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The Year's Work in Marlowe Studies, 2015-16.

In 2016, the four hundredth anniversary of William Shakespeare's death, Christopher Marlowe stole the spotlight. The New Oxford Shakespeare attributed parts of all three Henry VI plays to him, Thomas Nashe, and an anonymous playwright. (1) One of the general editors, Gabriel Egan, cowrote an article in Shakespeare Quarterly on authorial identification in these works, using the "word adjacency" methodology developed by Claude Shannon in the mid-twentieth century, whereby "the likelihood of a data source (in this case, a writer) emitting a given symbol (call it y) immediately or shortly after emitting another symbol (call it x)" can be calculated and compared. (2) Some scholars (MacDonald P. Jackson, Brian Vickers) study distinctive phrases shared by the text under investigation and other works by known authors. Others (Hugh Craig, Arthur Kinney) analyze the frequency of individual words. But Segarra et al. instead deployed "Markov chains" to represent "Word Adjacency Networks (WANs) for entire author canons (and subsets thereof)" (234), and used Shannon's methods to compare the WANs of the uncertain text with those of known authors. (3)

Segarra and his colleagues, having found that Shakespeare is largely responsible for 1 Henry VI with Marlowe the next most likely of the profiled dramatists, compared individual scenes on a binaristic basis to determine possible Marlovian or Shakespearean provenance. Eight scenes in the first part of the tetralogy are likely Marlowe's (246). In the case of 2 Henry VI, the first act is most confidendy assigned to Marlowe along with numerous other sections, and this pattern reoccurs in 3 Henry VI. Though the authors could not explain how any of these works bear the distinctive marks of both playwrights, they assert that Marlowe's hand "is now undeniable" (249). They see his presence in the first act of Edward III, as well (250).

Two monographs and an edited collection on Marlowe appeared in 2015, all from Ashgate just before its buyout by Roudedge: Andrew Duxfield's Christopher Marlowe and the Failure to Unify, Mathew R. Martin's Tragedy and Trauma in the P/ays of Christopher Marlowe, and Sara Munson Deats and Robert A. Logan's Christopher Marlowe at 450. (4) Duxfield's book offered a fresh response to what has become a critical commonplace in Marlowe studies, the tendency to emphasize the role of excess in his drama. He considered instead "the process of reduction and the ideal of unity" (1) in contrast with the historical "discordance" (3) of the 1580s in England, that registers in Marlowe's plays. Accordingly, attempts at unification via "national self-fashioning" fail in Dido (33). Tamburlaine's many conquests ultimately blind him to the complexities of reality and so that he relies on absolutes, which do not serve him well (46). Faustus wants to unify the world's knowledge, but the play explores the impossibility of this desire, especially in its dramatization of the incompatibility of religious and political knowledge (66). Duxfield attended to the dichotomous tension between the multitude and the individual in The Jew of Malta and The Massacre at Paris, both of which suggest that political authority actually subverts religious unity. A final chapter on Edward II investigated the thwarted attempts to unify the politics of early fourteenth-century England by the competing factions (Edward, Isabella, Gaveston and the barons) and their disparate interests. Throughout his book, Duxfield argued that the impossible feat of creating unity out of "limitless variety" (148) informs Marlowe's plays because this reflects the politics of his own time.

