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The anatomical properties of Scabiosa atropurpurea L. (Caprifoliaceae).

INTRODUCTION

The genus Scabiosa L. is a member of the Caprifoliaceae Juss. family and it is represented by ca. 100 species all over the world. Most of Scabiosa species grow in the Mediterranean region (Carlson et al. 2012). This genus is represented by 32 species in Turkey (Gokturk 2012). One of them, S. atropurpurea L., is a biennial or perennial plant which is 20-60 cm in height. This species is separated from other species with its bluish-lilac flower color and the characteristic shape of its fruit. It is native to Turkey and located around roadsides, dry fields, and dunes. The flowering time of this plant is from May to October and it shows a wide distribution in Turkey (Mathew 1972; Ekici 2010; Akalin Urusak et al. 2013; Kose and Ozen 2017).

S. atropurpurea known as "Mor uyuzotu, Seytan otu" in Turkey (Asal and Yasarkan 2017; Tuzlaci 2006) is known as "Ambarina" in Northern Peru and "Escabiosa" in Iberian Peninsula (Bussman and Glenn 2010; Bussman et al. 2010). It has been used traditionally in several diseases like acne, bronchitis, cold, cough by means of its analgesic, antipyretic anti- inflammatory and antibacterial activities (Marhuenda-Requena et al. 1987; Saenz-Rodrigues et al. 1987; Bonet et al. 1999; Bussman and Glenn 2010). In Iberian Peninsula, a kind of herbal tea is prepared from its aerial parts and it is used as a veterinary diuretic. In Northern Peru, it is used orally or by inhalation for menstrual regulation (Bonet and Valles 2007; Bussman and Glenn 2010). In Egypt, it is known as an ornamental plant (Elhawary et al. 2011). Many studies revealed that the main chemical constituents of this species are iridoid glucosides, flavonoids and phenolic compounds (Polat et al. 2010; Elhawary et al. 2011).

Anatomical studies were not found in the literature review of the S. atropurpurea. In this study, the stem, leaf and root parts of the taxon were examined and the anatomical structure was revealed for the first time. Moreover, a distribution map of the species was located (Figure 1).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study material, S. atropurpurea was collected from Istanbul, Validebag Korusu grove on October 2017. The collected specimens were identified by Zeynep Busra Erarslan and dried specimen of the plant was kept in the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE) by herbarium number 115040. Leaves, stems and roots stored in 70% ethanol for anatomical examination, and then all cross sections and surficial sections were cut by hand with blade. Samples were examined in Sartur reagent. Photographs were taken by Canon Power shot A640 and measurements of stems, leaves and roots were made by program of KAMERAM[c].

RESULTS

Leaf

From the cross-section of leaf was found to be bifacial, amphistomatic and mesomorphic. The upper and lower epidermises are composed of single-layered, rectangular-rounded cells. Upper epidermal cells have larger sizes than lower epidermal cells. The epidermal cells on both surfaces are surrounded by a thin layer of cutin. On the upper and lower epidermis, there are one-celled eglandular trichomes and multi-celled glandular trichomes. The measurements of the glandular trichomes are 20.65-28.41 x 30.47-51.49 [micro]m and average is -40.55 [micro]m. The mesophyll is composed of 3-4 layers of palisade parenchyma cells under the upper epidermis and spongy parenchyma cells with wide intercellular spaces. Leaf thickness is between 314.39-356.69 [micro]m and average is 335.55 [micro]m (Figure 2 a, b, c).

In the cross section of the main vein, 1-2 layers of collenchyma are seen under the lower epidermis. There are thin-walled parenchyma cells of different sizes between the collenchyma layer and the vascular bundles. A few druse crystals were seen in this area. Veins are collateral, with the xylem located upper side and phloem located lower side. The leaf main vein thickness is 523.77-686.19 [micro]m and average is 601.27 [micro]m (Figure 2 d, e, f).

On the surface section, lower epidermal cells seem to be wavier than the upper epidermal cells. On both sides of the lamina there are oval shaped and various sized stomata (Table 1). Stomata anomocytic, 2-3 cells surrounding each stoma which are not recognizably distinct from the remaining cells in the mature epidermis. The stomatal index for the upper surface of the lamina 24.52; the stomatal index for the lower surface is 26.23. The stomatal index ratio was calculated as 0.934 (Figure 3 a, b).

