The barbarians and fall of the Romanian empire in the west in 476 AD.
We saw how phenomena began to indicate since the late of the third century and early of the fourth century that the old history is exposed to too much of forgery and change, and that because Constantine's acknowledgement of the Christ is a dangerous step. The historical truth in the Mediterranean Sea world in the period between the emergence of Rome and achieving its chieftaincy on one hand, and the emergence of Islam and its prevalence on the other hand on the other hand. It's enough that this acknowledgement and the following prevalence of Christ safely and rapidly refers to that one of the most important pillars on which the Romanian Empire (Tarkhan: 1958) was built began to fall in front of the new religion, principles and views which all target the arrangement of relation between Allah and humans, rulers and subjects, and among people themselves, on bases completely differ from what people have ever known before. Moving the capital of the Romanian Empire from Rome to Constantinople was of no less effect than changing the view of the ancient world, therefore coevals felt that the familiar world began to vanish in order that the new world would began surrounding them in a new stage which appearances were completely different from what people used to.
So people looked around them to find Rome--which is the immortal giant city which was the cradle of great czars, prevailed in the east and west until it became the slogan of civilization and renaissance and any other than it was the slogan of lag and barbarianism, and suddenly--they found it became threatened of demise after czars left it regretting its builder and its gone glorious, At the same time czars built Constantinople on the beach of Bosphorus in order to make it a new Rome which heir Rome's glory and greatness. (Painter:1964) To these events related what the Emperor Constantine's regime was described of, when the empire that was dependent on the right of succession as well as the support from Allah and men of the church. Also, that period was featured with the disappearance of a main intuition in the Greek (Romanian) civilization which is the intuition of citizenship, where there was no presence, in the subsequent era of Constantine, of citizens who were crowded in free citizens of both worlds Romanian and Greek. And instead, the intuition of subjectivism, i.e. all subjects of the emperor became equal in following the emperor. (Hay:1974)
These appearances and other events which became to be evident in Romanian world in the late of third century and early of fourth century make us think that Europe were going through a great change phase, that old ages brought to medieval ages. That development may have induced a historian like BURY to say that the regime of the great Constantine, 323-337AD, especially represented a beginning of a new era. Exactly as the case for regime of Augustine, 63BC-14AD, who was the founder of the Empire.(Bury:1930) It is known that medieval ages have gained their being and civilization from three main origins: the first of them is the classical heritage in general and Romanian in particular, the second is the Christianization and the third is Goths. The Goths were a part of the wide barbaric world which surrounded the Romanian Empire in all of its sides, who also had an impact of the destiny of this Empire when they began to attack it in the mid of second century. In fact, but for the attacks of barbarians which accelerated the certain destiny of the Romanian Empire, it would have lived long in the west, and its demise would have been more slowly, in spite of the economic, social and political deterioration that it had experienced.
The definition of the word "Barbarianism":
Note here, we do not use the word barbarianism as a synonym of the word savageness in any case, because the word barbarianism is intended to a phase of social tribal organization which has come to the phase of city settlement and the country's fixed borders. So, we cannot judge the barbarian peoples which had been around the Romanian empire by living positively in a need to civilization bases and pillars as these elements, in fact, enjoyed special civilized traditions which were increasing safely as search of these elements gets more deepening in the BC.
General information about barbarians:
Theses peoples which were around the Romanian world were several and differential. Thus, in the south barbers were in the west of Africa, in the southeast there were the Arabs, in the west there were the Persians and in the northeast--Among the mountains of Ural, and Altai--settled down Asian bucolic peoples such as Scythians, Sarmatians, Hunnish, Franks, Bulgarians, Avars, Magyars, Mongolians and Turkish, and in the west of these peoples-Within the boundaries of any European--there were the Goths, Slav and Celts. (Deanesly:1960)
Asian bucolic peoples were at first very far from the borders of the Romanian Empire where they live in plains of Asia and depended on herds of cattle and horses, and they moved from a pasture to another according to rain and climate. But the severity of these conditions made some Asian peoples move to launch destroying attacks for rapine, and Europe was not safe of these attacks as plains located in the south of Caspian opened a way for bucolic Asian clans especially Huns through which they went in Europe, and thus made atmosphere of fear and panic among peoples living at the borders of the Romanian Empire. (Moss:1967)
The first victims of bucolic Asian elements, especially Huns--were Slav who settled down at first in areas which are known now as midmost of Russia. It looks that those Slav experienced several troubles in medieval ages because of other Asian elements pressure on them from the south and west which led much of them to be slaves till the word slave was derived in many of the European language from the name of Slav. Also, the Slavwas working as farmers and spread in the east parts of Europe until they changed these parts into a crowd of Slavic. (Stephenson:1962)
The Celte were known for Romanians as Gaula and they were colonizing forests located in the north of Europe up till the Elbe River in the east. Then, they did a huge expansion movement which threatened the emerging republic of Rome, they went through the Alps into Italy and then through Rhine to the lands which were known then as Gallia as well as they invaded the British islands. Thus, it was in the previous five centuries BC who governed vast lands from German and Balkans and the Atlantic Ocean. While Caesar invaded galena, Goths disposed the Celte out of the east of Rhine, thus the there was nothing to stop the Goths from invading except Romanians. (Stephenson:1962)
Conditions of Goths who settled down at the borders of the Romanian Empire:
In fact Goths or the Teutons were the nearest barbarian elements to the borders of Romanian Empire, thus they spread in the first and second century in the midmost of Europe and its east through the Rhine and Danube, but the first home for the Goths elements was the lands around the Baltic ocean. (Deanesly:1960) At this point they began to move to the south to take the place of the Celte until they settled down in the lands located amongst the Alp River and Rhine where the borders of the Romanian Empire made impossible for them to go on.