Mathew R. Martin interpreted Marlowe's tragedies as "trauma narratives" in Tragedy and Trauma in the Plays of Christopher Marlowe (1). The plays "articulate a sense of the tragic that differs considerably from its definition in the de casibus tradition" because Marlowe reconfigures "the relationship between the tragic frame and the trauma it attempts to enclose" (2). In his Lacanian psychoanalytic approach, Martin claimed that a given character's psychic "internal wound" is ultimately more important than Fortune or fate (20). Accordingly, Dido rewrites translatio imperii as "trauma narrative" (42). Tamburlaine "becomes the Other in order to be the traumatizing rather than the traumatized" and enacts a shift "from suffering to sadism" (43), though ultimately his "refusal to accept castration, even in death" makes him "an anti-tragic figure" (83). Martin attempted an Oedipal reading of Barabas in his "womblike space, the 'little room'" (91). He accounts for the denial of pain in Edward II by its alleged juxtaposition of the "Christological model" with a "classical paradigm of the suffering subject's relationship to history" (103). He subjected The Massacre at Paris to a Lacanian interpretation as well. The play's ostensible incoherence or corruption is deliberate because Marlowe "refuses to bring trauma into narrative order" (132). Each atrocity in the play represents "the obtrusion of all that does not belong and must remain beyond sense in order for reality to make sense, to cohere" (141). Doctor Faustus becomes "Marlowe's most powerful trauma narrative" in which the protagonist "articulates his tragic fantasy response to the call of the Other, a God who has rejected him" (22).

The Deats and Logan edited collection was conceived to mark the 450th anniversary of Marlowe's birth in 2014, purporting to assess the plays' critical legacies. The editors described their volume as a "detailed" and "comprehensive" "retrospective." (5) The book's first half surveys the trends and challenges in criticism on specific works and its contributors offer suggestions for new directions. Ruth Lunney's chapter on Dido succinctly summarized scholarship about the play's date of composition and its authorship, accounted for its "reassembling of cultural materials" from Ovid and Virgil, and explored its implicit questioning of "love, responsibility, and the nature of the universe." (6) She noted the need for a new edition, a book-length study, and further work on "identity, memory, and place" (7) in Dido. Richard Wilson considered Marlowe's work in light of current Islamic militantism. Audiences no longer find homoerotics of Edward II shocking, but newly sensitized, react strongly to Tamburlaine's burning of the Koran and the Turkish threat of battering down Christian towers with brass bullets in The jew of Malta. As a result, "the pathos of Marlowe's virtual catastrophism had suddenly come to look too reall" (8) Constance Brown Kuriyama surveyed recent biographical studies and calls for "more information and less freewheeling speculation in Marlowe biography." (9) Christopher Matusiak reexamined Marlowe's popularity, his affiliation with Philip Henslowe and Edward Alleyn, and the implications of the Rose playhouse excavations (in 1989) for our understanding of the playing conditions in his time. David Bevington and David Mclnnis provided accounts of theatrical productions and electronic resources, respectively. (10)

Hero and leander garnered considerable critical interest. Patrick Cheney's contribution to the Deats and Logan volume concentrated on Marlowe's lyric and narrative poetry and argued that he "reached his apex not in plays but in poems" and that his combination of significant poetry with drama formed the "authorial template" or "career structure" for Ben Jonson, Shakespeare, and other early modern English writers. (11) He accounted for what is known about each poem's text and date, its relationship to the rest of Marlowe's output, its sources and genre, and its reception. For future work, he suggested a book-length study of both the "The Passionate Shepherd" and the "innovative and influential heroic couplet" that drives Hew and Leander. (12) Will Fisher studied the historical fetishization of the thigh in early modern blazons (1590-1730) and its "homoerotic appeal" in Hero and Eeander via Neptune's focus on Leander. (13) Jenny C. Mann analyzed sexual metaphor in the nondramatic poetry. (14) Rather than virility, she argued, Marlowe presents "softness" and "effeminacy" as "the ground of masculine poetic invention" in the Elegies. Therefore, what has seemed like an effeminacy that negates femininity is merely "one more code of masculinity" defined by the tension between mastery and being mastered. (15)

As part of a much larger and ambitious project, Jeffrey Masten offered a "queer philology of Leander, Marlowe's "amorous boy," to counter the "sexual cleansing" of the texts associated with an author whose "homosexuality-in-the-modern-sense," once taken for granted, has more recently been treated with skepticism as unprovable. (16) Masten argued that biographical and textual studies must be informed by the history of sexuality. "The complexity of its forms, languages, and terms must also come to be regarded as indispensable technical expertise--another philological tool that scholars and editors must engage." Marlowe applied the epithet "amorous" and its cognates as applied to Leander to "revivify the rhetoric of passion." (17)

