the category Noun, 1 to the category Verb, and in one case the base has not been identified. -Ing 1 derives 18 predicates. The distribution of the bases is the following: 11 predicates present one base (1 adjective, 6 nouns and 4 verbs) and 7 derivatives have more than one base. The suffix -ing 2 derives 898 predicates. With regard to the bases of these derivatives the results are the following: 565 present one base (11 adjectives, 1 adverb, 27 nouns and 526 verbs), 302 show more than one base, 20 bases have not been identified and for 11 predicates hypothetical bases have been identified. The suffix family -l derives 51 predicates, 37 of which present one base (10 nouns and 27 verbs), 13 more than one base and 1 derivative shows a base of an unknown category. -Ling derives 36 predicates, the bases of which can be described as follows: 19 predicates present one base (6 adjectives, 1 adverb, 6 nouns and 6 verbs), 14 predicates show more than one base and 3 bases have not been identified. The suffix -ness derives 1,134 nouns whose description in terms of the bases is: 761 present one base (286 adjectives, 3 adverbs, 56 nouns and 416 verbs), 331 have more than one base, 25 predicates have unknown bases and for 17 predicates the base is hypothetical. -Scipe appears in 99 nominal derivatives; 81 out of them have one base (27 adjectives, 1 adverb, 52 nouns and 1 verb), 17 present more than one base and in one case a hypothetical base has been established. Finally, the suffix family -t derives 119 predicates. 80 out of these predicates show one base (34 adjectives, 5 nouns and 41 verbs), 33 present more than one base and in 6 predicates the base is hypothetical. The hierarchy of type-frequency in Old English nominal suffixation is as follows: -icge (9) < -en 2 (12) < -incel (14) < -ett (16) < -ing 1 (18) < -els (19) < -ling (36) < -en 1 (42) < -estre (47) < -1 (51) < -scipe (99) < -t (119) < -ere (218) < -end 269 < -ing 2 (898) < -ness (1,134). This hierarchy is telling us that two thirds of the derivatives revolve around two affixes: -ing 2 and -ness, the former contributes more than one fourth by itself, whereas the latter partakes in one third of the derivatives by itself.

Unlike prefixes, the bases chosen for the derivation of suffixal nouns are heterogenous. Two thirds belong to the category Verb, which clearly outnumbers the others as base of suffixed nouns. There are 371 adjectival bases, 241 nominal and 6 adverbial ones. Another comparison with prefixation is in point here. Considering formal transparency and opaqueness, the suffixation of nouns is more opaque than prefixation. This is probably due to the fact that inflectional and derivational morphemes appear in the postfield of the word, whereas inflectional morphemes, with the exception of the verbal prefix ge- attached to the past participle of weak verbs, do not take up the word prefield. Practically one third of suffixal nouns can be derived from more than one base (944 out of 3001), along with the 59 problematic formations that have turned up. These aspects raise explanatory questions that are discussed in the next section.

4. Discussion

Kastovsky (1987, 1989, 1992) engages in the typological status of Old English word-formation and its historical development. For this author, Old English word-formation is in transition because three types of derivational pattern coexist: root-based, stem-based and word-based derivation. The root-based pattern is restricted to derivatives from strong verbs and involves ablaut, which was phonologically conditioned (Kastovsky 1968) but has become purely morphological (Kastovsky 2006) and is no longer operational in word-formation. The stem-based pattern is found in weak verbs, strong feminines and weak nouns, while masculine and neuter nouns with a-stems, nouns with /-stems, as well as the nominal derivatives of both and deadjectival derivatives were word-based (Kastovsky 2005, 2006).

Whereas Kastovsky is more interested in the inflectional class of derivatives, thus the result of the application of derivational processes, I have already remarked that this study emphasizes the processes and units of derivational morphology. I draw on Giegerich (1999), who has convincingly argued that derivational morphology must be studied not only from the point of view of derivatives, but also from the perspective of the bases of derivation. The analysis of bases and derivatives is justified, on more theoretical grounds, on a dynamic concept of word-formation, in which the processes that derive lexical items from other lexical items are central to the organization of the lexicon. Moreover, the properties of these processes, namely recursivity and recategorization (Martin Arista 2009), constitute the building blocks of derivational morphology and make the fundamental difference with respect to inflectional morphology. The units that are inputted to and outputed from derivational processes are also under focus because they perform functions in the layered structure of the complex word (Martin Arista 2008).

The number of affixed nouns for which only one base has been identified is 2369: 391 of these bases are adjectives, 6 are adverbs, 588 belong to the category Noun, 1383 are verbs and 1 belongs to other lexical categories. The categories to which these bases belong distribute as can be seen in Table 1. The figures between brackets are the derivatives that abide to the pattern in question with respect to the total:
Table 1. Categorial distribution in multiple-base derivation
by affix

Prefixes      Categorial      Scope
             distribution

<on->           N/V(l)
                N/N/V          (1)
Suffixes
<-els>           N/V          (6/7)
<-en 1>          N/V         (4/18)
                 V/V         (4/18)
<-end>           N/V         (59/91)
<-ere>           NA/         (75/91)
<-estre>         N/V         (14/17)
<-ett>           N/V          (2/3)
<-icge>          N/V          (1/1)
<-incel>       Adj/N/V        (1/1)
<-ing 1>       Adj/N/V        (2/7)
                 N/V          (2/7)
                 N/N          (2/7)
<-ing 2>         N/V        (158/302)
<-l>             N/V         (9/13)
<-ling>        Adj/N/V       (3/14)
<-ness>         Adj/V       (139/348)
<-scipe>        Adj/N        (14/17)
<-t>             N/V         (17/33)


Table 1 allows us to draw several conclusions. In the first place, they contribute to explaining the relationship between transparency and frequency in word formation. Opaqueness often arises in frequent patterns, as the existence of alternative patterns of derivation with the most frequent affixes demonstrates. This has two possible explanations: the quantitative explanation takes the line that the more frequent a phenomenon the more likely it is to combine with any other phenomenon; and the qualitative one, which points in the direction that, given a very frequent morphological process of word-formation, the productive working of the process in question counterbalances the opaqueness that arises from admitting certain inputs, which would, conversely, be rejected by less frequent processes. Secondly, there are no prefixal nouns that can be derived from more than one base. On the other hand, practically one third of suffixal nouns can be derived from more than one base (944 out of 3001). The affixes involved are the following: -icge, -incel (1 instance), -ett (3 instances), -els, -ing 1 (7 instances), -l (13 instances), -ling (14 instances), -estre, - scipe (17 instances), -en 1 (18 instances), -t (33 instances), -ere (89 instances), - end (91 instances), -ing 2 (302 instances) and -ness (348 instances). Focusing on the most frequent affixes, there is more than one base available for one third of the derivatives with -ing 2 and more than one fourth of -ness derivatives. In the third place, the category Verb turns out as the central one in the formation of nouns. In each of the patterns in table 1 there is always a verb available. This reinforces the status of the verb as the core of Old English word-formation as well as the importance of inflective verbal stems that achieved derivational status. Moreover, it stresses the role played by weak verbs in Old English word-formation (typically, the most type-frequent affixes attach to weak and strong verbs, whereas the least type-frequent ones attach to strong verbs only). And, in the fourth place, there is always a noun available in each of the patterns in table 1, except for -ness, which is consistent with the traditional characterization of variable stem derivational morphology in Old English as based on the duet strong verb-neuter noun (Palmgren 1904; Hinderling 1967, Martin Arista forthcoming c, e).