The definition of Goths:
It is possible to know more about the conditions of Goths at this early stage of their history through referring to the book titled "Germania" by the historian Tacitus, and of these that they maintained lots of traditions and systems which were highly disagreeing with what the Romanian has wrote.(Tacitus:1854) Goths had been careful with the individual side as the individual is the essence of life, on his personality and influence were his importance and power, and if one of the Goths got stuck to the obedience of his leader, the feeling of obedience emerged from a deep sense to carry out the law. Manners of the early Goths were a mix of virtues and defects which may better describe the primitive peoples. (Tarkhan:1959) Thus, they had courage and cruelty, generosity and not caring about rights of neighbors, in addition they fulfilled their promises, the strong relations between members of the family and taking care of the woman. They were featured with these characteristics until they got involved into Romanians and got affected by them. Also, they were known as being fond of gambling and gaming that one of them might have gambled for his life and freedom. One of the most characteristics that Tacitus had flattered the Goths for is their generosity and taking care of the sacred marriage tie. The rule for them was that the single man married one woman only, despite some nobles had broken this rule after they had got richer. The religion of Goths was a mix of legends and worshipping the globe powers like the sun, moon, thunder, etc, but they did not build temples or statues for their gods, in addition priests did not form a special excellent class in their society. (Deanesly:1960)
t first, family represented the union of Goth's system where father had all powers on his wife and sons up to end their lives. From the group of families which were relatives emerged clan, and then was the country from these groups of clans. None enjoyed the ownership of lands except freelancers and nobles, while the family was responsible jointly about what any one of its members had committed. At the time of murder, the murdered family had to revenge unless the murder paid a stratifying blood money. (Tacitus:1854)
The society of Goths was divided into three classes: nobles, freelancers and slaves. Nobles represented fighters' class that enjoyed a special honor, its members never worked in farming, but they spend the time of peace eating, hunting or else hanging out. While the rest of society's burdens, most important of them were farming and housework, rested on the shoulders of those other than fighters like women, slaves and boys. Slaves did not play an important role in housework such as Romanian slaves, but their work was just farming, that lands were distributed among them, and they paid a certain portion of the harvest at the end of the season. Freelancers, other than nobles, were not much better than slaves. Here we note two things: the first, freedom and ownership were stuck together side by side in the Romanian society, the second, the nobility was tied to the honor of birth not to the ownership of land. Goths never knew life of cities in their early eras; they lived in distant villages amongst forests, their homes were huts built of bushes and mud. (Wel:1965) Goths used to wear humble clothes made of leather; they grew their beards and hair, some men of them may have tied their hair is tresses tied like arrows. Their food was simple; consisted of milk, fruits, meat from hunting and grains. They never knew the wine until the approached from the Romanian bounders. Their main drink was made of breadstuffs and barley, i.e. it was closer to beer from wine. Every village had a moot consists of freelancers, while villages also were not separated from each other, but they were linked together through rivers some tracks through forests. Their wealth was evaluated in horses, cattle and other tame useful animals. In fact, Goths had known Romanian money, they also knew gold and silver pots, but animals took the place of money in their exchanges. (Didly:1964)
Instruction of politics was simple; its unit was the village or mark, then the hundred that was a military unit larger than the village, (Elareeny:1982) then the district or Gau that consisted of few hundreds. Consisted of these few districts was the tribal country which then was called a kingdom or Reich when the kingdom was known among the Goths (Moss:1967) and the Germanic country had a general assembly included fighters which never got assembled except incases of war or immigration. Also, there were assemblies or councils for the Hundred and the district on a smaller scale consisted of nobles of freelancers, but these were assembled in time of peace also to discuss some civil questions. Every nation of the Germanic nations had a president or leader or principles that were not kings or nobles but were elected by people because of their good features, most important of them was courage, which qualified them to get this position. At the time of war, a leader who was featured with courage and undauntedness was in charge and enjoyed wide powers ended with the end of the war. (Tacitus:1854) In case of long or permanent wars the leader was re-elected from to time, then his son got chosen after his death, which led gradually to heritable kingdom in Germanic countries and groups, in addition Germanic kings at this stage were merely fighter leaders who did not enjoy the power of making legislation or imposing sanctions. That was because these matters were determined through traditions prevailing in Goths and Teutonism that no king or individual had the power to change these familiar conditions. (Tarkhan:1959) If some historians tend to describe the early Germanic societies as democratic, then this does not mean that they followed a certain democratic system in their govern, as we have pre-saw that the Germanic society was built on the basis of social discrimination among classes of it. But this feature (democratic) is meant to the principles being found which referred to the democratic trends in the Germanic society such electing leaders and judgment of cases in a public adjudications. (Deanesly:1960)
Relation between Goths and the Romanian Empire:
We have seen that at first there was no enmity between the Goths and the Romanian empire; Goths had no territorial claims in lands of the Romanian empire, all both of wanted was just a peaceful and constant life on both lands of them. Thus, the theory that says that "Romanian empire had lived in horror because of Goths since its emergence and the Goths were thinking from the scratch to invade the Romanian empire and beat them" is of no right. There is some evidence that the years between Caesar and Marcus Aurelius (50BC-180AD) went through full peace in the relation between the Goths and Romanians. Also, the Germanic clans that were living at the borders of Romanian empire lived in peace. (Cary & Wilson:1963) But the view got changed in late of the second century when the Germanic society faced some sort or pressure and worry that caused some movements within it. (Didly:1964)That was because slaves and some other eastern elements began to press on the Goths from the east, while populations of the Goths increased, thus making it difficult for them to live on their current sources. At this very point, the Goths looked around them but found nothing except a barren poor infertile land covered by forests and filled with sloughs as well as their lag and being under the mercy of the fierce nature conditions such as floods, drought and harvests which all led them to a condition of stress and shortage of food, in turn, led them to those movements. This way, the Goths looked forward to the Romanian lands which attracted them through its stability and abundant wealth and prosperous civilization. (Katz:1955)
The negative attitude of the Goths towards the Romanian Empire changed in the era of Marcus Aurelius (161-180AD) when the Germanic clans known as Quadi and Marcomanny allied to attack the side of top of Danube at Pannonian. (Ashour:1975) Despite the crisis ended in finishing the danger of those attackers and destroying them, the threat of Goths to the borders of the Romanian empire never ended as their danger came back again in the third century at the era of the emperor Kara-Kala (211-217AD) when the Goths went southerly of the Baltic sea and destroyed Sarmatians and attacked Dacia territory at the Danube sea, where they stayed 50 years corrupting in Balkan till the Emperor Caudius II (270-217AD) beat them in Naissus in 269AD. (al-Ghamrawi:1975) The point in this early role of war among Romanians and Goths is that the Romanian Czars chose to be in peace with Goths. Despite the outfight of Romanians, they waived Dacia territory to the Goths and withdrew with their arms and employees in the era of the emperor Aurelian (275-270AD). Then, the Goths settled down and stopped rapine, then they became affected by the Christianization and other civilized currents, which all paved the way for the rise of the gothic kingdom inside the borders of the Romanian empire.(Cary & Wilson:1963)
The danger which threatened the Romanian empire was not from the Goths only, but Germans, Europeanizes, Pavrion, Saxons, Thornjeon and Frisians committed several sporadic attacks up till the first role of the gothic immigration ended in 300AD. Thus, a new period started featured with peaceful relations among the Goths and Romanians.(Katz:1955)But the Goths' irruption did not stop at this new peaceful role, as they continued after changing their method of fighting fierce attack into moving and irrupting slowly and peacefully. At this very point, we find that the empire opened its doors in front of those coming Goths; it used them as soldiers in some groups and give then colonies and lands to reside within it inside the borders of the empire, up till some of the distinguished Romanian army officers at that period became half-blooded Goths. (Painter:1964) And here both the parties became affected by the other.(Ashour:1975)