Gordon Braden revisited the question of whether Hero should be considered complete without Chapman's additions. (18) Noting that the abrupt ending in the first edition mimics that of the Aeneid, he credited Marlowe with an awareness of the authoritativeness of such a conclusion. (19) Its overall meaning, Braden argued, depends on how one resolves what has been believed to be the epyllion's notorious textual crux in the consummation passage. Editors, beginning with Samuel Weller singer and C. F. Tucker Brooke, have felt compelled to "improve" the sense of the episode by transposing a fairly large passage. Braden defended the original reading, arguing that Leander converts Hero "decisively into prey" and "Her terror at being in that role informs the now completed bird simile." Accordingly, the morning after, Hero regrets the sexual encounter and her "disgust is what drives the emotional turbulence of the poem's conclusion" as Marlowe left it. (20)

M. L. Stapleton complemented his Roma Gill Prize-winning monograph on Marlowe and Ovid with a chapter for the 450 volume on "Translations of Ovid and Lucan," in which he addresses the oversight whereby the "interrelationship" of Marlowe's translations of these two authors has been "hardly explored" even though these "subtly skilled renditions" of the Amoves and the Pharsalia "illuminate" Marlowe's other writings. (21) Rather than offering a mechanical concluding paragraph proposing future work on this material, he intended his essay itself to exemplify what needs to be done: close and cogent analysis of the interpenetration of the dramatic and nondramatic poetry. As in Marlowe's Ovid (2014), Stapleton analyzed the author's experimental poetic techniques that he learned through engaging in these translations. They informed his dramatic composition with devices such as irony, "protosoliloquies," and "artistic perspective." (22)

Two scholars analyzed Ovid as an innovative presence in Marlowe's plays. Heather James noted Ovid's pervasive influence on the depiction of girlhood in the second quarto of Romeo and Juliet with Marlowe as a mediator. "Marlowe's bold voice, which yearns for liberties and always demands yet more," found a new outlet in "the part of a girl, played by a boy": Juliet. (23) Roy Eriksen's study of allusion in the B-text of Faustus utilized "syncretist interpretations of myth in classical and medieval literature" and "exegesis to underscore the magician's transgressive practices." (24) He reexamined the "imperial scenes" featuring Benvolio in terms of the Actaeon story that Marlowe invokes. The playwright deliberately linked the fates of the knight and the title character with the voyeuristic myth from the Metamorphoses and the story of Paris and Helen.

Three articles examined the legacy of Ovid and Virgil in Dido. Lucy Potter wrote about representations of the goddess Fama in in Marlowe's play by way of the two classical poets, exploring the idea of the playwright as a representation of this rumor-mongering abstraction. She argued that this allowed him to "immortalize Virgil's literary fame, as Ovid had done before him." (25) Kathryn Rebecca Van Winkle theorized that ethopoeia, the humanist drama-based pedagogical tool probably used at the King's School in Canterbury, strongly influenced Marlowe's conception of character. Just as students were to imagine themselves as legendary figures in epic or story, the future playwright learned to write dramatic roles by this same empathetic projective activity as a "spur for speech." (26) Jonathan P. A. Sell read the Virgilian presence in Dido through the emblem of Aeneas encountering his father's statue in the deserts of Libya, suggesting that its origin might have been a rock formation on Mount Sipylus that published accounts in the sixteenth century reported as having a human face. (27) In this way, the playwright complicated Virgil's ekphrasis, since the epic Aeneas saw such frescoes and his sixteenth-century reanimation merely hallucinates. In this way, Dido emphasizes "the material limitations of theatrical representation." (28)