The existence of alternative bases of derivation implies stem-formation, which can be accounted for by means of a derivational paradigm. For instance, the derivative lygen 1 'falsehood' can be related to the bases lyge 2 (Adj), lyge 1 (N) and leogan (V) because other derivatives hold a morphological relationship due to the same patterns of derivation at work here: -en nouns derived from adjectives, -en nouns derived from other nouns and -en nouns derived from strong verbs. Relating the derivative to three bases of derivation that include a strong verb and share a consonant sequence is tantamount to saying that the strong verb stem is the base of derivation, that is, the derivational paradigm that follows in Table 2 can be reconstructed for leogan on the grounds of morphological relatedness, including word-formation proper (productive) and redundancy (recoverable): (6)
Table 2. The derivational paradigm of leogan

Nouns

lygen 1 'lie, falsehood', lygnes 'falseness', aologa 1 'perjurer',
leogere 'liar, false witness; hypocrite', lyge 1 'lie, falsehood',
lygewyrhta 'liar', treowloga 'pledge-breaker', deodloga
'arch-liar', waerloga 'traitor, liar, devil', wedloga 'violator of
agreement, traitor', wordloga 'deceiver, liar', leger 'lying,
illness; lair, couch, bed; grave', lygeword 'lying word, lie',
lygesearu 'lying wile, trick', lygespell 'falsehood'

Adjectives

logder 'cunning, artful', lygesynnig 'lying, false', lygetorn
'feigned anger or grief, gelygnod 'perjured', unalogen 'not false,
true', ungelygen 'not lying, true', unlygen 'untying, truthful',
lyge 2 'lying, false', lygen 2 'lying, false'

Strong verbs

aleogan 'to lie, deny, deceive, be false to, leave unfulfilled',
beleogan 'to deceive by lying; be mistaken', (ge)leogan 'to lie;
deceive, belie, betray; be in error', ofleogan 'to lie, be false,
forleogan 'to lie, prejure oneself, slander'

Weak verbs

(ge)lygnian 'to give one the lie', lygenian 'to give one the lie',
aloccian 'to entice', (ge)loccian 'to attract, entice, soothe'


A similar case can be made for the derivative strengel 'ruler', which can be related to the bases strang (Adj), strengu (N) and strengan. Ultimately, the base is the reference form of the derivational paradigm, which is not verbal, as is the case with leogan, but adjectival, namely strang, motivated by the adjectival prime proposed by Heidermanns (1993: 560). This paradigm follows in Table 3:
Table 3. The derivational paradigm of Strang

Nouns

heahstrengou 'strength', hildestrengo 'vigour for battle',
maegenstrengo 'great might', merestrengo 'strength in swimming',
strengd 'strength, force, vigour; ability, superiority; firmness,
fortitude; manhood, mature years; violence', strangnes 'strength,
power, force', (ge)strangung 'strengthening, quickening,
nourishing; vigour', strengu 'strength, power, vigour, ability;
firmness, fortitude;
virtue', strengel 'ruler, chief, woruldstrengu 'physical strength'

Adjectives

hygestrang 'brave', langstrang 'longanimis', maegenstrang 'of
great virtue or strength', medstrang 'of middle rank', Strang
'strong, powerful, able, firm, bold, brave; constant, resolute,
strenuous; strict, severe; arduous; violent', stranghynde 'strong
of hand', stranglic 'strong, stout, firm, solid, sound,
robust;
severe', strangmod 'resolute', strenge 'severe', strenglic 'strong,
firm', swldstrang 'very strong', durhstrang 'very strong', unstrang
'weak, infirm, feeble', unstrenge 'weak', wigstrang 'mighty in war',
woruldstrang 'having worldly power', byrdenstrang 'strong at
carrying burdens', ceorlstrang 'strong as a man', earmstrang
'strong of arm, muscular', feohstrang 'well off, forstrang
'very strong', astrenged 'malleable', gestrenged 'formed,
made'

Weak verbs

(ge)strangian 'to strengthen, confirm; be strong, prevail;
press (after)', gestrengan 'to strengthen', aststrengan
'to withhold wrongfully',
fordgestrangian
'to make very strong, strengthen much', astrengan 'to strengthen'

Adverbs

strange 'strongly, violently, furiously, severely', stranglice
'strongly, firmly,
stoutly, boldly, bravely; fiercely, violently', strenglice 'firmly'


As an illustration of a derivational paradigm of the nominal class, consider the derivative hearpere 'harper', which is morphologically related to the bases hearpe (N) and hearpian (V). The relevant derivational paradigm is hearp, given in Table 4:
Table 4. The derivational paradigm of hearp

Nouns

hearpe 'harp', hearpenaegl 'plectrum (instrument for striking the
harp)', hearpere
'harper', hearpestre '(female) harper', hearpestreng 'harp-string',
hearpsang 'psalm', hearpslege 'plectrum; harp-playing', hearpsweg
'sound of the
harp', hearpung 'harping', wifhearpe 'timbrel', hearplic 'of a harp'

Weak verbs

hearpian 'to harp'


To conclude, the line taken in this study of analysing the bases as well as the derivational processes of nominal affixation in Old English has stressed the importance of formations on stems in Old English, involving, at least, nouns. The analysis that has been carried out evidences that the importance of stem- formation in Old English might be higher than has been acknowledged by previous studies. My reasoning in this respect is as follows: if Old English made extensive use of words as bases of derivation, a single base should be available; if, on the contrary, Old English is still dependent on stem-formation, more than one base is likely to be found for a single derivative. Such alternative bases of derivation reflect stem-formation that may result from inflectional means and be eventually used for derivational purposes.

APPENDIX

The bases and derivatives of nominal patterns of suffixation

This appendix provides the evidence of nominal patterns of suffixation for which more than one base of derivation is available (including the morphological classes of the bases). The data have been retrieved form the lexical database of Old English Nerthus (www.nerthusproject.com) on June 6, 2009.

-L (13): bind (N)/binde (N)/bindan (V), cyrf (H)/ceorfan (V), hype (N)/hypian (V), prica (N)/price (N)/prician (V), siege 1 (N)/slean (V), snaed 3 (N)/snaedan 2 (V), stice (N)/stician (V), stige (N)/stigan (V), strang (Adj)/strengu (H)/strengan (V), swinge (N)/swingan 1 (V), dersc (N)/derscan (V), wad (N)/wadan (V), wund 2 (Aa])/wund 1 (N)/wundian (V).

-Els (7): meare 1 (H)/mearcian (V), price (N)/prica (N)/prician (V), raed 1 (K)/raedan (V), rec (N)/recan (V), smeoru (N)/smierwan (V), stice (N)/stician (V), wrid (N)/wridan 1 (V).

-En 1 (18): byge (N)/bycgan (V), faest (Adj)/faestian (V)/faestan (V), fyllan 2 (V)/feallan (V), gieme (N)/gieman (V), haeft 2 (Adj)/haeft 1 (N)/haeftan (V), hefe (N)/habban 1 (V), ieldan (V)/ieldian (V), leasbred 2 (Adj)/leasbred 1 (N), lufu (N)/lufe (N)/lufian (V), lyge 2 (Adj)/lyge 1 (N)/leogan (V), myrge 1 (Adj)/myrgan (V), raed 1 (N)/raedan (V), scield 1 (N)/scield 2 (N)/scieldan (V), swefan (V)/swefian (V), swige 2 (Adj)/ swige 1 (N)/swigan (V), til 1 (Adj)/til 2 (N)/tilian 1 (V)/tilian 2 (V), wacan (V)/wacian (V), weste (Adj)/westan (V).

-En 2 (0).

