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The State of Education in Rural Pakistan.

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The Constitution of Pakistan has placed the responsibility for basic education on the State. This obligation is reflected in the principles of policy in Article 37 which declares: The State shall: (a) Promote with special care the educational and economic interests of backward classes or areas. (b) Remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period." Although Article 37 (b) exclusively dealt with removal of illiteracy and provision of free and compulsory secondary education it did not prescribe a time period rather the provision mentioned is within minimum possible period'.

The 18th Amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan has abolished the concurrent list" and gives much more provincial autonomy in education health and several other sectors. Section 9 of the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act inserted a new Article 25a in the Constitution with effect from April 19 2010. It says: Right to education " The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of 5-16 years in such manner as may be determined by law". Through this amendment in the Constitution education has become an enforceable right. The caveat however remains that compulsory education to all children shall be provided as may be determined by law'. Unfortunately there is no law on the subject at the moment. The subordinate legislation has to be enacted by the respective provincial legislatures. So far none of the members of the Provincial Assembly in Pakistan have endeavored to table the necessary legislation.

Despite these caveats and anomalies in the Constitution various governments have over the years formulated an assortment of policies and plans to fulfill the constitutional commitment of providing education to the people and removing inequalities. Success has been limited though with the result that the current state of education in Pakistan is deplorable. Education in Pakistan has suffered from myriad issues as reflected by various educational indicators including low levels of public spending high levels of dropout from the schooling system and more importantly acute gender provincial and regional inequalities.

There is consensus among development economists that equitable access and learning is vital for sustained development. Education inequality in various dimensions results in asymmetrical growth that may relegate the already marginalised population and groups to unending poverty.. One of the important dimensions of inequality is the urban-rural divide. It is estimated that a rural child is 32 percent less likely to go to school than an urban child. The relative disadvantage of the rural areas compared to the urban becomes more discriminating at the secondary level and above. Thus to highlight the major characteristics of schooling in rural Pakistan this chapter presents a situation analysis through indicators of access equality and quality of education. A cohort-wise analysis is carried out to look at the prevailing situation across provinces

There is no dispute that education is critical to economic and social development. The importance of education in improving individual lives in the rural context has also been argued from various perspectives. From a narrow perspective of agricultural improvements basic education improves farmer productivity while from a somewhat broader perspective of rural development it facilitates off-farm employment and the economic development of rural areas.

According to a World Bank research in 18 low-income countries on the relationship between primary education and annual farm output it was concluded that if a farmer had completed four years of elementary education his productivity was on the average 8.7 percent higher than that of a farmer with no education. The report also indicates that in cases where complementary inputs were available the annual output of a farmer who had completed four years of primary schooling was 13.2 percent higher on the average than that of a farmer who had not been to school". The study also shows that education is much more likely to have a positive effect in more progressive modernizing agricultural environments rather than in traditional ones" (Lockheed Jamison and Lau 1980).

Other studies carried out in Korea Malaysia and Thailand indicate that the effects of education on the physical output of farmers are positive statistically significant and quantitatively important" (Jamison and Lau 1982). A meta-analysis of 14 empirical studies found a reasonably clear pattern of a positive relationship between schooling and agricultural productivity (Moock 1994). Thus the direct effect of basic education on agricultural productivity is well documented.

Non-farm sources of income are also important for the rural poor because of the highly seasonal nature of agricultural employment water shortage and droughts. Moreover expansion of off-farm job opportunities is necessary to prevent overcrowding on the land and make possible higher levels of productivity and per capita income.

Studies on returns to investments in education usually come from urban labour market surveys so there is little information on how education affects rural incomes. However a World Bank study in Kenya that calculated rates of return to rural and urban education showed that the impact of education is greater on off-farm income than on farm income (Lanjouw 1999). Lanjouw looked at the heterogeneity of off-farm labour. He found that the probability of employment of salaried workers in rural areas rises as education levels rise though the same is not true for casual non-farm wage employment. Self- employment is most likely for those with some basic education but lower for those who are illiterate. In addition the many youth and adults who migrate to urban areas are much more likely to find productive employment if they have attended school and learned basic skills.

Finally basic education may also help to protect the environment. Rural families with better educated parents and hence fewer children reduce demographic pressure on natural resources and the environment. Educated people can assimilate more information and employ means to protect the environment and better manage resources (World Bank 2000).