Then mid of the fourth century, the Asian Huns went through the outlet located between the ORAL mountains and the Caspian towards the south of Russia and so they attacked the Goths. (Wel:1965) It seemed that the attack was of Huns was at a degree of fierceness and severity and all Goths helped each other to stop this joint danger. The pressure of Huns mad a fierce reaction of the Goths, which in turn affected on the Romanian empire conditions seriously as the western Goths found no outlet to escape from the Huns, thus asked from the emperor Valens (364-378AD) to permit them to cross the Danube in order to avoid the danger of the Huns. The emperor agreed in an attempt to use them as a cover to protect the Romanian borders for the Huns. (Painter:1964) But the crossover of around 1100,000 fighters of the western Goths to pass the Danube in 376AD--where the Romanian government let them to reside in Mouachia and Thrace--made a shock in the body of the empire as those entrants took no long to revolute against the empire itself, beat the emperor Valens in the battle of Adrianople and slaughtered him in 378AD (Refer to map 1).(Katz:1955)Thus, this led his successor the emperor Theodosius Ithe Great (378-395AD) to avoid villainy of the Goths through holding a treaty with them, through which they became confederate or "foederati" to the emperor. In addition, he permitted the eastern Goths to reside in the north of Thrace. This way the Goths enjoyed an indefinite power in territories they occupied, thus they were exempted of taxes in exchange for the military services which they presented to the empire.(Ostrogorsky: 1956)
Once more, the attacks of the Goths renewed at the borders of the Romanian empire since 375AD taking a new style. Until that date attacks were merely sporadic fighting processes notserialized together in a full plan, and it was enough for a clan to be pressed by another, or an area of the Goths got drought or suffered from shortage of foodstuffs, or their ambitious leaders discovered a weakness of the Romanian empire, in order to commit a partial attack against the Romanian lands. But barbarians' attacks shaped like general huge attacks since 375AD (Refer tomap 2). The wide movement extended till 568AD, about two centuries ago could have many crowds Germanic invaded important Romanian territories and established new kingdoms inside these territories, which in turn changed the view of the ancient world completely and made the picture of medieval ages Europe more evident. At this very point, we refer to that those elements were formed of groups full of liveliness and power, hence made the ancient world civilization claimed with what it brought of new bloods and systems greedy. It is off base to say that the Goths were enemies of the Romanian civilization or was responsible for the destruction of this civilization as this civilization was dying before the gothic attacks. Indeed it was dying on the way of deterioration when the gothic got to the body of the empire through the sudden rapid attack or through irrupting slowly and quietly. May be it is important when talking about the gothic attacks and their effect on the body f the Romanian empire to state the importance of those Goths for the history of the south of Europe and its civilization.(Ashour:1975)
There is some note here also which is that "the contradiction among barbarians who invaded the Romanian empire between the fourth and sixth century" made a necessary differentiation among those groups that went destroying in the empire whatever faced them without thinking settlement or staying in these lands or even leave any impact in its history other than rapine, and those other correlated groups who invaded any of the Romanian territories and got mixed into natives ethnically and civilizable, which in turn left a deep impact in its history. Examples of the first type are the fellows of Radagaisusand they are a mix of barbarians who ended up defeated in Italy in 405AD. (Moss:1967)In addition, fellows of Attila from the Huns and others who came from the plains of Asia to invade lands of the empire without any govern.Examples of the other type are the Goths, Europeanizes, Bergndion, the Vandals, the Anglo Saxons and the Lombard.
Status of the Romanian Empire in the west in the fourth century AD:
Despite the advanced civilization that Romanian empire enjoyed, division which got deepened in it to the extent that made a problem difficult to be solved, especially the system of classes referred to a distinguish discrimination among individuals of the society. Powers were at the hands of nobles who were got strongly closer to the institution of the empire at the expense of relations with other classes. In fact, the access to powers was through buying positions which give its holder several concessions and power, thus wealth and money became the only way towards formation of the honoured class who controlled the administrational machinery of the empire, (Kent & Pamter:1977) which lead to deficiency in performance. The senate that was in the capital "Rome" suffered from flabbiness and mismanagement and deficiency of initiative to face crises because of the consideration that most of its members got the position through money and homey power, not other considerations like skill, expertise or personal efficiency. (Katz:1955)
Under these circumstances, formal sides tried to separate aristocracy from share and contribution in the life of public, on the consideration that the precious and distinguished position of those who were in the government did not permit them to abdicate in order to work in some jobs that considered to be the humblest like commerce and professions. From this arrogant perception that was far away from the reality, some foreign elements were able to irrupt into the body of the Romanian empire and its economic texture, while aristocrats tried to address this issue through some codes so as to make the await toward gaining much more of wide lands.(Moss:1967)
Romanians succeeded in making the ideas they produced highly relevant to the reality, even the comparison between them and the Greek civilization for example reveals the scientific trend in the Romanian legislations that were devised. This way Romanians insisted on developing their political experience so as to make it persist, rise and prove its existence under challenges and changes faced it; so, challenges which faced it were determined in formulation of the relation between the institution of the country as an independent concept which had its own construct, and citizens. Also, it organized the relation between the governor and the governed, in addition to taking into consideration the nature of the existing relation among individuals ofthe society as a whole general extensive construct. So as to get the best level of performance, there was the dependence on the system of institutions which their tasks trends were determined originally through persistent laws and legislations which must be worked in the light of. (Yousef:n.d) May be the historical gradation of the Romanian political system reveals the degree of shift and developments that happened to between Royal, who appeared during the phase of foundation of Rome in 754B.C, and up to 509 B.C when the republic system then began, which is considered the base and origin on which the Romanian model of govern was constructed. Developments at the era of Octavius in 27B.C were imposed to let the Romanian system rise which was distinguished in many political aspects, most distinguished of which was the period of constitutional empire which persisted up to 284AD, the constitution govern was ended in the era of the emperor Diocletian (284-305AD) when the indefinite govern rose which persisted until the end of the era of the great emperor Justinian (527-565AD) in 565AD.(Cary & Wilson:1963)
The era of the emperor Octavius in 27B.C witnessed the trend towards the indefinite govern, that all powers were at the hands of the emperor directly and he had all the wide rights even through interfering directly onto all affairs and facilities of the country starting from the army to the senate. Territories governors had then no powers or rights but everything became followed directly to the emperor personally. Most important, the emperor became the source of all powers, thus he was no subject to the law or the will of the people, even he interfered onto religious affairs through assigning and dismissing those in religious positions. (Rabiaa:1970)
The phenomenon which is most distinguished was represented in the stability of exchanging higher positions among very certain classes, and it was difficult for another element to move from a class to another within these institutions, as the determination of members of the senate and thus their powers was tied directly to the emperor. The most noticeable is that the roles of these institutions were changed from legislation to execution, thus they became a tool for carrying out imperial decisions.(Mustafa:1961) At this point, it must be referred to that the powers of army leaders were not absent away from the political arena, but they were some kind of powers that were subject to the race to satisfy the emperor's desires (Gibbon:n.d) in an attempt to maintain their positions or get a superior one. Under the determination of powers and trends, the aristocratic class find nothing except the trend to own much more of the wide lands, and thus the "Villa" became the land measurement unit which equals 1500km. when efficacies of agriculture and its following activities were settled down, the tendency in the last era of the Romanian age was towards self-sufficiency. Landlords of specific lands became as governors of individuals in these lands, where tasks were distributed among a group of slaves and freelancers. (Hay:1974)But developments in the Romanian empire affected on all the different classes of these lands; that the fourth century AD witnessed a severe decline in the Romanian military movements which pin turn led into the shortage of slaves who represented the most important factor in enhancing the workforce in land. In the light of these circumstances the Romanian empire found no solution other than intervening to correct these circumstances under which the land slaves were oppressed, thus the empire intended to enact some legislations in order to correct the conditions of slaves, especially qualitative sanctions that lords imposed on them.