-End (91): andfang (N)/onfon 2 (V), andfeng 1 (Adj)/andfeng (N)/andfenge 2 (N)/onfon 2 (V), ar 3 (N)/arian (V), bann (N)/bannan (V), bismer (N)/bismerian (V), bod (N)/bodian (V), borg (N)/borgian (V), bu (N)/buan (V), ceap (N)/cypan (V), cost 2 (Adj)/cost 1 (N)/costian (V), cwealm (N)/cwielman (V)/cwylmian (V), dael (N)/daelan (V), draf (N)/draefan (V), eaht (N)/eahtian (V)/eahtan (V), eard (N)/eardian (V), edlean (N)/edleanian (V) (2), edniwe 1 (Adj)/edniwan (V), endebyrd (N)/endebyrdan (V), feoht (N)/feohte (N)/feohtan 1 (V), feorm (N)/feormian 1 (V), frefer (N)/frefran (V), freols 2 (Adj)/freols 1 (N)/freolsian (V), frid (N)/fridu (N)/fridian (V), fultum (N)/fultuman (V), geoc (N)/geocian (V), gieme (H)/gieman (V), gif 2 (N)/giefan (V), fliw (N)/gliwian (V), gylt (N)/gyltan (V), haeft 2 (Adj)/haeft 1 (N)/haeftan (V), hael 3 (Adj)/haelu (N)/haelan 1 (V), hal (Adj)/halgian (V), hals (N)/halsian 1 (V), heald 1 (N)/healdan (V) (2), help (N)/helpan (V), hiw 1 (N)/hiwian 1 (V), hlyste (Adj)/hlyst (N)/hlystan (V), laen (N)/laenan (V), laest 1 (N)/laestan (V), lufu (N)/lufe (N)/lufian (V), met 1 (N)/metan (V), milts (N)/miltsian (V), mund 1 (N)/mundian (V), ner (N)/nerian (V), nydnimu (N)/nydniman (V), ofercyme (N)/ofercuman (V), oncnaewe (Adj)/oncnawan (V), onraes (N)/onraesan (V), racu (N)/racian (V), raed 1 (N)/raedan (V), reaf (N)/reafian 1 (V), retu (N)/retan (V), riht 2 (Adj)/riht 1 (N)/rihtan (V), rihtwis (N)/rihtwisian (V), scield 1 (N)/scield 2 (N)/scieldan (V), sem (N)/seman 1 (V), sceddu (N)/sceddan (V), secge (N)/secgan (V), sigor (N)/sigorian (V), stadol (N)/stadelian (V), steor 1 (N)/steore (N)/stieran (V), stig (N)/stigan (V), stiht (N)/stihtan (V), strudan (V)/strudian (V), swefn (N)/swefnian (V), swelg (N)/swelgan (V), synn (N)/synnian (V), taecnan (V)/taecnian (V), tael (N)/taelan (V), teon 5 (N)/teone (N)/teon 2 (V)/teonian (V), /tiedre (Adj)/tydran (V)/tidrian (V), timbre (N)/timbru (N)/timbrian (V), tintreg (N)/tintregian (V), toscead (N)/tosceadan (V), deaht 1 (N)/deaht 2 (N)/deahtian (V), dearf 2 (Adj)/drearf 1 (N)/dearfan (V)/dearfian 1 (V), deode (N)/ deodan (V), deof 1 (N)/ deof 2 (N)/ deofian (V), dreat (N)/dreatian (V), unna (N)/unne (N)/unnan (V), weald 3 (Adj)/weald 2 (N)/weald 5 (N)/wealdan (V)/wealdian (V) (2), wearg 2 (Adj)/wearg 7 (N)/wiergan (V), wegu (N)/wegan 1 (V), weorc 1 (N)/wyrce (N)/wyrcan (V), wielde 1 (Adj)/wielde 2 (Adj)/wield (N)/wieldan (V), wig 1 (N)/wigan (V)/wigian (V), winn (N)/winnan 1 (V), wraec 1 (N)/wracu (N)/wrecan (V), wund 2 (Adj)/wund 7 (N)/wundian (V).

-Ere (89): aet (N)/etan 1 (V), ambiht 1 (N)/ambihtan (V), baec (N)/bacan (V), baed (N)/badian (V), beat (N)/beatan (V), bieme (N)/bymian (V), bigeng (N)/bigenge (N)/begangan (V), binde (N)/bindan (V), bisen (N)/bisenian (V), blaese (N)/blyse (N)/blysa (N)/blysian (V), blot (N)/blotan (V), blyse (N)/blysa (N)/blysian (V), boc (N)/bocian (V), bod (N)/bodian (V), cid (N)/cidan (V), cost 1 (N)/costian (V), dael (N)/daelan (V), delf (N)/delfan (V), dic (N)/dician (V), diht 1 (N)/dihtan (V), dom (N)/domian (V), drinc (N)/drince (N)/drincan (V), eaht (N)/eahtian (V)/eahtan (V), eard (N)/eardian (V), egde (N)/egdan (V), eht 1 (N)/ehtan 1 (V), feoht (N)/feohtan 1 (V), feorm (N)/feormian 1 (V), fisc (N)/fiscian (V), fleard (N)/fleardian (V), forebod (N)/forebodian (V), fugel (N)/fuglian (V), gliw (N)/gliwian (V), graef 1 (N)/grafan (V), grind (N)/grindan (V), hals (N)/ halsian 1 (V), hearpe (N)/hearpian (V), hearg (N)/hergian (V), hiw 1 (N)/hiwian 1 (V), hlod (N)/hlodian (V), hylst (N)/hlystan (V), hord (N)/hordian (V), hwistle (N)/hwistlian (V), laen 1 (N)/laenan (V), leas 2 (N)/leasian (V), masse (N)/maessian 1 (V), maedel (N)/maedelian (V), mang (N)/mangian (V), meare 2 (N)/mearcian (V), mynet (N)/mynetian (V), not (N)/notian 2 (V), pile (N)/pilian (V), pin (N)/pinian (V), pipe (N)/pipian (V), plegan (V)/plegian (V), pliht (N)/plihtan (V), raed 3 (N)/raedan (V), reaf (N)/reafian 1 (V), riht 7 (N)/rihtan (V), rim (N)/riman (V), rip (N)/ripan 1 (V)/ripian (V), run (N)/runian (V), saed (N)/seedian (V), saet (N)/saetian (V), sang (N)/singan (V), scield 1 (N)/scield 2 (N)/scieldan (V), scip (N)/scipian (V), scoh (N)/scogan (V), sealt (N)/sealtan (V), slaep 1 (N)/slaepan (V), stam (Adj)/stamerian (V), steor 1 (N)/steore (N)/stieran (V), stiht (N)/stihtan (V), strudan (V)/strudian (V), swinge (N)/swingan 7, taefl (N)/taeflan (V), tael (N)/taelan (V), taeppa (N)/taeppian (V), teon 5 (N)/teone (N)/ teon 2 (V)/teonian (V), traht (N)/trahtian (V), deaht 1 (N)/deaht 2 (N)/deahtian (V), ding (N)/dinge (N)/dingian (V), wealc (N)/wealcan (V), weard 1 (N)/weard 2 (N)/weardian (V), weorp (N)/weorpan 1 (V), wigle (N)/wiglian (V), wlatian (W)/wlitan (V), wraxl (N)/wraxlian (V), wudu (N)/wudian (V).