Stem

The outermost part of the herbaceous stem's cross section is composed of epidermal cells with a single layer and the cells are covered by a thin cuticular layer. Width of the epidermal cells is ranging from 16.94 to 18.61 [micro]m, length is ranging from 14.68 [micro]m to 19.10 [micro]m. One-celled simple eglandular trichomes and rarely one-celled hook-shaped eglandular trichomes are seen on the epidermis. Just below this layer, there are varying sizes of multilayered parenchymatous cells which are forming the cortex part of the stem. A single layered endodermis is located under parenchyma cells. The phloem is followed by cambium. The xylem lignified and forms a wider layer than phloem. The pith comprises of large parenchymatous cells which have got starch grains and thicken on the walls as they approach the xylem layer. Parenchyma cells vary in diameter (Table 1, Figure 4 a-d).

Root

On the cross section, the cells of epidermis are replaced by 2-3 layers of periderm. Endodermis is not seen. Under a few layered phloem, xylem is composed of tracheary elements with surrounded by sclerenchymatous cells in root. Diameters of trachea cells are 13.84-34.75 [micro]m (Table 1, Figure 5 a, b).

DISCUSSION

The stem, leaf and root anatomy of S. atropurpurea were examined and the results were compared with literatures in this study.

The anatomical study's with Scabiosa rotata M.Bieb, it is stated that the eglandular trichomes are present in the stem and leaf, and also a small amount of glandular trichomes are present in the leaf. In addition, it was observed that S. atropurpurea leaves and stem have eglandular trichomes (Panayir and Baykal 1997). Additionally, in an anatomical study with S. hispidula Boiss., it is stated that glandular trichomes are present in the stem and especially in the leaf. Therefore, S. atropurpurea is similar to S. hispidula with the appearance of glandular trichome in the leaf (Akyol et al. 2016).

It is also stated that all of these features in the cross sections of S. rotata and S. hispidula, are found in the members of the subfamily (Panayir and Baykal 1997; Akyol et al. 2016). It is reported that S. hispidula has hydathode. On the other hand, hydathode was not observed in S. atropurpurea anatomy.

In the other species of plant, clustered crystals (Akyol et al. 2016) or druse and salt crystal sands (Panayir and Baykal 1997) are found in the leaf and root anatomy of the species. Only druse crystals were observed in the leaf anatomy of S. atropurpurea species.

REFERENCES

* Akalin Urusak E, Ozhatay F. N., Guler N., Ersoy H., Basak N., Yesil Y., Oral D., Demirci S (2013). The flora of Yildiz Mountains (Kirklareli) Biosphere Project area. Turk J B 37: 225-269.

* Akyol Y, Kocabas O, Kayacan E, Minareci E, Ozdemir C (2016). Scabiosa hispidula Boiss. (Caprifoliaceae) Turune Ait Anatomik Bir Calisma. Nevsehir Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi 5: 10- 15.

* Asal D and Yasarkan O (2017). "Turkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarli Bitkiler)"nde Mukerrer Olan 171 Takson Icin Yeni Bilimsel Turkce Adlar. Bagbahce Bilim Dergisi 4: 1-7.

* Bonet MA and Valles J (2007). Ethnobotany of montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): Plants used in veterinary medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 110: 130-147.

* Bonet MA, Prada M, Selga A, Valles J (1999). Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the regions of L'Alt Emporda and Les Guilleries (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). J Ethnopharmacol 68: 145-168.

* Bussman RW and Glenn A (2010). Medicinal plants used in Northern Peru for reproductive problems and female health. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6: 30.

* Bussman RW, Glenn A, Meyer K, Kuhlman A and Townesmith A (2010). Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru, J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6: 10.

* Carlson SE, Linder HP, Donoghue MJ (2012). The historical biogeography of Scabiosa (Dipsacaceae): implications for Old World plant disjunctions. J Biogeogr 39: 1086-1100.

* Mathews V.A (1972). Scabiosa L. in Davis PH (Ed). The Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 1-9, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

* Elhawary SS, Eltantawy ME, Sleem AA, Abdallah HM, Mohamed NM (2011). Investigation of Phenolic Content and Biological Activities of Scabiosa atropurpurea L. World Appl Sci J 15: 311-317.