Also the economic conditions had imposed their presence on the actual relations, as the landlords found a great chance for greater and wider profit if they gave some of the slaves some freedom in the field of agricultural production. (Yousef:n.d) Thus, they intended to distribute the slaves on distant spaces of agricultural land so to make the slaves supervise these areas, but this process was not in favour of slaves as much as it was for nobles. But any case it illustrated the better conditions of slave. More interesting, conditions under which farmers lived were worrying and scaring as some free farmers were tied to the land up to the extent that they were sold as a part of the lands they were working in it. But the penalties and tax collection made most of them prefer (Beiriin:1996) slavery to freedom as it saved them the minimum life.
The Romanian Empire weakness and failure factors in its being, especially as its governmental entity depended on the direct know previous experiences. This way, a special class of the society controlled the affairs of the public, losing any new bloods and firmly closing the door in face of new initiatives which could have changed of those existing conditions. Despite all features of strength which made the Romanian empire distinct in its early ages, weakness was destroying the body of the empire that was suffering from expansion and flabbiness, whether in the side of efficacies or in the nature of the empire formation, as it was in a bad need for doing without traditions of its ancestors, who had set the organizational principles and systems on which the empire was originated and built until the idea of depending on a certain class of the society was established. That class had the heritable power and wealth as it was common that expertise; consultancy and efficiency could be gained at any time as long as the money was available and as many as attempts were continuous towards wars and fighting. But the Romanian empire became limited in the geographical frame unable able to move anywhere else represented between the Rhine and Danube which were separating it from the other lagged behind peoples to the extent to which those lands were omitted and neglected intentionally. This in turn led to the rise of some new forces which benefited from this political view and these new forces went to impose their power on that view. In addition, negligence reached it height when the Romanian empire did not impose its powers on Germany and regions that Scandinavian tribes settled down in. wit studying those two models (Germany and Scandinavians) the results showed that Germany was a victim of Huns invasion rapidly and surprisingly, and Scandinavians suffered from chaos and internal disputes. That continued until the northern Sea became limited on hackers' activities. Despite these deeds were unlawful, (Wills:1994) they left much experience in the field of wars and fighting, producing strong fighters who had the brilliant role in imposing their presence in the expense of the Romanian empire.(Bury: 1930)
The Romanian empire dealt with actuality proudly and arrogantly to the extent that it became not caring about intentional naive or dangerous events, under the claim of its being amongst the civilized world of Rome and that lagged behind of barbarians and their problems. From this dual division, came the most important problem in the fall of the Romanian empire, as a result of those frequent naive and dangerous events. While nobles and aristocratic Romanians thought that what happened to the barbarians would not affect on them. And this way weakness in the empire rose, whether in the peaceful or direct side represented in the military confrontations. But the Romanian empire's initiative was still with a limited effect. Perhaps the insistence of Romanians on the military traditions and pity loyalty for the ground forces highly explains many of the vague questions. Despite events which had proven the failure of those forces when fighting the gothic nights,(Wells:1994) those forces were the best for the Romanians due to some considerations related to conceit and the long song and the assurance on uniqueness of the Romanian empire. Thus, it was talking, no action done, just stopping at the pre-made achievements without renewing or even modifying them, for example roads and means of transportation were as in the past without any modifications. Hence, three centuries past and nothing new got risen.
For the case of the empire's presence, it's evident in the field of military traditions; that corruption and chaos prevailed and soldiers looked for an alternative and he found it in the barbarian elements. And here slackening became evident in the Romanian society, and the trend was towards laziness and dependence on others. But on the other side, barbarians got the experience, efficiency and training to be able to fight and go into important and decisive confrontations that led to their greater importance. Like this, the dependence on others became one of drivers on which efficacy system in the Romanian empire was established. (Wells:1994)
The third century AD witnessed series of killing and severe crises that affected on life of the Romanian empire. It became evident that army leaders were interfering on internal affairs, especially when military anabases stopped. Thus, those leaders abused their powers in order to interfere on the imperial affairs. Then, after the army was one of corner stone's on which the empire was built in the stage of prosperity and height, in the stage of crises it became one of heavy burdens which could not be escaped from.