-Estre (17): baec (N)/bacan (V), bigeng (N)/begangan (V), forgifu (N)/forgiefan (V), fultum (N)/fultuman (V), giefu (N)/giefan (V), hael 3 (Adj.)/haelan 1 (V), hearpe (N)/hearpian (V), hord (N)/hordian (V), lufe (N)/lufu (N)/lufian (V), plega (N)/ plegian (V), raed 3 (N)/raedan (V), sang (N)/singan (V), taeppa (H)/taeppian (V), telg (N)/telgian (V), degn (N)/degnian (V), ding (N)/dingian (V)/dingan 3 (V), waesc 1 (N)/wascan (V).

-Ett (3): graef 1 (N)/grafan (V), slege (N)/slean 1 (V), dicce 1 (Adj)/diccian (V).

-Icge (1): synn (N)/synnian (V).

-Incel (1): haeft 2 (Adj)/haeft 1 (N)/haeftan (V).

-Ing 1 (7): aedele 1 (Adj)/aedelu (N)/aedelian (V), earn (Adj)/earmian (V), heard 1 (Adj)/heard 2 (N)/heardian (V), hor (N)/hore (N), nid (N)/nidan (V), sacc (N)/saecc 2 (N), waesc 1 (N)/wascan (V).

-Ing 2 (302): adl (N)/adle (N)/adlian (V), aeblaece (Adj)/aeblaecan (V), aefengereord (N)/aefengereordian (V), aelfremed 1 (Adj)/aelfremed 2 (Adj), aerende (N)/aerendian (V), aernan 1 (V)/aernan 2 (V), aeswic 1 (N)/aeswician (V), aet (N)/etan 1 (V), agnett (N)/agnettan (V), anbid (N)/anbidian (V), andwyrde (N)/andwyrdan 1 (V), ar 3 (N)/arian (V), arweord (Adj)/arweordian (V), baete (N)/baetan 1 (V), baed (N)/badian (V), bedd (N)/beddian (V), beot (N)/beotian 1 (V), bescieran (V)/bescierian (V), bid (N)/bidan (V), bind (N)/binde (N)/bindan (V), birg (N)/birgan (V), bisceop (N)/bisceopian (V), bisen (N)/bisenian (V), bisgu (N)/bisgian (V), bismer (N)/bismerian (V), blac (Adj)/blacian (V), bliss (N)/blissian (V), blot (N)/blotan (V), boc (N)/bocian (V), bod (N)/bodian (V)/beodan (V), braed 1 (N)/braede (N)/braedu (N)/braedan (V), brastl (N)/brastlian (V), breahtm 1 (N)/breahtmian (V), breotan (V)/brytan 2 (V), broc (N)/brocian (V), bu (N)/buan (V), bytlu (N)/bytlan (V), camp 7 (N)/campian (V), ceap (N)/ceapian (V), ceap (N)/cypan (V), cid (N)/cidan (V), cierr (N)/cierran (V), clawan (V)/clawian (V), clypp (N)/clyppan (V), cneow (N)/cneowian (V), cost 2 (Adj)/cost 1 (N)/costian (V), curs (N)/cursian (V), cwealm (N)/ cwielman (V)/cwylmian (V), cweme (Adj)/cweman (V), dael (N)/daelan (V), deag (N)/deagian (V), deaw 2 (Adj)/deaw 1 (N), delf (N)/delfan (V), dic (N)/dician (V), dreopan (V)/dreopian (V), dung 2 (Adj)/dyngan (V), dwol (Adj)/dwolian (V), eaht (N)/eahtian (V), eaht (N)/eahtan (V)/eahtian (V), eald (Adj)/ealdian (V), eard (N)/eardian (V), ebba (N)/ebbian (V), ecg (N)/ecgan (V), edlean (N)/edleanian (V), edniwe 1 (Adj)/edniwian (V), efenhleodor (N)/efenhleodrian (V), eht 1 (N)/oht 1 (N)/ehtan 1 (V), eloeodige (Adj)/eldeod (N)/eleodgian 1 (V), ende (N)/endian (V), faegn (Adj)/faegnian (V), faest (Adj)/faestan (V)/faestian (V),fag 1 (Adj)/fagian (V), fandian (V)/findan (V),feg (N)/fegan 1 (V), feorm (N)/feormian 2 (V), feorr 1 (Adj)/feorrian (V)/feorran (V), fede (Adj)/fedan (V), fic (N)/fician (V), fierd (N)/fyrdian (V), flieme (Adj)/flieman (V), forebod (N)/forebodian (V), forgifu (N)/forgiefan (V), forht (Adj)/forhto (N)/forhtian (V), forlaetu (N)/forlaetan (V), forsceap (N)/forscieppan (V), frefer (N)/frefran (V), fregen (N)/frignan (V)/fraegnian (V), freme (Adj)/fremu (N)/fremian (V), freols 2 (Adj)/freols 1 (N)/freolsian (V), fugel (N)/fuglian (V), fyllo (N)/fyllan 1 (V), gadere (Adj)/gaderian (V)/gadrian (V), gamen (N)/gamenian (V), gearwe 2 (N)/gierwan (V), georn (Adj)/geornan (V)/giernan (V), giedd (N)/gieddian (V), gielp (N)/gielpan (V), gieme (N)/gieman (V), giest (N)/giestian (V) (2), gif 2 (N)/giefan (V), ginn (Adj)/gin 7 (N)/ginian (V), gliw (N)/gliwian (V), gnorn 1 (Adj)/gnorn 2 (N)/gnornian (V), god 1 (Adj)/beterian (V), grorn 2 (Adj)/grorn 1 (N)/grornian (V), grap (N)/grapian (V), gylt (N)/gyltan (V), habban 1 (V)/habban 2 (V), had (N)/ hadian (V), haeft 2 (Adj)/haeft 1 (N)/haeftan (V) (2), hael 3 (Adj)/haelu (N)/haelan (V), haete (N)/haetu (N)/haetan (V) (2), hal (Adj)/halgian (V), hals (N)/halsian 1 (V)/halsian 2 (V), handle (N)/handlian (V), har 1 (Adj)/harian (V), hat 1 (Adj)/hat 2 (N)/hatian (V), heald 1 (N)/healdan (V), heap (N)/heapian (V), heard 1 (Adj)/heard 2 (N)/heardian (V), hearpe (N)/hearpian (V), hele (N)/helian (V)/helan (V), heof (N)/heofan (V)/heofian (V), heolor (N)/heolorian (V), heolstor 2 (Adj)/heolstor 1 (N), hielde (N)/hieldan (V), hierste (N)/hierstan (V), hiw 1 (N)/hiwian 1 (V) (2), hlaest (N)/hloestan (V), hleodor 2 (Adj)/hleodor 1 (N)/hleodrian (V), hleow 1 (Adj)/hleowan (V), hlyd (N)/hlydan (V), hlyste (Adj)/hlyst (N)/hlystan (V), hoga 