* Ekici B (2010). Bartin Kenti Ve Yakin Cevresinde Yetisen Bazi Dogal Bitkilerin Kentsel Mekanlarda Kullanim Olanaklari. SDU Orman Fakultesi Dergisi A2: 110-126.

* Gokturk RS. (2012). Scabiosa L. in Guner A, Aslan S, Ekim T, Vural M & Babac MT (eds.). Turkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarli Bitkiler). Nezahat Gokyigit Botanik Bahcesi ve Flora Arastirmalari Dernegi Yayini. Istanbul.

* Kose M, Ozen F. (2017). Hereke Florasi. SAUJS, 21 (6), 1165-1175.

* Marhuenda-Requena E, Saenz-Rodriguez MT, Garcia-Gimenez MD (1987). A contribution to the pharmacodynamic study of Scabiosa atropurpurea L.I. Analgesic and antipyretic activity. Plant Med Phytoter 21: 47-55.

* Panayir T, Baykal T (1997). Scabiosa rotata BIEB. (Dipsacaceae) Uzerinde Morfolojik ve Anatomik Arastirmalar. J Fac Pharm Ankara 26: 22-35.

* Polat E, Alankus Caliskan O, Karayildirim T, Bedir E (2010). Iridoids from Scabiosa atropurpurea L. subsp. maritima Arc. (L.). Biochem Syst Ecol 38: 253-255.

* Saenz-Rodrigues MT, Garcia-Gimenez MD, Marhuenda-Requena E (1987). A contribution to the pharmacodynamic study of Scabiosa atropurpurea L. II. Antiinflammatory and antibacterial activity. Plant Med Phytoter 21: 203-208.

* Tuzlaci E (2006). Turkiye Bitkileri Sozlugu. Alfa Yayinlari, Istanbul.

Zeynep Busra Erarslan [iD] & Yeter Yesil (*) [iD]

Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, 34116, Istanbul, Turkey

Address for Correspondence: Yeter Yesil, e-mail: yeteryesil@yahoo.com

Received: 08.01.2018

Accepted: 22.03.2018

ORCID IDs of the authors: Z.B.E. 0000-0002-4458-7881, Y.Y. 0000-0001-7541-2569.

Cite this article as: Erarslan ZB, Yesil Y. The anatomical properties of Scabiosa atropurpurea L. (Caprifoliaceae). Istanbul J Pharm 48 (1): 1-5.

DOI: 10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2018.376278
Table 1. Anatomical measurements of S. atropurpurea.

                  Width ([micro]m)
            Min.-Max.     Avr. [+ or -] Sd  Min. - Max.

Stem
Epidermis   16.94  18.61  17.70   0.74      14.68  19.10
cell
Pith cell   30.34  76.03  51.28  17.83
(diameter)
Trachea      8.85  18.33  14.67   3.75
(diameter)
Endodermis   6.81  13.04  10.67   2.78      18.74  39.37
cell

Leaf
Upper        8.78  26.01  18.01   7.37      24.16  42.42
epidermis
cell
Upper       18.38  20.31  19.05   0.79      21.79  34.53
stomata
Trachea      4.66  11.24   7.03   2.08
(diameter)
Lower       12.07  17.10  14.17   2.15      18.48  26.52
stomata
Lower        7.73  14.22  11.62   2.97      26.23  16.94
epidermis
cell

Root
Periderm     9.54  15.26  13.12   2.41      16.17  22.80
cell
Trachea     13.84  34.75  22.01   7.71
(diameter)

            Avr. [+ or -] Sd

Stem
Epidermis   17.21  1.84
cell
Pith cell
(diameter)
Trachea
(diameter)
Endodermis  25.49  8.31
cell

Leaf
Upper       34.10  8.44
epidermis
cell
Upper       28.35  4.52
stomata
Trachea
(diameter)
Lower       22.74  3.10
stomata
Lower       33.17  9.33
epidermis
cell

Root
Periderm    20.46  2.14
cell
Trachea
(diameter)

Min: minimum, Max: maximum, Avr: average, Sd: standard deviation.
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Erarslan, Zeynep Busra; Yesil, Yeter
Publication:Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Istanbul University
Date:Apr 1, 2018
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