The interfering of the military on the internal affairs was very evident in a scandalous way, and the emperor was as means for capturing their wishes and desires. As historical events indicate that in a period of 50 years only (from 235-285AD), 25 emperors were killed at the hand of the military leaders. These views indicate the concentration of power at the hands of a few idle fighters, who had very limited and narrow horizons. The finance of the emperor was at the request of a certain class such as fighters, rather than providing public services. (Farah:1995) And the economic chaotic was at its height when appeared the phenomenon of spending money on costly fields, especially anabases which exhausted the budget of the emperor increasingly. While requirements imposed by luxurious life and the trend to luxuries and appearances represented an economic bleeding that was difficult to be controlled as the rich looked forward to own gold and plates to use them in finery and social appearances. On the side of commercial balance, it indicated a scandalous impairment represent in the zest to import spices and silk, these two pieces of eastern goods that nobles of Rome were fond of. During these confusing economic conditions, the phenomenon of inflation rose and imposed its severe and bitter effects on the lower class of the Romanian empire. As much as the empire was proud of its traditions and glory, the actuality indicated the decrease in the political position, as evidenced through that the Romanians looked forward to maintain the residual rest of their govern depending on giving cess to barbarian clans that became like approaching danger to their lives. Under these circumstances, the political administration had nothing to do except imposing heavy burden taxations on farmers, handcrafts and traders, which in turn were reflected in recession in economic efficacies, in turn, were reflected in the exchange rates of the Romanian currency which suffered from the deep decrease in its value.
A group of factors synergized in exacerbation of bad conditions in the Romanian empire, when the third century AD witnessed the prevailing of Christianization in the Romanian regions. Tyranny and cruelty that were used by Romanians with the Christian subjects had its bad effect on the dissociation of relations between the centre and extremities. The relation was no longer built on loyalty to the capital Rome, but on tension, fear, caution and aggressiveness. In addition, the aristocratic class that was concentrated in the capital (Farah:1995) found that the new religion was going to threaten their powers and the source of their might directly in the Romanian empire, thus the status of division reached it height.
Under these conditions of fear and horror that the lower class was suffering from, the Christianization represented some type of self-purification as its invitation was to equality between all in front of Allah. Despite this intuition was related somehow to the formal heathenish religion of the empire, at first it was neglected condoned. Until it contradicted with thee intuition of worshipping the emperor and considering him a god, that led to severe dispute reached it height in the era of the emperor Diocletian (284-305AD). But this did not prevent the actual trends to deal with the phenomenon, thus the emperor Constantine (306-337AD) found no way out other than avowing this religion in 313AD and considering it one the religions which could practice its fetishes inside the empire. (Yousef:1987)
The Christ religion had a great position in the regions of the Romanian empire depending on a set of factors, most distinct of which was addressing the public with understandable language for them and that was accepted for them. If the Aramaic language was the origin since its birth, it stressed on using the Greek language which was common among people. Thus, preachers were able to use the easiest mediator that could be understood for the majority. Most important side was represented in oppression that Christians experienced at the hands of the formal might, and their resistance appealed to all people. Thus, aroused for people the question about the importance of this religion, what can one get from bearing this situation. Here questions came in the right and lift to open wide horizons in front of these wide crowds to adopt this religion which expressed the lawful rights of oppressed class due to the violations of higher class that had all powers and wealth.
Under this difficult condition of religious thoughts, the Romanian officials found no solution other than oppression and cruelty to Christians. The officials went to attribute everything could disfigure them, and the emperor "Nero" accused them of burning Rome in 64AD, the emperor "Tarjan" in 98AD considered that this religion is a crime who adopted it got punished and the trends of the emperor "Diocletian" when he oppressed the Christians due to his invitation to worship the sun in 303. If this religion had enjoyed the avow from the emperor Constantine in 313AD, it had suffered from oppression once again during the era of the emperor Julian "The Apostate" from (361-363AD) but all this did not stop the Christianization and its getting an important position so as to be the formal religion of the empire in 392AD. (Yousefn.d)
The empire suffered from external threat represented in the attacks by the Persian armies and the gothic clans. So, at the European borders at both Rhine and Danube, the gothic barbarians tried to miss about with properties of the Romanian empire, even they represented a threat for safety and stability (Refer to map 3) and their effect was exacerbated during the era of both the emperors Claudius and Valerian as battles proven Rome's inability to stop these attacks.(Yousef:1987)Perhaps the most important development was represented in the victory that the gothic knights achieved against Romanian ground forces in the battle of Hadrianople in 378AD, that was an evident sign no-doubt of weakness and inability of the empire as it had no loner ability to understand or interact with the reality and was not able to adjust(Tarhiny:1992) with the events which were rapid and sequent. In the Asian side, Parisians represent a stumble block for the empire by the frequent attacks against the Romanian territories, and these so severe and robust that the king Sassanid Sabor I was able to capture the Romanian emperor Valerian in the battle of Edessa in 260AD. (Farah:1995)
The deterioration of the Romanian empire:
It seems from the discussion above about the gothic invasions that hardly it was the mid of 5th century AD, the Romanian empire in the west was disunited into pieces in most of its parts, and that's because the Romanian arms withdrew from Britain in 442AD, while Vandals occupied the state of Africa and Visigoths and Bergndion occupied Spain, as well as the south of Gallia and its eastern parts when the Germans crossed the top of Rhine and settled down in Alsace, (Gibbon:n.d) and Europeanizes crossed the down Rhine and reached Walsum and Meez. This way the western empire lost most of its parts which in turn led to the fall of this empire and losing the rest of it (Refer to map 4). (Ahoiri:1995)
In fact, factors of decline went destroying the empire slowly in the era of the emperor Henrius (395-423AD) and the emperor Valnchian III (425-455AD) and after that the danger increased, especially after Valnchian III murdered his leader Oitios in 453AD, who was the only man that was able stop the attacks of Vandals who attacked Rome two years later.(Moss:1967)Vandals after occupying the state of Africa became a huge sea forces threatened countries of the western half of the Mediterranean Sea. Soon after that appeared the vandal fleet at estuary of Tiber River in summer in 455AD. At that time, the great father LIO tried to rescue Rome from the Vandals as he had just rescued it from the Huns, but this time he failed. Thus, vandals broke into Rome and spent 14 days in it within which they stole all of its treasuries; stole the imperial palace, temples, churches and houses, stole every precious thing, in addition they few thousands of people with them as slaves. Perhaps we can understand from this last sentence that Rome's political and military glory had gone away, and its future and destiny became at the hands of the popery church. In fact, the period between 455A.D And 476AD, the murder of the emperor Valnchian III and the fall of the Romanian empire, is considered the worst in the history of the Romanian empire and it had lost most of its lands. (Hodgkin:1892)
The fall of the Romanian empire in the west in 476AD:
The true power in Italy became at the hands of a group of the goon gothic leaders who increased in their cruelty and power as they found no other equivalent to resist them and stop their oppression. Czars became a plaything at the hands of soldiers; assign them whenever they wanted or vice versa, until at the end Odovacer, the leader of some gothic crowds, entered Ravenna in 476AD, where the emperor at that time Romulus Augustulus was 12 years old so Odovacer just exiled him in the south of Italy and assigned a sufficient pension for him.(Bury:1930)
Like this, the Romanian empire in the west was ended up, and Italy from the perspective of law belonged to the fallen empire, which was the Byzantine Empire that had no real power on Rome at that time. This all made the popery the only existing power around which Italians were gathered during the following centuries, and in that power they found leadership and support that were enough to protect them.