The Tamburlaine plays attracted a wealth of critical attention. In Marlowe at 450, Tom Rutter accounted for mid-twentieth-century criticism of the two-part dramatic chronicle in comparison with contemporary studies. (29) He observed that their emphasis on militarism complemented the times that begat them, World War Two and the September 11 attacks. Rutter called for more attention to style, versification, historical context, reception history, and the influence of the title character and his actions on subsequent early modern drama. Vanessa Ivette Corredera focused on the use of "astrological physiognomy" in Tamburlaine, a reading of alleged astral characters visible on the body for fortune-telling purposes, such as "the hand (known as chiromancy) or the forehead (known as metoposcopy), in order to discern his or her fortune" (30) This adjunct to humoral theory concerns the first rather than the second play. There Tamburlaine's bodily self-awareness complements his rhetoric in his rise to power. Chloe Kathleen Preedy read Marlowe's twofold chronicle against Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV and Thomas Heywood's EdwardIV (1599) to consider the relationship between depictions of invasion or conquest and issues of spectatorship. (31) Onstage sieges found a parallel in the warlike terminology that antitheatrical polemicists used to describe London theaters. John D. Cox historicized prayer on the early modern stage, and argued that Marlowe was the first playwright to treat its efficacy with true skepticism in Doctor Faustus, Tamburlaine, and The Jew of Malta. Aaron Kunin examined the idea of the footstool as metaphor and theatrical prop in Tamburlaine (Bajazeth) and Doctor Faustus (Pope Bruno), and the tendency for rulers in Marlowe's plays to use rival kings as footstools (Bajazeth in Tamburlaine and Pope Bruno in Faustus). Roslyn L. Knutson interrogated the critical commonplace that Marlowe's "mighty line" electrified contemporary audiences as her starting point for an investigation of "the tastes of early modern playgoers in dramatic poetry." (32) She called for better methods of evaluating the quality of dramatic poetry in the late sixteenth century.

The Jew of Malta inspired a number of innovative critical approaches in 2015-16. Stephen J. Lynch speculated about likely audience responses to the play prior to Edmund Kean's radical Drury Lane adaptation (1818). (33) He included several traditional topics in his analysis, such as the Vice from the morality tradition, early modern conceptions of Judaism, Machiavellianism, and the diverse critical tradition surrounding Barabas. Mark Hutchings revisited the staging problem surrounding the protagonist's final moments before his serio-comic descent into the cauldron. He argued that the "architecture of the playhouse made Barabas's fall impossible." (34) Hutchings's alternative theory: the actor for the role exited discreetly, with a doubled or "dummy" Barabas dressed identically appearing on the upper stage. By "stage magic," the surrogate pretended to fall, and the original Barabas supplied his place in the kettle below him. (35) Clayton Mackenzie read this episode allegorically and noted that it "resonates with the so-called Murderers Pots in medieval doom murals," five of which survived the iconoclasts in Reformation England. (36) According to this tradition, the devil boiled alive "those who have committed the most damnable of earthly sins." (37) The Governor, Ferneze, thus adopts the doom mural devil's role in punishing the sinner for his treachery.

Other scholarship on The Jew of Malta explored the topic of friendship, the problem of Abigail, and the play's relationships with drama of the period. Bradley D. Ryner compared Barabas with the eponymous usurer of Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria (1598). (38) This "nearly complete revenge comedy" resembles Marlowe's tragedy in its economic motif, with Beggar celebrating consumption rather than showing its evils. (39) Vanessa L. Rapatz argues that Abigail is "left to navigate new spaces and identities in a changing world when she is turned out of her home," her plight comparable in some ways to that of English nuns in the wake of the Reformation and the dissolution of the monasteries. (40) She uses the idea of the "turn" in a convent's architecture, which facilitates exchange between the nuns and the outside world, and the same word as a verb, which connotes spiritual and material change. Therefore "conversion becomes a strategy for recovery and revenge" in Marlowe's play. (41) Maurice A. Hunt examines the idea of friendship in The Jew of Malta and Doctor Faustus, where he views it as a "positive phenomenon" that contributes to the "sense of waste" in the death of each play's protagonist. (42) Barabas and Faustus seek companionship but fail to acquire it because of their alienation. Since the two characters, and perhaps, Hunt conjectures, Marlowe, could not be friends to others, they could not be friends to themselves.