1 (Adj)/hoga 2 (N)/hogu (N)/hogian (V), hol 1 (Adj)/hol 2 (N)/holian 1 (V), hraed (Adj)/hradian (V), hrid (N)/hridian (V), hwistle (N)/hwistlian (V), hwata 1 (N)/hwatu (N)/hwata 2 (N), hwearf 2 (H)/hwearfian (V)/hwierfan 1 (V)/hweorfan (V), hyht (N)/hyhtan (V) (2), ieldian (V)/ieldan (V), iede 2 (Adj)/iedan (V), inn 1 (N)/innian (V), lad 1 (N)/ladian (V), latu 1 (N)/latian (V), leas 3 (Adj)/leas 2 (N)/leasian (V), leoht 1 (N)/lihtan 1 (V), leoht 2 (N)/lihtan 2 (V), leoduwac (N)/leoduwacian (V), liget (N)/ligetu (N), lim (N)/liman (V), lide 1 (Adj)/lidan 3 (V)/lidigian (V), lof (N)/lofian (V), lor (N)/losian (V), lufu (N)/lufe (N)/lufian (V), lustful 1 (Adj)/lustful 2 (Adj)/lustfullian (V), maene 1 (Adj)/maene 2 (N), maere 3 (N)/maeran 2 (V), maesse (N)/maessian 1 (V), maed 1 (N)/maedian (V), mang (N)/mangian (V), martir (N)/martyrian (V), madel (N)/madelian (V), mearc 1 (N)/mearcian (V) (2), medeme (Adj)/medemian (V), meld (N)/meldan (V)/meldian (V), meltan 1 (V)/mieltan (V), micga (N)/migan (V), milts (N)/miltsian (V) (2), mun (Adj)/munan (V), murc (Adj)/murcian (V), naem (N)/naeman (V), ner (N)/nerian (V), niwe 1 (Adj)/niwian (V), nydnimu (N)/nydniman (V), nyhtsum 1 (Adj)/nyhtsumian (V), nytt// 2 (Adj)/nytt 2 (N)/nyttian (V), ofest (N)/ofestan (V), onbryrd (Adj)/onbryrdan (V), oncaewe (Adj)/oncnaewan (V), oncunnan (V)/acunnan (V), open (Adj)/openian (V), pic (N)/pician (V), pin (N)/pinian (V), plante (N)/plantian (V), prica (N)/price (N)/prician (V), prud (Adj)/prutian (V), raecan 1 (V)/raecan 2 (V), raed 3 (N)/raedan (V), rar (N)/rarian (V), reaf (N)/reafian (V), reon (N)/reonian (V), reord 2 (N)/reordian 2 (V)/ reordan (V), riht 2 (Adj)/riht 1 (N)/rihtan (V), ripe (Adj)/rip (N)/ripan 1 (V)/ripian (V), run (N)/runian (V), saet (N)/saete 2 (N)/saetian (V), scamu (N)/scamian (V), sceadu (N)/ sceadan (V)/sceadian (V), scield 1 (N)/scield 2 (N)/scieldan (V), scoh (N)/scogan (V), scort (Adj)/scyrtan (V), scot (N)/scotian (V)/sceotan (V), scread (N)/screadian (V), scyldig (Adj)/scyldigian (V), segl 1 (N)/seglian 1 (V), segn (N)/segnian (V), setl 1 (N)/setlan (V), sibsum (Adj)/sibsumian (V), sid (Adj)/sidian (V), sidu (N)/sidian (V), snaed 3 (N)/snaedan 2 (V), sorg (N)/sorgian (V), spatl (N)/spatlian (V), spell (N)/spellian (V), spreadan 1 (V)/spraedan 2 (V), staca (N)/stacan (V), stalu (N)/stalian 2 (V), stadol (N)/stadelian (V), steam (N)/stieman (V), stefn 2 (N)/stefnan 1 (V)/stefnian (V), stice (N)/stician (V), stiht (N)/stihtan (V), strang (Adj)/strangian (V), stru- dan (V)/strudian (V), sweart (Adj)/sweartian (V), swege (Adj)/sweg (N)/swegan (V), swell (N)/swellan (V), sweotol (Adj)/sweotolian (V), swige 2 (Adj)/swige 1 (N)/swigian (V), tacn (N)/tacnian (V), toefl (N)/toeflan (V), taet (N)/taelan (V), teld (N)/teldan (V), telg (N)/telgan (V), teoda (Adj)/teodian (V), tiedre (Adj)/tydran (V)/tidrian (V), til 1 (Adj)/til 2 (N)/tilian 1 (V)/tilian 2 (V), timbre (N)/timbru (N)/timbran (V), tintreg (N)/tintregian (V), tog (N)/teon 1 (V)/togian 2 (V), tweon 2 (N)/tweon 7 (V)/tweonian (V), dafa 2 (Adj)/dafian (V), danc 1 (N)/dancian (V), deaht 1 (N)/deaht 2 (N)/deahtian (V), degn (N)/degnian (V) (2), deof 2 (N)/ deof 1 (N)/ deofian (V), deostre (N)/ deostru (N)/ deostrian (V), dersc (N)/ derscan (V), ding (N)/ dinge (N)/ dingan 3 (V)/ dingian (V), doht (N)/ dencan 1 (V), drafu (N)/ drafian (V), dreat (N)/ dreatian (V), dun (N)/ dunian (V), dwaere (Adj)/dwaerian (V), dynne (Adj)/dynnian (V), dyrel 2 (Adj)/dyrel 1 (N), ungemete 1 (Adj)/ungemete 2 (N), unweord 1 (Adj)/unweordian (V), wacan (V)/wacian (V), waedl (N)/waedlian (V), waet 1 (Adj)/waet 2 (N)/waete (N)/waeta (N)/waetan (V)/waetian (V), waeter (N)/waeterian (V), wan 1 (Adj)/wanian (V), wand 3 (N)/wandian (V), wearg 2 (Adj)/wearg 1 (N)/wiergan (V) (2), wearm (Adj)/wyrman (V), wedd (N)/weddian (V), wede 1 (Adj)/wede 3 (N)/wed 1 (N)/wedan (V), weder 1 (N)/wederian (V), wen 1 (N)/wenan (V), weod (N)/weodian (V), weorc 1 (N)/wyrce (N)/wyrcan (V), weord 2 (Adj)/weord 1 (N)/weordan (V)/weordian (V), wic (N)/wician (V), wicce (N)/wicca 1 (N)/wiccian (V), wielde 1 (Adj)/wielde 2 (Adj)/wield (N)/wieldan (V), wif (N)/wifian (V), wigle (N)/wiglian (V), will 3 (N)/willan (W)/willian (V), winde (Adj)/wind 2 (N)/windan (V), wider 2 (Adj)/widerian (V), widerwinn (N)/widerwinnan (V), wlatian (V)/wlatan (V), wraxl (N)/wraxlian (V), wrixl 1 (N)/wrixl 2 (N)/wrixlan (V), wudu (N)/wudian (V), wyrt (N)/wyrtian (V), yppe 2 (Adj)/yppan (V).