If some historians used to exaggerate the importance of events that happened during 476AD and use the year within the empire was fallen as a separating line between two elements, we should not follow them in their thought as the western empire did not own nothing really of appearance of power at the time of his empire's collapse, as well as Italy since a long time was the arena of many gothic groups' messing around as I have discussed before. (El-howiry:1986)
At this point, it seems that dismissing of the child emperor Romulus Augustulus by Odovacer in 476AD did not lead to a much change in that existing status. Her also we have to note that even Odovacer himself did not mean to start a new era or make any unfamiliar changes, but all he wanted was to get what his previous gothic counterparts got in Rome. And this is clear as evidenced by the two missions whom he had sent to Zenon the emperor of the Byzantine Empire in 477 and 478AD. In fact, the western world had no emperor from 476AD until Charlemagne was crowned in 800AD, which affected on the emerging gothic kingdoms on one hand, and in the development of the popery on the other hand. But the absence of czars during this period did not mean that the I intuition of empire was ended, that intuition which the empire in the medieval ages thought that it was a whole unit that could not be taken apart. If some writers such as Oman admit the previous views, they insist on that the year 476AD has a special importance as a separating line between the old age and medieval ages. (Moss:1967)
Whatever it is, the most important is that the year 476AD hardly ended when there were six gothic kingdoms on the lands of the fallen empire, and these kingdoms are: the kingdom of Odovacerin Italy, the kingdom of Vandals in the south of Africa, the kingdom of western Goths that extended from Loire to The Strait of Gibraltar, the kingdom of Bergndien in The Rhone Valley and Sawon, the state of Europeanizes on Maizand Malzoland the down Rhine, and lastly the smallest gothic kingdom which is "suevi" in the areas known now as Portugal and Galicia. (Hodgkin:1892)
Reasons for the collapse of the empire:
When we talk about the collapse of the Romanian empire, we mean invasions of the barbarian Goths as these were the direct reason for the collapse of the empire. There is no dispute that there were other reasons, some of these reasons were internal and some external. Also there are real indirect reasons attributed to the oldest ages, and others direct which led to the collapse of the empire. Drawing on the prementioned, factors of it collapse are many, and in this regard it could not be said that the empire collapsed due to its deterioration and breakdown as this deterioration and that breakdown are two flexible words cannot be definite. Thus, here it comes, the importance of talking about the medieval ages, considering that when the Romanian empire collapsed the old age ended and thus started the medieval ages. Most important reasons that led to the fall of the empire could be summarized into the following points that are considered the normal approach to the medieval ages.
8.1 Administrational dissociation. The Romanian empire consisted of several districts, every district had its own type of administration and systems, and this ended up to its dissociation. The dual govern system that the emperor AUGUSTS called for, according to which the senate shared the powers with the emperor, made the worse worst. Thus, this helped in accelerating the fall of the empire. (Fisher:n.d)
8.2 Financial chaos.Also the financial system was impaired at that wide country in the late of its era. For example the tax was large, very different and irregular. The wealth was not distributed fairly, thus some were wealthy while others were in abject poverty. In addition, the low value of the currency during the era of DICLANIOUSS and late of the third century.(El-areeny:1982)
8.3 Concentration of real might in the hands of Goths. Rome could not do without its mercenaries, who protected its borders along the Rhine and Danube, in addition they stopped and recoups and who consisted of Goths and mercenaries. These forces would have caused no trouble, if there was a central government during the collapse of the empire. Thus, these forces constituted a permanent danger. The number of forces who wanted capture the throne increased and they got higher positions in the empire. (Tarkhan:1958)
8.4 Dangers that threatened the empire. These dangers represented in the Sasan Persians and the Goths, who attacked borders of the empire. The heathenish SASAN appeared in 3rd century and they were the strongest enemies of Rome for 4thcenturies. Borders of the empire in Europe also were in danger because of the Goths behind the Rhine and Danube. These barbarian clans permitted other strong clans to get to the heart of the empire and settle in it, thus their attacks increased, especially during the era of Valerian and Claudius. Thus, Rome was unable to protect its far away borders, which means that it could not cope up.(Hodgkin:1892)
8.5 Reduction in agriculture, industry and commerce. In addition to what pre-mentioned, agriculture in Rome deteriorated, as a result of that Romanians left lands to slaves whose number decreased due to cruelty, famines, diseases and huge taxes. Thus, commerce and industry deteriorated, and the economic life was under bad conditions and it became evident that Rom was about to fall.