Much work on Edward II included performance-oriented material. Bevington continued the stage history Charles Forker produced for his Revels Plays edition (1994). (43) He accounted for Mark Lamos's graphic American Conservatory Theatre production (San Francisco, 2000), Richard Monette's staging at the Ontario Stratford Shakespeare Festival (2008), its first Marlowe play, the futuristic rendition at the Red Bull Theater Company (New York, 2007-08), the "bloody and confrontational" spectacle provided by the Chicago Shakespeare Theatre (2010), and Joe Hill-Gibbons' much praised E.dward at the National Theatre (London, 2013). (44) These versions featured elements "once so offensive to audiences: frontal nudity, male kissing, the red-hot poker, the doubling of Gaveston and Lightborn by the same actor, introducing actresses into what were originally male roles." (45) Where, he asks rhetorically, will directors look for new concepts now?

Other significant publications accounted in part for the stage history of Edward II. Kristina Mendicino investigated causality, chronology, and textuality in Marlowe's and Bertolt Brecht's versions of the king's story. James Wallace revisited the revolutionary 1970 Ian McKellen Prospect Theatre production that was filmed for television. (46) He analyzes its significance, describing it as "a rare moment of an actor marrying undeniable talent and skill with a provocative and deeply felt sense of liberation." (47) Logan observed that gender and sexuality have shaped such productions and influenced traditional criticism since 1964, when the four hundredth anniversary of Marlowe's birth renewed interest in his work. (48) He suggested a return to historically-informed close reading of the language of the play so that its "purposeful ambiguities" might yield clues to its early performance history. (49) Lynch created a texts-and-contexts edition of Edward, including excerpts from Raphael Holinshed, John Stowe, Michel de Montaigne, and Marcus Tullius Cicero, each designed to guide the nonspecialist reader in evaluating Marlowe's sources. Vickers and Hutchings contributed traditional scholarship concerning the text of the play. (50)

As always, DoctorFaustus inspired the most critical attention. Deats summarized the play's disputed particulars (date, textual problems, authorship, and performance history), its central ethical conundrum, and significant recent scholarship. She identified possible new critical directions such as "non-religious controversies--political, theatrical, aesthetic," the influence on playwrights besides Shakespeare, and matters of form. (51) Jakob Ladegaard attended to one such formal quality in the play, its pervasive comic element. (52) He argued Marlowe used this motif to criticize the politics and morality of his culture: the construction of identity, metatheatricality, and the implied parallels between Hell and Elizabeth's England. Swapan Chakravorty wrote about "the converging lines of response to the ethical implications of theatrical representation" in Faustus, bringing to bear an unlikely source, an eighth-century Sanskrit manual on theater and dramaturgy. (53) Kevin Chovenac surveyed hitherto unexplored early modern theater history, English players on the Continent, with Marlowe's play as case study, popular with audiences in Germany because of its source material. This may also explain the B-text additions. (54) Todd A. Borlik's two-part essay on stage flight and "hellish falls" in Faustus argued that the aerial stunts in the B-text "heighten the play's magical ambiance and tragic grandeur by confronting contemporary attitudes toward flight as both a diabolical enterprise and one of the loftiest aspirations of Renaissance man." (55) The protagonist's aerial acrobatics resemble those in other Admiral's men plays including the lost "Phaeton" (1598) and "Brute Greenshield" (1599). "Faustus showcases a technological optimism about flight that undercuts the play's ideological pessimism." (56) Rebecca Lemon explored Faustus's pursuit of study as a form of early modern addiction, since it is explicidy labelled such in the English Faust Book of 1592. Since Roman contract law and Ciceronian and Senecan-inspired sixteenth-century treatises used similar language, these must have anticipated modern notions of "addiction as pathology." (57) For Lemon, then, the play attends to "the struggle inherent to devotion," "Overpowering dedication," and "the wonder and terror of addictive release." (58) Rebecca Bushnell investigated how Faustus "might frame a reader's experience of time." (59) Since the printed texts of the play conclude with a Latin tagline and printers' devices, she proposed that they might have provided a "moral function" with their symbolism of justice and aspiration, that the "apparent fixing of an end is a fiction," and that Marlowe meant to interrogate our concepts of time. (60)