-Ling (14): deore 1 (Adj)/deoran (V), feoht (N)/feohte (N)/feohtan 1 (V), haeft 2 (Adj)/haeft 1 (N)/haeftan (V), haeftnied (N)/haeftniedan (V), hwit 1 (Adj)/hwit 2 (N)/hwitan (V)/hwitian (V), hyr (N)/hieran 1 (V)/hyrian (V), nied 1 (N)/niedan (V), sibb 2 (Adj)/sibb 1 (N)/sibbian (V), swige 2 (Adj)/swige 1 (N)/swigian (V), swing 1 (N)/swingan 1 (V), deorf 2 (Ad])/deorf 1 (N), deowot (N)/ deowtian (V), drist 1 (Adj)/dristian (V), wider (Adv)/widerian (V).

-Ness (348): abroden (Adj)/abreodan (V), aeblaece (Adj)/ablaecan (V), aebylg (N)/abylgan (V), aefterfylgend (N)/aefterfolgian (V), aehiwe (Adj)/aehiw (N), aelenge 1 (Adj)/aelenge 2 (N), aelmihtig 1 (Adj)/oelmihtig 2 (N), oepsen 1 (Adj)/oepsen 2 (N), aeswic 1 (N)/aeswician (V), aet (N)/etan 7 (V), oedele 1 (Adj)/oedelu (N)/oedelian (V), aedryt 1 (Adj)/ aedryt 2 (N)/adreotan (V), aedryt 1 (Adj)/ aedryt 2 (N)/adrietan (V), aewisc 2 (Adj)/ aewisc 1 (N), agen 1 (Adj)/agen 2 (N)/agan 1 (V), alefian (V)/aliefan (V), aliesend (N)/aliesan (V), ambiht 1 (N)/ambiht 2 (N), an 1 (Adj)/anian (V), andfenge 1 (Adj)/andfenge 2 (N)/andfeng (N)/onfon (V), andweard (Adj)/andweardian (V), anginn (N)/onginnan (V), angsum (Adj)/angsumian (V), ar aed 2 (Adj)/ar aed 1 (N)/ar aedan (V), arfoest (Adj)/arfoestian (V), arweord (Adj)/arweordian (V), asolcen (Adj)/'aseolcan (V), baere (Adj)/bearian (V), beald (Adj)/bealdian (V), begang (N)/begangan (V), behogod (Adj)/behogian (V), belg 2 (N)/belgan (V), beorht 1 (Adj)/beorht 2 (N)/beorhtian (V)/bierhtan (V), besceawod (Adj)/besceawian (V), bigeng (N)/bigenge (N)/begangan (V), birg (N)/birgan (V), bisig (Adj)/bisgu (N), bismer CH)/bismerian (V), biter (Adj)/biterian (V), bled 1 (N)/bledan (V), blind (Adj)/blindian (V), blinn (N)/blinnan (V), blid 1 (Adj)/blide 1 (Adj)/blidian (V), brad 1 (Adj)/brad 2 (N)/bradian (V), ceald 1 (AdJ)/ceald 2 (N)/cealdian (V), clypp (N)/clyppan (V), cnaewe (Adj)/cnawan (V), col (Adj)/calan (V)/colian (V), coren (Adj)/ceosan (V), cost 2 (Adj)/costian (V), cristen 1 (Adj)/cristen 2 (N)/cristnian (V), crypel 2 (Adj)/crypel 1 (N), cumlio (Adj)/cumlidian (V), cud (Adj)/cudian (V), cwealmbre (Adj)/cwealmbaeran (V), cweme (Adj)/cweman (V), cynde (Adj)/cynd (N), cyrten 1 (Adj)/cyrten 2 (N), dael (N)/daelan (V), dafen 2 (Adj)/dafenian (V), deop 1 (Adj)/deop 2 (N)/deopian (V), deorc (Adj)/deorcian (V), deorf (N)/deorfan (V), diegol 1 (Adj)/diegol 2 (N), dimm (Adj)/dimmian (V), dreorig (Adj)/dreorigian (V), druncen 2 (Adj)/druncen 1 (N)/drincan (V), dryge (Adj)/drygan (V), dwaes 1 (Adj)/dwaes 2 (N)/dwaesian (V), dyrstig (Adj)/dyrstigian (V), dysig 1 (Adj)/dysig 2 (N)/dysig 3 (N)/ dysigian (V)/dysian (V), ead (N)/eadan (V), eadig (Adj)/eadigan (V), eald (Adj)/ealdian (V), earfode 2 (Adj)/earfode 1 (N)/earfodian (V), earg (Adj)/eargian (V), eade 1 (Adj)/eade 2 (N), eadmod (Adj)/eadmodian 1 (V), efenlic (Adj)/efenlician (V), eht 1 (N)/oht (N)/ehtan 1 (V), ellenwod (Adj)/ellenwod 1 (N)/ellenwodian (V), endebyrd (N)/endebyrdan (V), enge 1 (Adj)/angian (V), est (N)/estan (V), foegen (Adj)/foegnian (V), foeger 1 (Adj)/foeger 2 (N), foer 2 (N)/faran 1 (V), foest (Adj)/foestian (V)/foestan (V), faett 1 (Adj)/faettian (V), fag 1 (Adj)/fagian (V), feaxe (Adj)/feax (N), feg (N)/fegan 1 (V), fele (Adj)/felan (V), feng (N)/fon (V), feorr 1 (Adj)/feorrian (V)/feorran (V), fiell (N)/feallan (V), fiell (N)/fyllan 2 (V), forgniden (Adj)/forgnidan (V), forhoefed (Adj)/forhabban (V), forht (Adj)/forhto (N)/forhtian (V), forsworen (Adj)/forswerian (V), fortogen (Adj)/forteon (V), fordraested (Adj)/fodraestan (V), forwriten (Adj)/forewritan (V), fracod 1 (Adj)/fracod 2 (N), froefel 2 (Adj)/froefel 1 (N)/froefelian (V), fram 3 (Adj)/framian 2 (V), frec (Adj/frecian (V), frefer (N)/frefran (V), freo 1 (Adj)/freo 4 (N), ful 1 (Adj)/ful 2 (N)/fulian (V), full 1 (Adj)/fullian (V), fullfremed (Adj)/fullfremman (V), fyllo (N)/fyllan 1 (V), fyrht (Adj)/fyrhto (N)/fyrhtan (V), fyrwit 2 (Adj)/ jyrwit 1 (N), gal 2 (Adj)/gal 1 (N)/galian (V), georn (Adj)/geornan (V)/giernan (V), gicce (N)/giccan (V), gielp ((N)/gielpan (V), giemeleas (Adj)/giemeleasian (V), giemen (N)/gieme (N)/gieman (V), gif 2 (N)/giefan (V), gloed 1 (Adj)/gloed 2 (N), gleng (N)/glengan (V), god 1 (Adj)/god 2 ((N)/godian (V), great (Adj)/greatian (V), grene 1 (Adj)/grene 2 (N)/grenian (V), grimm (Adj)/grimman (V), hoeftnied (N)/hoeftniedan (V), hael 3 (Adj)/haelu (N)/haelan 1(V), haeled (Adj)/haelan 1 (V), haeden 1 (Adj)/haeden 2 (N), hagosteald 1 (Adj)/hagosteald 2 (N)/hagosteald 3 (N), hal (Adj)/halian (V), halig 7 (Adj)/halig 2 (N)/haligan 1 (V), har (Adj)/harian (V), has (Adj)/hasian (V), hat 1 (Adj)/hat 2 (N)/hatian (V), hatheort 2 (Adj)/hatheort 1 (N), heah 1 (Adj)/hean 3 (V), heald 1 ((N)/healdan (V), heard 1 (Adj)/heard 2 (N)/heardian (V), hefig (Adj)/hefigian (V), hende 1 (Adj)/hendan (V), hiene (Adj)/hienan (V), hiersum (Adj)/hiersumian (V), hiw 1 (N)/hiwian 1 (V), hlaene (Adj)/hlaenan 1 (V)/hlaenan 2 (V), hleow (Adj)/hleowan (V), hnesce 1 (Adj)/hnesce 2 (N)/hnescian (V)/hnescan (V), hol 1 (Adj)/hol 2 (N)/holian 1 (V), hreaw 1 (Adj)/hreawan (V), hreof 1 (Adj)/hreof 2 (N), hreoh 1 (Adj)/hreoh 2 (N), hreow 2 (Adj)/hreow 1 (N)/hreowan (V)/hreowian (V), hrine (N)/hrinan (V), hweorfan (V)/hwierfan 1 (V)/hwearfian (V), hwit 1 (Adj)/hwite (Adj)/hwit 2 (N)/hwitian (V)/hwitan (V), idel 1 (Adj)/idel 2 (N), ierre 1 (Adj)/ierre 2 (N) (2), iede 2 (Adj)/iedan (V), laered (Adj)/laeran (V), leaf (N)/leafe (N), leas 3 (Adj)/leas 