STATUS OF SCHOOL ENROLMENT

Access to education is generally gauged with reference to the gross and net enrolment rates based on the relevant age group. Traditionally in Pakistan enrolment rates are calculated on the basis of age group 5-9 years and 10-14 years for primary and secondary levels of education respectively1. Therefore following the tradition these age groups are preferred for documentation of the educational status of rural children in terms of out-of-schooling enrolment in public private or religious institutions Access and equality indicators are derived from Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) surveys while the available physical facilities in rural primary and secondary schools areascertained from Pakistan Education Statistics.

Table 4.1 Educational Status of Rural Children of 5-9 Age Group

###[Column Percentage - 2010-11]

###Pakistan###Punjab###Sindh###Khyber###Balochistan

###Pakhtunkhwa

###Out of School###36.3###28.4###49.9###35.9###55.9

###Enrolled in Public Schools###47.8###48.1###46.6###49.9###43.4

###Enrolled in Private Schools###15.3###22.7###2.7###13.8###0.5

###Enrolled in Religious Schools###0.4###0.6###0.2###0.3###0.1

###Enrolled in Schools Run by NGOs###0.3###0.2###0.5###0.1###0.1

Access to Rural Education

Table 4.1 displays the educational status of rural children for the 5-9 age group. Overall about 36 percent (approximately 10 million) children of the primary age group were out of school in the year 2011. The lowest incidence (28.4 percent approximately 4 million) of out-of-school children is observed in the Punjab province. As expected a relatively dismal picture is evident with reference to out-of-school children in rural Balochistan and in rural Sindh where about half the rural children of primary age were not attending school.

The private school phenomenon also does not exist significantly in rural Sindh and Balochistan. Overall about 15 percent (approximately 4 million) rural children were enrolled in private institutions according to the estimates from household survey (PSLM 2011). The highest (23 percent) prevalence of private school enrolment is observed in Punjab followed by 14 percent in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Moreover the table indicates that less than 1 percent (approximately 200000) rural children in the 5-9 age group were enrolled in religious schools or schools run by non-governmental organisations during the survey year of 2011. The incidence of religious school enrolment is however relatively more pronounced in rural Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces.

The trend in the incidence of out of schooling at primary level is highlighted in Chart 4.1. Overall about 8 percentage point decline is observed in the incidence of out of school children. Highest drop in the incidence of out-of-school children (and thus highest improvement in enrolment) is evident in Punjab with 3.3 percent annualised reduction. The improvement in enrolment is more or less the same in the rural areas of Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces while about 9 percentage point decline (2.2 percent annual decline) in the incidence of out of school children is observed in rural Balochistan.

The phenomenon of private schooling is an increasingly important factor in education in Pakistan particularly at the primary level. Contrary to popular belief private schools are no longer an urban elite phenomenon. They are not only prevalent in rural areas but also are affordable to middle and even low income groups. While the rural-urban gap is enormous and still remains the growth trends showed a marked improvement in rural private schooling.

Chart 4.2 presents the evidence of growth of enrolment during the period 2005-2011 in rural private schools across provinces. Instead of the official statistics regarding enrolment these results are derived from district representative household surveys (PSLMs) and thus provide factual information in terms of demand for private schooling at primary level. The magnitudes clearly distinguish rural Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces with respect to the incidence of enrolment in private schools. Incidentally an annual growth rate of 6 percent in the share of private school enrolment is observed in both provinces during the period 2005-2011. Although the incidence of private school enrolment is minimal in Sindh province the highest (about 9 percent) annual growth is evident from the chart.

Table 4.2 documents the educational status of rural children in the

10-14 age group. Overall about 27 percent (approximately 6 million) rural children of the 10-14 age cohort were not attending school during 2011. The provincial trends are more or less similar to the trends in primary schooling. Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces have a clear edge over rural Sindh and Balochistan in terms of out-of-schooling and enrolment in private institutions.