In contrast with Faustus, and as usual, The Massacre at Paris drew the least critical attention. In the Deats and Logan collection, Leah Marcus provided a brief overview, defending the play against allegations of corruption and inferiority. Duxfield devoted half a chapter to Massacre in the previously mentioned study. Brian Walsh, however, contributed a substantial essay to this field in 2015-16. (61) He sought to rehabilitate Massacre by inquiring "how Marlowe's play intervenes in questions of pan-Protestant solidarity, both in terms of England's relationship to reformers on the Continent, and in terms of Protestant divides within England." (62) It might have constituted a plea for religious toleration, since English playgoers could have recognized themselves as a persecuting majority. Therefore, "it gave voice to and thus offered up for scrutiny the genocidal imagination behind acts of 'cleansing' in which one group seeks to exterminate another segment of its society." (63)

University of Melbourne

Melbourne, Australia

(1.) Gary Taylor, John Jowett, Terri Bourus, and Gabriel F.gan, eds., The New Oxford Shakespeare: The Complete Works (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2016).

(2.) Santiago Segarra, Mark Eisen, Gabriel Egan, and Alejandro Ribeiro, "Attributing the Authorship of the Henry VI Plays by Word Adjacency," Shakespeare Quarterly 67.2 (2016): 232-56, 239. I lereafter cited as Segarra et al.

(3.) Samples are analyzed for the occurrence and relationship between specified words such as "with," "and," "one," "in." The diagrams that such a process yields provide an initial glimpse of the differences between the texts in question. The results are then "normalized" to express mathematically "for each word the relative frequency with which it is followed, within five words, by each of the other words that are indeed found within five words of if' (Segarra et al., 237). Analysis of target words and their networks is quantified (the mathematics is called "entropy" and the unit of measurement 240), and WANs for both authors and for texts are thereby established.

(4.) Andrew Duxfield, Christopher Marlowe and the Failure to Unify (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2015); Mathew R. Martin, Tragedy and Trauma in the Plays of Christopher Marlowe (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2015); and Sara Munson Deats and Robert A. Logan, eds., Christopher Marlowe at 450 (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2015), hereafter cited as Marlowe at 450. One need only survey the "Year's Work in Marlowe Studies" pieces that have previously appeared in this annual to appreciate just how significant a supporter of Marlowe studies Ashgate has been.

(5.) Sara Munson Deats and Robert A. Logan, "Introduction," in Marlowe at 450, 1-10, 1

(6.) Ruth Lunney, "Ditto, Queen of Carthage," in Marlowe at 450, 13-50, 20, 23.

(7.) Lunney, "Dido, Queen of Carthage," 42.

(8.) Richard Wilson, "Specters of Marlowe: The State of the Debt and the Work of Mourning," in Marlowe, at 450, 227-56, 228.

(9.) Constance Brown Kuriyama, "Marlowe Biography: Fact, Inference, Conjecture, and Speculation," in Marlowe at 450, 327-40, 337.

(10.) David Bevington, "Marlowe's Plays in Performance: A Brief History," in Marlowe at 450, 257-80; and David McInnis, "Marlowe and Electronic Resources," in Marlowe at 450, 309-26.

(11.) Patrick Cheney, "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love' and Hero and Leander," in Marlowe at 450, 163-200, 164.

(12.) Cheney, '"The Passionate Shepherd,'" 177,193.

(13.) Will Fisher, '"Wantoning with the 'thighs': The Socialization of Thigh Sex in F.ngland, 1590-1730," Journal of the History of Sexuality 24.1 (2015): 1-24, 18.

(14.) Jenny C. Mann, "Marlowe's 'Slack Muse': All Ovid's Elegies and an English Poetics of Softness," Modern Philology 113.1 (2015): 49-65.

(15.) Mann, "Marlowe's 'Slack Muse,"' 50, 64.