2 (N)/leasian (V), leasbred 1 (Adj)/leasbred 2 (N), leoht 1 (Adj)/leoht 2 (N)/lihtan 2 (V), liorende (Adj)/leoran (V), lic 1 (Adj)/lic 2 (N)/lician 2 (V), lide 1 (Adj)/lidan 3 (V)/lidgian (V), lustful 1 (Adj)/lustful 2 (Adj)/lustfullian (V), lyge 2 (Adj)/lyge 1 (N)/leogan (V), lytel 1 (Adj)/ lytel 3 (N), lytig (Adj)/lytigian (V), maec (Adj)/mecgan (V), maene 1 (Adj)/maene 2 (N), maere 1 (Adj)/maeran 1 (V)/maerian (V), manigfeald (Adj)/manigfealdan (V)/manigfealdian (V), mandwaere (Adj)/mandwaerian (V), medeme (Adj)/medemian (V), medmicel 1 (Adj)/medmicel 2 (N), mennisc 1 (Adj)/mennisc 2 (N), met 2 (Adj)/met 1 (N)/metan (V)/metian 2 (V), metfoest (Adj)/metfoestan (V), mede (Adj)/median (V), micel 1 (Adj)/micelu (N)/micellan (V), midd (Adj)/midde 1 (Adj)/midde 2 (N), midfeorh 2 (Adj)/midfeorh 1 (N), milde (Adj)/mildian (V), mislic (Adj)/mislician (V), mod 2 (Adj)/mod 1 (N), modig (Adj)/modigan (V), modsum (Adj)/modsumian (V), mundbyrd (N)/mundbyrdan (V), myrge 1 (Adj)/myrgan (V), nacod 1 (Adj)/nacod 2 (N)/noecedu (N), naht 2 (Adj)/naht 1 (N)/nagan (V), nead 1 1 (Adj)/neahian (V), nearu 2 (Adj)/nearu 1 (N), need 1 (N)/neod 1 (N)/niedan (V), nieddearf 2 (Adj)/nieddearf 1 (N), niwe 1 (Adj)/niwian (V), nyhtsum (Adj)/nyhtsumian (V), nytt 1 (Adj)/nytt 2 (Adj)/nyttian (V), oferdruncen 2 (Adj)/oferdruncen 1 (N)/oferdrincan (V), oferflede (Adj)/oferfledan (V), oferflowend (Adj)/oferflowan (V), oferfyll (N)/oferfyllan (V), ofergitol (Adj)/ofergitolian (V), oferhygd 2 (Adj)/oferhygd 1 (N), ofermod 2 (Adj)/ofermod l (N), onbryrd (Adj)/onbryrdan (V), onfunden (Adj)/onfindan (V), ongelic 1 (Adj)/onlician (V), onweald 2 (Adj)/onweald 1 (N)/onwealdian (V), open (Adj)/openian (V), orwene (Adj)/orwenian (V), pin CH)/pinan (V), raed (N)/raedan (V), read (N)/readian (V), receleas (Adj)/receleasian (V), recen (Adj)/recenian (V), reord 2 (N)/reordian (V)/reordan (V), rede (Adj)/redian (V), riht 2 (Adj)/riht 1 (N)/rihtan (V) (2), rihtwis (Adj)/rihtwisian (V), ripe (Adj)/rip (N)/ripan (V)/ripian (V), risne 2 (Adj)/risne 1 (N)/risnian (V), rum 1 (Adj)/rum 2 CH)/rummian (V), sar 2 (Adj)/sar 1 (N)/sarian (V), sceddu (N)/sceddan (V), scield 1 (N)/scield 2 (N)/scieldan (V), scinan 1 (V)/scinan 2 (V), scort (Adj)/scortian (V), screncan 1 (V)/screncan 2 (V), screpe 2 (Adj)/screpe 1 (N), scyldig (Adj)/scyldigian (V), sealt 2 (Adj)/sealt 1 (N)/sealtian (V), seht 2 (Adj)/seht 7 (N)/sehtian (V), sibb 2 (Adj)/sibbian (V), sibsum (Adj)/sibsumian (V), sigefoest (Adj)/sigefoestan (V), singal (Adj)/singalian (V), slaep 1 (N)/slaepan (V), sleac (Adj)/sleacian (V), slidor 1 (Adj)/slidor 2 (N), slit (N)/slitan (V), slide 1 (Adj)/slidan (V), smeoru (N)/smierwan (V), smede (Adj)/smedan (V), smylte 1 (Adj)/smyltan (V), sodfoest (Adj)/sodfoestian (V), spoer (Adj)/sparian (V), stadol (N)/stadolian (V), stedig (Adj)/stedigian (V), stenc (N)/stencan (V), steor (N)/stieran (V), stig (N)/stigan (V), stille 1 (Adj)/stillan (V), stid (Adj)/stidian (V), stroec 1 (Adj)/stroec 2 (N), strang (Adj)/strangian (V), sundful (Adj)/sundfullian (V), sur (Adj)/surian (V), sweart (Adj)/sweartian (V), swelg (N)/swelgan (V), swelgend 2 (N)/swelgan (V), sweorc CH)/sweorcan (V), swete 1 (Adj)/swete 2 (N)/swetian (V)/swetan (V), swift (Adj)/swiftu (N), swige 2 (Adj)/swige 1 (N)/swigan (V), swinc (N)/swincan (V), swid (Adj)/swidan (V)/swidian (V), symbel 1 (N)/symblian (V), synewealt (Adj)/synewealtian (V), tael (N)/taelan (V), taese 1 (Adj)/toese 2 (N), todal (N)/todaelan (V), torht 2 (Adj)/torht 1 (N)/torhtian (V), toscead (N)/tosceadan (V), treow 2 (N)/treowan (V), twifeald (Adj)/twifealdan (V)/twifealdian (V), twiseht (Adj)/twisehtan (V), twispraec (N)/twisprecan (V), dearfan (V)/dearfian 1 (V), deode (N)/deodan (V), dicce 1 (Adj)/diccian (V), dolmod 1 (Adj)/dolmod 2 (N), dreat (N)/dreatian (V), drist 1 (Adj)/dristian (V), dungen (Adj)/dingan (V), dwaere (Adj)/dwaerian (V), dweora (N)/dweorian (V), dynne (Adj)/dynnian (V), unoedele (Adj)/uncoedelian (V), underfangen (Adj)/underfon (V), underdeod (Adj)/unoerodolian (V), ungelic (Adj)/ungelician (V), ungemete (Adj)/ungemet (N), ungerad 1 (Adj)/ungerad 2 (N), ungescrepe 2 (Adj)/ungescrepe 1 (N), ungestaese 2 (Adj)/ungetaese 1 (N), ungedwoere 7 (Adj)/ungedwoere 2 (N)/ungedwoerian (V), unnyt 1 (Adj)/unnyt 2 (N), unriht 1 (Adj)/unriht 2 (N), unseht 2 (Adj)/unseht 1 (N), unstille (Adj)/unstillan (V), untrum (Adj)/'untrumian (V), unweord 1 (Adj)/unweordian (V), upahafen (Adj)/upahebban (V), wac 1 (Adj)wac 2 (N)/wacian (V), wacmod 2 (Adj)/wacmod 1 (N), waedl (N)/waedlian (V), woer 1 (Adj)/woeran (V), woestmbaere (Adj)/woestmbaerian (V), waet 1 (Adj)/waet 2 (N)/waete (N)/waeta (N)/waetian (V)/waetan (V), weald 3 (Adj)/weald 5 (N)/weald 2 (N)/wealdan (V)/wealdian (V), wearg 2 (Adj)/wiergan (V), wearg 2 (Adj)/wearg 1 (N)/weargian (V), wearm (Adj)/wearmian (V), wedenheort 1 (Adj)/wedenheort 2 (N), weorc 1 (N)/wyrce (N)/wyrcan (V), weord 2 (Adj)/weord 1 (N)/weordan (V)/weordian (V), werig (Adj)/werigian (V), werod 2 (Adj)/werod 3 (N)/werodian (V), weste (Adj)/westan (V), wede (Adj)/wedan (V), wid (Adj)/widan (V), will 3 (N)/willan (V), wis 1 (Adj)/wisan (V), witt (H)/witan (V), widermede (Adj)/widermedo (N), widerweard (Adj)/widerweardian (V), wlitig (Adj)/wlitigian (V), wod (Adj)/wedan (V), woh 1 (Adj)/woh 2 (N), wroec 1 (N)/wracu (N)/wrecan (V), wynsum (Adj)/wynsumian (V), wyrgcwedol/ (Adj)/wyrgcwedolian (V), yfel 1 (Adj)/yfel 2 (N)/yfelian (V), yrfeweard (N)/yrfeweardian (V).