Table 4.2 Status of Rural Children of 10-14 Age Cohort

###[Column Percentage - 2010-11]

###Pakistan###Punjab###Sindh###Khyber###Balochistan

###Pakhtunkhwa

Out of School###26.8###21.2###38.6###26.7###40.6

Enrolled in Public Schools###52.0###51.6###48.6###58.3###47.3

Enrolled in Private Schools###12.1###17.0###2.3###11.2###0.7

Enrolled in Religious Schools###1.0###1.4###0.3###0.8###0.4

Enrolled in Schools Run by NGOs###0.3###0.2###0.9###0.2###0.1

In Employed Labour Force###7.8###8.6###9.3###2.8###10.9

An important aspect in the 10-14 age group especially in the rural areas is the participation of children in the labour market. About 8 percent (approximately 1.8 million) children of this age group were working in the labour force. Barring Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province the percentage of child labour is 9 to 11 percent across other provinces.

Table 4.3Characteristics of Primary Schools in Rural Areas

###[Percentage of Schools]

###Pakistan###Punjab###Sindh###Khyber###Balochistan

###Pakhtunkhwa

Boundary Wall Exists###62.6###79.3###49.3###68.4###26.9

Building Availability###89.7###98.0###76.0###98.3###91.7

`Pacca' Structure of Schools###82.0###92.2###72.2###87.8###63.3

Satisfactory Building Condition###39.4###56.1###23.7###46.1###13.7

Electricity Availability###37.7###55.1###18.0###47.3###14.3

Drinking Water Availability###66.7###86.7###46.3###63.0###72.8

Latrine Availability###63.8###80.3###52.6###71.6###14.5

The provincial trend in out-of-schooling for the secondary age group is portrayed in Chart 4.3. Overall the ratio of out-of-school children decreased from 32 percent in 2005 to 27 percent in 20011. The least annual improvement was reflected in secondary school enrolment in Balochistan.

Chart 4.4 displays the trend in child labour during the period 2005-2011. It is encouraging that barring Balochistan a declining trend is observed in the percentages of child labour in the 10-14 age cohort. Surprisingly the trend is more distinct in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province with a declining rate of 8 percent per annum. Conversely the province of Balochistan shows about 7 percent growth in child labour during the period.

Table 4.4 Characteristics of Middle and High Schools in Rural Areas

###[Percentage of Schools]

###Pakistan###Punjab###Sindh###Khyber###Balochistan

###Pakhtunkhwa

###Boundary Wall Exists###84.0###91.5###72.3###79.2###58.1

###Building Availability###98.0###99.9###87.5###99.8###99.4

###`Pacca' Structure of Schools###90.0###95.0###84.9###79.7###90.7

###Satisfactory Building Condition###41.6###51.2###22.9###37.6###11.1

###Electricity Availability###78.6###92.6###43.5###74.8###45.4

###Drinking Water Availability###86.4###96.5###64.6###78.1###72.8

###Latrine Availability###87.8###94.7###75.0###88.2###52.6

Gender Disparities in Education

The target of MDG goal 3a is to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015. The Government policy also declares that The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law" (GoP 2009). However in the context of rural Pakistan it seems less likely to achieve the target unless concerted efforts are made. This section briefly describes gender differences in rural Pakistan with reference to enrolment private schooling and child labour.

According to Chart 4.5 which highlights the gender dimension of out- of-school incidence of primary age children the gender disparity in terms of enrolment is quite high in rural Balochistan where about 70 percent girls in the 5-9 age group were not attending school in the year 2011 as against 45 percent boys. Interestingly the magnitude of gender difference in enrolment is almost identical in both rural Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. The lowest difference as expected is observed in rural Punjab. The pertinent information with respect to 10-14 age cohort is displayed in Chart 4.6. It is evident from the chart that except for Punjab province the magnitude of disparity between education of girls and boys is enormously high as compared with the 5-9 age group.

Studies on the private school phenomenon show that private schools are mainly co-educational with a majority of female teachers and have a high percentage of girls' enrolment. Charts 4.7 and 4.8 respectively display gender disparities in private school enrolment for the 5-9 and 10- 14 age cohorts. The gender disparity in the primary age cohort is relatively low as compared to the secondary age group. According to Chart 4.8 gender disparities are significantly high in all provinces except Punjab.

A summary index Gender Parity Index (GPI)" is commonly used to assess gender differences. It is the value of an indicator for girls divided by that for boys. A value of less than one indicates differences in favor of boys whereas a value near one indicates that parity has been more or less achieved. Chart 4.9 and Chart 4.10 are developed to document the prevalence and inter-temporal changes in gender disparities in school enrolment during the period 2005-2011 for the children in primary and secondary age groups respectively.