(16.) Jeffrey Masten, Queer Philologies: Sex, Language, and Affect in Shakespeare's Lime (Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2016), 144.

(17.) Masten, Queer Philologies, 160,150.

(18.) Gordon Braden, "Hero and Leander in Bed (and the Morning After)," English Literary Renaissance 45.2 (2015): 205-30.

(19.) Braden, "Hero and Leander," 209.

(20.) Braden, "Hero and Leander," 220, 221.

(21.) M. L. Stapleton, "Translations of Ovid and Lucan," in Marlowe at 450, 201-26, 202. See also his Marlowe's Ovid: The "Elegies" in the Marlowe Canon (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2014).

(22.) Stapleton, "Translations of Ovid," 222.

(23.) Heather James, "The Ovidian Girlhood of Shakespeare's Boy Actors: Q2 Juliet," Shakespeare Survey 69 (2016): 106-22.

(24.) Roy Eriksen, "Marlowe's Actajon: Syncretism on the Elizabethan Stage," in Allusions and Reflections: Greek and Roman Mythology in Renaissance Europe, ed. Elisabeth Wighall Nivre (Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015), 137-49, 137-38.

(25.) Lucy Potter, "Telling Tales: Negotiating 'Lame' in Virgil's Aeneid, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and Christopher Marlowe's Tragedy of Dido, Queen of Carthage," in "Fama"' and Her Sisters: Gossip and Tumour in Early Modern Europe, ed. Claire Walker and Heather Kerr (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2015), 37-63, 55, 59.

(26.) Kathryn Rebecca Van Winkle, '"Then speak, Aeneas, with Achilles' Tongue': Ethopoeia and Elizabethan Boyhood in Marlowe's Dido Queen of Carthage," Theatre Symposium: A Publication of the Southeastern Theatre Conference 23 (2015): 42-51, 45.

(27.) Jonathan P. A. Sell, "A Tragedy of Oversight: Visual Praxis in Christopher Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage", Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England 29 (2016): 130-53, 133.

(28.) Sell, "A Tragedy of Oversight," 139.

(29.) Tom Rutter, "Tamburlaine, Parts One and Two," in Marlowe at 450, 51-70.

(30.) Vanessa Ivette Corredera, "Faces and Figures of Fortune: Astrological Physiognomy in Tamburlaine Part Early Modern Literary Studies 18.1/2 (2015): 1-26, 3.

(31.) Chloe Kathleen Preedy, "Breeches in a Battered Wall: Invasion, Spectatorship and the Early Modern Stage," Cahiers Elisabethains 88 (2015): 65-79.

(32.) Aaron Kunin, "Marlowe's Footstools," in This Distracted Globe: Worldmaking in Early Modern literature, ed. Frank Marcie, Jonathan Goldberg, and Karen Newman (New York: Fordham UP, 2016), 64-78; and Roslyn L. Knutson, "Dramatic Verse and Early Modern Playgoers in Marlowe's Time," Early Modern Drama in Performance: Essays in Honor of Lois Potter, cd. Darlene Farabec, Mark Netzloff, and Bradley D. Ryner (Newark: U of Delaware P, 2015), 11-24, 11.

(33.) Stephen J. Lynch, "The few of Malta" in Marlowe at 450, 101-24.

(34.) Mark Hutchings, "Barabas's Fall," Theatre Notebook 69.1 (2015): 2-16, 14.

(35.) Hutchings, "Barabas's Fall," 14, 11-12.

(36.) Clayton Mackenzie, "Marlowe's The Jew of Malta and the Murderers Pot," Notes and Queries 62.4 (2015): 542-45, 543.

(37.) Mackenzie, "Marlowe's The Jew of Malta, "544.

(38.) Bradley D. Ryner, "The Usurer's Theatrical Body: Rcfiguring Profit in The Jew of Malta and The Blind Beggar of Alexandria," in Farabee et al., Early Modern Drama, 25-34, 25.

(39.) Ryner, "The Usurer's Theatrical Body," 26, 30.