8.6 Luxury and pleasure in the life of Romanians. Romanians in late era of the empire were indulged in pleasures and luxuries and left every important thing to the Goths who reached the highest positions in the empire.(Moss:1967)
8.7 The language, civilization and ideology differences between the east and west of the empire. The Romanian empire was divided into 2 different parts; the western part, in which prevailed the Latin language and culture, and the eastern part, in which prevailed the Greek language. Despite this division was little at first, it then exacerbated. Thus, the east was affected by the Hellenic culture and the west got affected by the Latin culture. As a result, these two parts were not understandable to each other. In addition, there were ideological differences which were most dangerous and called "PaxRomana". (Fisher:n.d)
8.8 West and Rome's quotes from the eastern religion. As a result of all bad conditions in the last centuries of the Romanian world, people trended towards religion as an outlet. At that time, the worship of emperor as a god was getting worse. Thus, they leaned to the eastern religions like worshipping Isis, Cybele, Apollo or the sun, Cybele and Mithras etc. in addition to other Iranian philosophies to the west. All these appealed to those people in Rome and they got affected by. Thus, the eastern civilization, religion, thoughts and philosophy were admired by those in Rome. As a result, they stopped worshipping the empire and looked forward to the eastern religions. Altogether, these reasons accelerated the empire's move towards the weakness and fall. (Tarkhan:1958)
8.9 Negligence of Rome in late period. Rome was the capital and a symbol of union for the Romanian world until the Emperors neglected it the last periods. After it had been the best shelter for Emperors, it became the worst, thus they left it. As a result, some of them chose living at the Rhine and Danube, like Maximinius I, Diocletian chose Nicomedia to his residency, till Constantine I came and built Constantinople in early 4th century at the confluence of the Bosphorus Sea of Marmara so to be the residency of Emperors and the new Rome. (Moss:1967)
8.10 Rise of the Christianization and Romanians' adoption of it. Christianization was the most dangerous competitor of old religions. It first rose in the east then moved to the west. In that religion, the Romanian world found an outlet of all of its severe conditions, and considered it as a greater mission the worshipping the empire. It also was rich in fetishes and called for hope, at times the west was in the worst need for such aspects. We find that it attracted the lower suffering class as it claimed that in front of Allah, people are the same, no superiority for the master on the slave. Thus, slaves were admired by it. The empire would have left this new religion with stir trouble for it, but for the worship of the emperor and his desire to control for everything. As Christianization called for worshipping Allah only, the emperors considered as a new county within the original one which could threaten the union of their empire. Thus, they tried to impair and disfigure it by all means, such as torturing its adopters and oppressing them. But in the end, Emperors had to admit the new religion after a long dispute between this new religion and heathenism. This was an implicit confession of them that their power was gone and even the breakdown of the empire itself. In addition, this explains why Constantine trended towards the east and built Constantinople, and admitted this new religion and paid attention to it and its churches. (Fisher:n.d)
8.11 Rome's seizure of old cultures and civilizations. The empire counted on capturing the old civilizations, governments and old countries. Thus, despite the union of the empire, it included different races, cultures, civilizations and old cities that collapsed before Rome's coming to it, such as cities of Phoenicia, small Asia, Carthage and the Hellenic city. This means that the empire was featured by non-untidiness and sparsity. (Tarkhan: 1958)
8.12 Rome's Trial to shift its culture to lands it occupied. This point is related to the previous on. That Rome invaded several countries in the north and west like Gallia which it developed it to the level of organized ruling. But, despite all this, the empire did not affect on these countries through spreading its culture and principle in them. Thus, there was a difference between the ruling system of those countries and their real cultures. The best example for this is the British island which the empire remained in it for 4 centuries, but in the end it was liberated from the Romanian occupation. While some other old cities like Geek maintained its own culture and literature, and nothing tied it to Rome except the ties with the central government. Thus it then got separated from the empire and constituted one of the reasons for the empire's fall. (Vryonis:1967)
8.13 The gothic barbarians and their invasions to the empire. Gothic invasions are strongly related to the fall of the empire, as it was the core reason of its fall. In addition, there are some other reasons for the fall of the empire that could be summarized into the crises that threatened the existence of the empire starting from 3rd century AD. (Vasiliev:1950)
Corruption threatened everywhere of the social, economical, political, religious, military and intellectual life, as the Goths went destroying the empire, corrupting it, trying to finish it so as to build new kingdoms on the ruins of it, which would have their own characteristics and rectifiers. So, we can say that the fall of the empire was directly related to the invasions of the barbarians. Barbarian invasions are considered the separating line between the old age and the medieval ages, in other words between the Romanian empire and the rise of different individual local governments in the west of Europe within the 5th and 6th century.
Views of historians about the fall and collapse of the Romanian Empire:
J.S. Reid says, in the first part of Cambridge history for medieval ages, C.C.H, p54, that most difficult problems of the history are two; the first how did the Romanian empire rise?, and the second why did fall?, perhaps we may these problems more easier if we recall that the fall of Rome is the same as its rise, i.e. it cannot be attributed to one reason, but several. In addition, the fall was not a sudden, but it lasted for 3 centuries. In fact, some nations could not last forever and thus Rome. Despite, we can say that the reasons of the fall are attributed to Rome itself; i.e. its manners, disputes among its classes, recession of its trade, its bureaucratic government, and its huge taxations. (Naser&Hedairy: 2002)
The fall of the empire at the hands of Alaric in 410AD was a shock for those in that age both Christians and heathenish. In addition, those people thought that it would not be the end of Rome (Clavdian), and they thought that Rome would last gaining victory (Ammianus Marcellinus). The fall or Rome was as a fall of the whole world, as the historian Lactantius says in the IV century that "soon ruin will fall on this world, but as long as Rome is there, no fear of this ruin". (Rabia:2000)
The Christian writer were feeling the breakdown and violence in the empire, thus Tertullian, about 200AD, promised that from his point of view the heathenism would be ruined soon, so what happened to Rome was the beginning of that ruin. The Saint Augustine is considered one of the most famous proponents of the Christianization against who says that it was the cause of Rome's fall. His book "Dei Civitas" is about this matter. In addition, he interprets the fall of Rome as being a crucible through which Allah wants to test his servants so the Christians have to be satisfied with this. (Abide:1972)
There is no doubt that invasion of barbarians and their exploitations of mines of several centuries, and what happened in the middle and south of Italy such as cutting trees and negligence of watering canals, confusion of governments altogether made Italy poorer than it was in the past. But the real reason is not due to a defect in land, or its climate, but it is attributed to its people who were neglected and miserable due to what happened to them. Supporting the empire made the poor poorer, and luxury and pleasure made the rich also poorer. In addition, the long run peace weakened the military spirit and reduced attention to fighting skills in all classes of Rome. One day they were very strong, had robust manners better than those who survived had degraded manners and their wishes were freed of every good thing, while the political freedom was gone. (Tarkhan:1958)
The shortage of population in the empire played a dangerous role in its weakness. Thus, emperors, since Marcus Aurelius, had to accommodate barbarians altogether in the states of the Romanian empire. These procedures would not have been taken if the danger had been severer than before, or the freelancers were not less than before. Thus, no doubt the number of western barbarians increased inside and outside the empire.