As expected the highest gender disparity is observed in Balochistan province for school enrolment in the 5-9 age cohort with GPI magnitude of 0.46. Barring Balochistan all provinces show a moderate positive change of about 4 to 6 basis points in GPI during the period of primary schooling. However the value of the index in Balochistan has dropped up to 5 basis points which reveals increasing gender disparity in the province. Similarly gender equality in secondary school enrolment is worsening in Sindh and Balochistan during the period 2005-2011. In contrast a slight improvement in GPI is evident in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces from the Chart 4.10.

Availability of Physical Facilities in Rural Schools

Despite the growing concern about the quality of education its crystallised definition is somewhat difficult to gauge (GoP 2003) largely due to a wide array of stakeholders and consumers along with the complexities of the teaching-learning process which needs to be continuously unfolded. Most people view quality of education as the learning outcomes of students which is the primary concern of all stakeholders. However quality education output cannot be expected without quality inputs.

According to a report prepared for the Ministry of Education Government of Pakistan in collaboration with UNESCO (GoP 2003) a general picture of inputs in rural schools can be portrayed as under:

Facilities in primary schools are very poor.Nearly 1/6th of the primary schools are shelter-less. The schools with buildings have insufficient accommodation - 2 rooms and a veranda. Students mostly sit on mats/tat.

Per school average number of teachers is 2.35. In mosque schools the average number of teachers is 1.3 per school. Textbooks for teachers: Never provided. Teaching Kit: Supplied in mid seventies. Never updated or repaired. Copy of curriculum: Never provided. Resource Materials: Never provided. Community support at the lowest

Due to data constraints in terms of various indicators of quality inputs this section only describes the available physical facilities in rural schools which is the most important pillar of quality input to education. These statistics are collated from the Pakistan Education Statistics 2010- 11. However the report categorically says that the data regarding the physical facilities is only available at public sector education institutions2. School buildings drinking water boundary walls electricity and toilets for students are considered basic facilities.

Tables 4.3 and 4.4 summarise the extent of available facilities across provinces for primary and secondary (including middle) levels of education respectively. Enormous differences exist across provinces in terms of facilities especially with respect to electricity drinking water and availability of latrines.

Overall electricity is available in only 37 percent primary schools

while 60 percent primary schools operate in the unsatisfactory condition of buildings. About 10 percent primary schools in rural areas have no building whereas about 30 percent run without boundary walls.

The situation in middle and high schools is however comparatively better. Electricity and drinking water are available in 78 and 86 percent schools respectively. About 90 percent school buildings have pacca' structure while about 41 percent secondary school buildings are in satisfactory conditions.

CONSTRAINTS IN SCHOOL PARTICIPATION

Table 4.5 documents the reasons for not attending school. Interestingly the results show significant differences in respondents' opinions among provinces. For instance education is considered costly only by 7 and 6 percent of respondents in Sindh and Balochistan provinces whereas the corresponding percentages are 17 and 16 for Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces.

Overall about 26 percent children were out of school due to economic reasons while about 32 percent girls were not attending schools due to parents' refusal to send them to schools. The highest percentage that recorded culture constraints regarding girls' schooling belong to Balochistan followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Supply side constraints which include distance to school shortage of teachers and school quality in terms of physical facilities are reported by about 20 percent respondents. Another important reason child not willing' is

Table 4.5 Major Reasons for not Sending Children to School in Rural Pakistan

###[Age Cohort 5-14 Years]

###Pakistan###Punjab###Sindh###Khyber###Balochistan

###Pakhtunkhwa

###Economic Reasons

###Education is Costly###13.0###17.2###7.1###15.7###6.1

###Helping in Work###10.9###10.4###11.4###7.9###16.3

###Employed/Working###2.4###2.7###2.8###0.7###2.8

###Child Specific Reasons

###Minor###12.5###12.9###8.7###17.0###13.8

###Ill/incapacitated###2.8###4.0###1.5###3.2###0.6

###Subjective Reasons

###Not Useful###3.9###2.2###5.6###4.5###6.2

###Parents do not permit - Boys###6.1###7.2###4.4###7.8###3.4

###Parents do not permit Girls###31.6###30.7###28.7###33.5###40.0

###Supply Side Reasons

###School is too far###13.3###16.0###10.3###11.1###13.5

###Shortage of Teachers###3.4###0.9###8.0###3.0###2.4

###Substandard School###2.5###1.0###5.3###2.6###1.3

###Child not Willing###29.2###27.9###35.2###23.5###28.2

mentioned by about 29 percent respondents. This category is also included in supply side constraints as it reflects the failure of the education system in attracting children perhaps due to deficiencies in quality.