-Scipe (17): dol 1 (Adj)/dol 2 (N), druncen 2 (Adj)/druncen 1 (N), edwit (N)/edwitan (V), fere (N)/fera (N), frocod 1 (Adj)/fracod 2 (N), gloed 1 (Adj)/gloed 2 (N), god 1 (Adj)/god 2 (N), haeden 1 (Adj)/haeden 2 (N), hoga 1 (Adj)/hoga 2 (N)/hogu (N), ierre 1 (Adj)/ierre 2 (N), moene 1 (Adj)/moene 2 (N), naht 2 (Adj)/naht 7 (N), ordanc 2 (Adj)/ordanc 1 (N), rad 2 (Adj)/rad 4 (N), sid 5 (N)/sid 6 (N), sott 1 (Adj)/sott 2 (N), wac 1 (Adj)/wac 2 (N), weord 2 (Adj)/weord 1 (N).

-T (33): aebylg (N)/abylgan (V), droht 1 (N)/drohtian (V), earm 2 (Adj)/earmian (V), feorm (N)/feormian (V), fisc (N)/fiscian (V), ful (N)/fylan (V), fyllo (N)/fyllan 1 (V), giemeleas (Adj)/giemeleasian (V), gif/2 (N)/giefan (V), gisl (N)/gislian (V), groef 7 (N)/grafan (V), habban 1 (V)/habban 2 (V), hael 3 (Adj)/hal (Adj)/haelu (N)/haelan (V), hleow 1 (Adj)/hleowan (V), hwearf 2 (N)/hwearfian (V)/hwierfan 1 (V)/hweorfan (V), maere 1 (Adj)/maeran 1 (V)/maerian 1 (V), myrge 1 (Adj)/myrgan (V), ripe (Adj)/rip (N)/ripan 1 (V)/ripian (V), saed (N)/saedian (V), sael 7 (N)/saelan 1 (V), spiwe (N)/spiwian (V), strenge (Adj)/strengu (N)/strengan (V), swol (N)/swelan (V), til 1 (Adj)/til 2 (N)/tilian 1 (V)/tilian 2 (V), traht (N)/trahtian (V), treowe 1 (Adj)/ treow 2 (N)/treowan (V), trum (Adj)/trumian (V), deow 2 (Adj)/deow 1 (N)/deowian (V), dinge (N)/dingan 3 (V)/dingian (V), unhaelu (N)/unhaelan (V), wealc (N)/wealcan (V), wef (N)/wefan (V), wig 1 (N)/wigan (V)/wigian (V), wrad 1 (Adj)/wraedan (V).

REFERENCES

Adamson, Sylvia--Vivien Law--Nigel Vincent--Susan Wright (eds.) 1990 Papers from the 5th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Bauer, Laurie--Salvador Varela (eds.) 2005 Approaches to conversion/zero derivation. Munster: Waxmann.

Butler, Christopher--Javier Martin Arista (eds.) 2009 Deconstructing constructions. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Fisiak, Jacek (ed.) 1986 Historical semantics: Historical word formation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Fries, Udo--Martin Heusser (eds.) 1989 Meaning and beyond: Ernst Leisi zum 70 Geburstag. Tubingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.

Giegerich, Heinz 1999 Lexical strata in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hinderling, Robert 1967 Studien zu den starken Verbalabstrakten des Germanischen. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Hogg, Richard (ed.) 1992 The Cambridge history of the English language I: The beginnings to 1066. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Karre, Karl 1915 Nomina agentis in Old English. Uppsala: Akademiska Bokhandeln.

Kastovsky, Dieter 1968 Old English deverbal substantives derived by means of a zero morpheme. [Ph.D. dissertation, Tubingen, Eberhard-Karls-Universitat.]

1986 "Deverbal nouns in Old and Modern English: From stem-formation to word- formation", in: Jacek Fisiak (ed.), 221-261.

1989 "Typological changes in the history of English morphology", in: Udo Fries--Martin Heusser (eds.), 281-293.

1990 "The typological status of Old English word formation", in: Sylvia Adamson Vivien Law--Nigel Vincent--Susan Wright (eds.), 205-224.

1992 "Semantics and vocabulary", in: Richard Hogg (ed.), 290-408.

2005 "Conversion and/on zero: Word-formation theory, historical linguistics, and typology", in: Laurie Bauer--Salvador Varela (eds.), 31-50.

2006 "Typological changes in derivational morphology", in: Ans van Kemenade--Bettelou Los (eds.), 151-177.

Krygier, Marcin 1994 The disintegration of the English strong verb system. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Lass, Roger 1994 Old English: A historical linguistic companion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martin Arista, Javier 2008 "Unification and separation in a functional theory of morphology", in: Robert Van Valin (ed.), 119-145.

2009 "A typology of morphological constructions", in: Christopher Butler - Javier Martin Arista (eds.), 85-115.

[Forth, a] Lexical negation in Old English.

[Forth, b] Old English strong verbs derived from strong verbs.

[Forth, c] Building a lexical database of Old English: Issues and landmarks.

[Forth, d] Parasynthesis in Old English word-formation.

[Forth, e] Morphological relatedness and zero alternation in Old English.

Pilch, Herbert 1970 Altenglische Grammatik: Dialektologie, Phonologie, Morphologie, Syntax. Munchen: Max Hueber.

Seebold, Elmar 1970 Vergleichendes und etymologisches Worterbuch der germanischen starken Verben. The Hague: Mouton.

Stark, Detlef 1982 The Old English weak verbs: A diachronic and synchronic analysis. Tubingen: Niemeyer.

Van Kemenade, Ans--Bettelou Los (eds.) 2006 The handbook of the history of English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Van Valin, Robert (ed.) 2008 Investigations of the syntax-semantics-pragmatics interface. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

ELISA GONZALEZ TORRES

University of La Rioja, Logrono

(1) This research has been funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain through the project FFI2008-04448/FILO.

(2) For a general description of Old English word-formation units and processes, see Pilch (1970) and Kastovsky (1992).

(3) See Martin Arista (forthcoming d) on the existence of parasynthetic formations with type-frequent Old English affixes, such as ge- and un-.

(4) See Krygier (1994) on the disintegration of the strong verb system.

(5) The number conventions adopted by the lexical database of Old English Nerthus to represent morphological constrast have been kept. The colon represents vowel quantity.

(6) On productivity and recoverability in morphology, see Stark (1982).

doi: 10.2478/v10121-009-0034-1
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Title Annotation:LINGUISTICS
Author:Torres, Elisa Gonzalez
Publication:Studia Anglica Posnaniensia: international review of English Studies
Date:Jul 1, 2010
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