E. Gibbon and some other historians say about The Decline and fall of the Romanian Empire that the Christianization was one of the main reasons of that collapse. In addition, Gibbon claimed that that religion and who adopted it ruined the previous thoughts and beliefs that were the moral rectifier for spirits and the political rectifier of the Romanian empire. As that religion was against the old culture, it fought the science, philosophy, art and literature and brought the weak eastern theosophy on the pure reality that was one of features of Romanian life. Then, the religion changed people from rights of the world into facing a disaster. Also, it changed their thought from the group survival into the individual survival, and encouraged it adopters not to hold public positions or do military service and its only principle was the peace, while survival of the empire needed enhancing the fighting spirit. Thus Rome demised. Also Montesquieu says that the heathenism and citizenship were correlated and now they are ruined. (Gibbon:n.d)
Server accusation may have some of the truth. The Christianization contributed to the beliefs chaos which, in turn, contributed in Rome's fall. But the spread of Christianization and others was due to Rome's weakness more than being a reason of its fall, as the rules of the old religion were ruined before the rise of the Christianization. In addition, we do not deny the good role of Christianization with regard to manners in Romanian life. Thus, we can say that Christianization rapid spread in the empire was because the empire was in a case of dying. Lastly, Christianization had a role in the fall of the Romanian empire but not bigger than that of barbarian invasions. (Ostrogorsky:1956)
Some historians give a great importance to the effects of economical factors on the fall of empire, as Rome depended highly on exported wheat from America and lost wide distances of land, means of transport were bad, commerce was in danger, Italian industry was unable to exporting what balance it imports, expenses on the army were big, increasing bureaucracy, capitals were lost due to much taxes which were sometimes up to the extent of confiscation, imposing the robust classes system on handcrafts. All this together led to the destruction of Rome's life. (Abide:1972)
For political reasons that led to the fall of the empire, they are all attributed to one origin which is tyranny, which destroyed the individual's rights. As the Romanians failed in achieving their wishes through tyranny, they were busy in their luxury and pleasure and his own survival. Also the senate featured by laziness while it lost all of its power day by day. Thus, the last barrier which could have saved the country also collapsed. (Naser& Hedairy:2002)
Rome's dependence on the states and mercenaries, and the rise of those from the states who seized the throne was a reason of Rome's fall, and even its independence before the fall of the empire since a long time ago. Then, Rome's arms were no longer Romanian as they were before, as then they were barbarians who were defending for the money not the home or religion. (Gibbon:n.d)
When the military threats and problems were more dangerous than the internal ones, cities near the borders were taken as centres of ruling. Thus, the severalty of cities and capitals and division of the powers led to ruining the untidiness of the empire.(Abide:1972) So, the empire when it became larger than the ability of its rulers and armies broke down. During these severe conditions of a county's fall, the internal reasons were the real and hidden ones. But the gothic invaders did not enter it except when its weakness opened the doors in front of them and paved them the way, and after the chaos, frustration and decline had prevailed in the empire. (Tarkhan:1958)
Of the external reasons of the fall of the empire in the western parts is the expansion of Asian clans towards the west the Great Wall of China blocked the way in front of them towards the east. In addition, the Goths caused the Balkans moves towards the borders of the Romanian empire. The empire allowed the Goths to cross the Danube and reside in Moesia in 376AD. But when the Romanian employees in that state mistreated the Goths, Goths fought them and beat a huge Romanian army and killed the emperor Valens who led the army. And the battle was at Hadrianople, and even they threatened Constantinople itself. In addition, in 400AD, Alaric led the western Goths and crossed with them the Alps and attacked Italy. In 410AD, they captured Rome and despoiled it. (Tarkhan:1959)
In time, barbarian's power in the Romanian army increased up till one of their leaders "Odovacar" was assigned a king in Italy in 476AD, and Odovacar acquiesced to the Romanian emperor, who was in Constantinople, and the emperor accepted him as a king following his empire. The Romanian empire in the east remained till 1453AD, but in the west it was demised.(Ashour:1975, Didly:1964)
This way, the Romanian empire suffered starting from the 3rd century from severe shocks the destroyed its structure. Corruption threatened all aspects of life socially, economically, politically, culturally, religiously, militarily and intellectually. In addition, the gothic barbarians went destroying in the empire at the borders of Danube and Rhine, while SasanPersians went towards the east. Thus, the empire lost its efficient leaders in the battles it experienced, and its states no longer depended on the protection of imperial armies but on their people, and they elected their leaders from those in these states. So, the Romanian society was about the fall and breakdown from the inside and outside. This in turn led to moving the capital Rome from in the west to building a new one in the east so as to be the new Rome, i.e. Constantinople. While the gothic barbarians went destroying the empire so as to build new kingdoms on the ruins of this empire.
* General notes about the invasions of barbarians (The Goths) of the Romanian empire in the west:
The first point that should be understood about barbarians and their invasions is that; these people when they invaded the Romanian empire had neither planned policy nor particular goals wanted to achieve them. That was when they invaded borders at the Rhine and Danube, also did not hate Rome and were not jealous of it, the gothic clans had no certain policy when they invaded the empire. In addition, they did not want to occupy new lands such as the Romanian empire but they moved with all their women, children and cattle, hoping to find a way out of the pressures from those other barbarian clans who were crueller than these like SULPHA. Thus, these clans did their moves from the east to the west as a result of the pressure resulting from Asia, as the Mongolian clans moved from the mid of Asia and the Upper east looking for their living due to drought and their over-population compared with their sources.
Thus if look at Asia and Europe at that time, we will find three major moves followed each other; the from the side of barbarians, it is the gothic move towards the Romanian borders, Slave move, it extended from Russia to the Black sea, and the third move was the Mongolian move or the Huns Who lived in Central Asia and the Far East.
Moves of these peoples do not mean they did not know something called the Romanian empire or what was its civilization and heritage. In fact, barbarians know very well the Romanian empire and its conditions, especially in the late periods as they were mercenaries in the Romanian army. In addition, some of them reached the highest positions in the army. Thus, such a very close contact with the empire, opened the doors in front of the Goths not only for wealth and heritage in the empire, but also it gave them the chance study the strengths and weaknesses of the empire. Thus, they knew when to attack the empire and take an advantage of its conditions. So, they attacked the empire with all of their forces and armies especially the Goths and Europeanizes, and when they attacked it they did not want to destroy it, but they wanted to find a peaceful place, in the Romanian peace known as PaxRomana, for them within it so as to enjoy its system, civilization and wealth. Examples for those are Theodoric the great, king of the eastern Goths in Italy, and Clufius, the first king of Europeanizes in Gallia.
There is another note; it the complexity of the history of that era, as the invasions of the barbarians are complicated, and no historian can tell this history of them in a serialized organized accurate way every narration of this history on the organized basis is abnormal as there is a shortage in source of knowledge. For example, we see that barbarians moved from a place to another destroying whatever cities they met and having no certain place to settle down in. thus, a man lived in that era never knew what would happen for him the other day. As well, we say that the Romanians were unable to defend their subjects or peoples while they were busy in pleasures and luxury. The destruction of the Romanian old instructions which was the source of power for that empire made an easy target for barbarians, and their lands and cities became an easy prize for those Goths. There is another phenomenon of complexity between those of the history of those barbarians; it is the diversity in the social centuries and the governmental systems for them.
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Kamaruzaman Yusoff, Salah L-A Mohammed, Mansoureh Ebrahimi and Azlizan Mat Enh.
School of History, Politics and Strategies. Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Corresponding Author: School of History, Politics and Strategic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. MALAYSIA
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Yusoff, Kamaruzaman; Mohammed, Salah L.-A.; Ebrahimi, Mansoureh; Enh., Azlizan Mat|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2012|
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