Poverty and Education

While the contraction of resources for education constitutes a supply-side constraint poverty constitutes a demand-side constraint. It is therefore important to examine the contribution of poverty in restricting school enrolment. This section highlights this relationship in terms of income/consumption quintiles and household poverty status3.

Chart 4.11 shows a progressive increase in rural primary school enrolment rates with the increase in consumption level. Overall about 26 percentage point increase in the enrolment rate is evident as one moves forward from lowest to the highest quintile. The chart also reveals that the lowest-to-highest quintile difference in the enrolment ratio is sharper for girls as compared with boys.

Enrolment information with respect to household poverty status is portrayed in Chart 4.12. Overall the enrolment rate in non-poor households is 75 percent as compared with 53 in poor households. About 10 to 11 percentage point difference between poor and non-poor households is evident in boys' and girls' enrolment rates. Chart 4.13 plots poverty incidence and enrolment rate of the 5-14 age cohort across Agro- Climatic Zones of rural Pakistan. An understandable relationship between poverty incidence and enrolment rate is visible in the chart. The estimated magnitude of correlation coefficient is -0.85 which confirms statistically significant negative correlation between poverty and enrolment rate.

Factors Affecting School Participation

A multivariate analysis is carried out by estimating logistic regression function for school participation of 5-14 age cohort children. All potential correlates of school participation are included in the logistic function to assess the probability and marginal effect on the household decision to

Table 4.6 Determinants of School Participation by Rural Population of 5-14 Age Cohort [Logistic Regression - Dependent Variable

###Enrolled=1 Out of School=0]

###Estimated###Marginal

###Coefficients###P-value###Effect

Girls Participation###-1.26###0.00###-28.85

Family Size###-0.03###0.00###-0.59

Female Headship###0.52###0.00###9.34

Education Level of Head of Household###0.10###0.00###1.47

Education Level of Spouse###0.15###0.00###2.60

Head Occupation NONFARM###-0.15###0.00###-2.82

Head Occupation Share Cropper (Tenant)###-0.26###0.00###-4.79

House Ownership###0.22###0.00###3.52

RCC Roofing###0.27###0.00###4.78

`Pucca' Wall Structure###0.20###0.00###3.53

Household Asset Score###0.14###0.00###1.48

Livestock Ownership###0.05###0.02###0.82

Time to Reach Public Transport

(Proxy of Remoteness)###-0.03###0.00###-0.64

Time to Reach Primary School###-0.27###0.00###-5.73

Time to Reach Middle School###-0.06###0.00###-1.08

Agro Climatic Zone 4 Districts of South Punjab###-0.53###0.00###-9.89

Agro Climatic Zone 3 Districts of South Punjab###-0.54###0.00###-10.15

Sindh###-1.03###0.00###-21.20

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa###-0.35###0.00###-6.57

Balochistan###-0.95###0.00###-19.09

Intercept [Constant]###1.16###0.00

Model Summary:

###-2 Log likelihood###90500

###Cox and Snell R-Square###0.249

###Nagelkerke R-Square###0.339

Percentage of Correct Prediction:

###Participating###84.3

###Not Participating###58.2

###Overall###74.6

enrol in school. The logistic function incorporates head of household and spouse characteristics besides pertinent demographic social economic and locational factors. The summary statistics of the logistic regression indicate a good-fit of the model with a high percentage (75 percent) of correct predictions and expected signs of all coefficients associated with variables. Table 4.6 displays estimated coefficients level of significance and marginal effect with respect to probability to enrol. Model summary statistics are also provided in the table.

An important finding of this study is the significant role of female headed households in the decision to send children to school. The variable of female headship appears statistically significant with large marginal effect. Similarly spouse education level is more effective than head of household in influencing decision to enrol. All variables of household wealth (house ownership RCC roofing Pacca' wall structure household asset scores and livestock ownership) are statistically significant with high marginal effect on probability to enrol. Among these the impact of RCC roofing is relatively substantial.