(40.) Vanessa L. Rapatz, "Abigail's Turn in The Jew of Malta? Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 56.2 (2016): 247-64, 247.

(41.) Rapatz, "Abigail's Turn," 253.

(42.) Maurice A. Hunt, "Friendship in Marlowe's Dr. Faustus and The Jew of Malta? Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England 29 (2016): 103-29, 104.

(43.) David Bevington, "Edward II in Performance from the 1980s to the Present," in The Text, The Play, and The Globe: Essays on Literary Influence in Shakespeare's World and His Work in Honor of Charles R. Forker, cd. Joseph Candido (Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2016), 75-94.

(44.) Bevington, "Edward II in Performance," 86.

(45.) Bevington, "Edward II in Performance," 91-92.

(46.) Kristina Mendicino, "Writing Coincidence: Brecht's and Marlowe's History Play," Monatshefte 107.1 (2015): 46-63; and James Wallace, "Marlowe and McKellen on Screen: The Prospect Theatre Company Production of "Edward II 1969-70," Shakespeare Bulletin 33.4 (2015): 595-608.

(47.) Wallace, "Marlowe and McKellen," 606.

(48.) Robert A. 1 x>gan, "Edward II," in Marlowe at 450, 125-44.

(49.) Logan, "Edward II" 137, 128.

(50.) Stephen J. Lynch, ed. "Edward IF': With Related Texts (Indianapolis, IN: Ilackett Publishing, 2015); Mark Hutchings, "Marlowe's 'Greekish Stumpet'," Notes and Queries 62.1 (2015): 66-69; and Brian Vickers, "Marlowe in EdwardII: lander or Borrower?" Candido, The Text, The Play, 43-74.

(51.) Sara Munson Deats, " Doctor Faustus," in Marlowe at 450, 71-100.

(52.) Jakob Ladegaard, "The Comedy of Terrors: Ideology and Comedy in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus," Textual Practice (2015): 179-95.

(53.) Swapan Chakravorty, "Being Staged: Unconcealment through Reading and Performance in Marlowe's DoctorFaustus and Bharata's Natyasastra," Philosophy East and West 66.1 (2016): 40-59, 49.

(54.) Kevin Chovanec, "Faust mit Springerr. On the English Players Returning Faustus to the German-Speaking Lands," Renaissance Drama 44.2 (2016): 125-55, 126.

(55.) Todd A. Borlik, "Hellish Falls: Faustus's Dismemberment, Phaeton's Limbs and Other Renaissance Aviation Disasters--Part I," English Studies 97.3 (2016): 254-276 and "Part 11," English Studies 97.4 (2016): 351-61.

(56.) Borlik, "Hellish Falls," 267.

(57.) Rebecca Lemon, "Scholarly Addiction: Doctor Faustus and the Drama of Devotion," RenaissanceQuarterly 69.3 (2016): 865-98, 866.

(58.) Lemon, "Scholarly Addiction," 868.

(59.) Rebecca Bushnell, "The Ends of Time in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus" in Candido, The Text, The Flag, 23-41, 24.

(60.) Bushnell, "The Ends of Time," 33, 37. Further related publications include Roy Eriksen, "Marlowe's Political Balancing Act: Religion and Translatio Imperii in Doctor Faustus (B)," in The Circulation of Knowledge in Early Modern English Literature, ed. Sophie Chiari (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2015), 107-22; and Carlos A. Matheus Lopez, "About the Devil, Literature and Arbitration," Law and Literature 27.3 (2015): 383-94.

(61.) Leah S. Marcus, "The Massacre at Paris," Marlowe at 450, 145-62; Brian Walsh, "De Facto Pluralism, Toleration, and The Massacre at Paris," in Unsettled Toleration: Religious Difference on the Shakespearean Stage (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2016), 16-38.

(62.) Marcus, "The Massacre at Paris," 28.

(63.) Marcus, "The Massacre at Paris," 37.
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Author:McInnis, David
Publication:Marlowe Studies: An Annual
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jan 1, 2016
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