The supply side constraints are represented by distance to primary and middle school while time to reach public transport' is used as a proxy for village remoteness. All these proxies are negatively correlated with the enrolment decision. The large negative marginal effect is associated with the variable Time to reach Primary School'.

To capture the provincial and regional differences in terms of population and level of rural development locational (province and South Punjab agro-zones) dummy variables are incorporated in the model. All these appeared significant with signs according to a priori expectation. The negative coefficients with high marginal effect of rural Sind and Balochistan with reference to Punjab confirm the descriptive information presented above. Similarly variables representing districts of south Punjab which have relatively high percentage of poverty incidence are showing large negative impact on the probability for school enrolment.

To compare the relative importance of demand and supply constraints an effort is also made to assess probability and marginal effect of a combination of variables. Chart 4.14 displays these estimates. The probability associated with household wealth (Wealth) which is a combination of five variables is estimated at 91 percent or 0.91 with a marginal effect of 9.5. In contrast supply constraints (Distance) which is represented by three variables have a probability of 0.65 (65 percent) with marginal effect of -12.5. Education levels of both head and spouse have a combined marginal effect of 6.4 percent with a probability of 0.84 (84 percent). From the logistic regression results the probability and marginal effect of boys and girls to enroll in school are also estimated.

According to Chart 4.15 the probability of girls to enrol is significantly less than that of boys with a negative marginal effect of -8.2 percent. An interesting exercise is also carried out from the logistic regression analysis to estimate the marginal effect of distance to primary school in terms of time to reach on the probability to enrol. For this purpose an additional logistic model is estimated by incorporating separate dummy variables for different categories of time to reach school. Chart 4.16 reports the impact of distance on school participation with respect to these categories. The chart clearly shows a cut-off point of half an hour' from where the negative marginal effect on probability to enroll commences. The highest marginal effect of 11.3 percent is observed in the category of less than 15 minutes followed by the category of 15-29 minutes with marginal effect of 4.6 percent.

ADULT LITERACY IN RURAL PAKISTAN

According to UNDP (2013) Pakistan has been placed at the 146th position out of 187 countries in terms of the Human Development Index with overall adult literacy rate of 54.9. Over the years several non-formal literacy programmes were launched but these suffered from lack of political commitment adequate financial support weak implementation structures and absence of effective supervision and monitoring. The National Education Policy (GoP 2009) also developed a set of policy actions to improve literacy rates in the country (Box 4.3) but these are

Box 4.3 A Wish-List to Improve Literacy Rate

The National Education Policy (2009) specifically addressed literacy and developed a set of the following policy actions to improve literacy rates in the country.

Government shall develop a national literacy curriculum and identify the instructional material and professional development programmes to support the curriculum. The curriculum shall be objective driven so as to facilitate assimilation of trainees into mainstream economic activity.

Government shall develop and enforce minimum quality standards for organisations involved in literacy in the form of literacy certification and accreditation regime. The literacy providers shall be required to offer the literacy programmes according to specified standards.

A system shall be developed to mainstream the students in non-formal programmes between the ages of 11 and 16 into the public education system and a system of equivalence shall be developed to permit such mainstreaming. New literates shall receive formal certification so as to facilitate their entry into government schools.

Linkages of non-formal education with industry and internship programmes shall be developed to enhance the economic benefits of participation.

Horizontal linkages between schools and vocational/skills training centres shall be established.

Government schools shall initiate non-formal education stream for child labourers.

Children involved in various jobs or work shall be brought within the ambit of nonformal education system with need-based schedules and timings.

Special literacy skills programmes shall target older child labourers boys and girls (14 to 17 years). Special educational stipends shall be introduced to rehabilitate child labourers.

Arrangements shall be made to use school buildings for adult literacy after school hours.

Government shall develop guidelines for post-programme initiatives. Regular followup shall be made a part of the literacy programmes.

just ideas and even now need the attention and political will of provincial and federal governments to reach fruition.

Table 4.7 documents the adult (15 plus age cohort) literacy rates for rural Pakistan while the growth in literacy during the period 2005-2011 is portrayed in Chart 4.16. According to the table literacy rates in rural Pakistan are 45 percent for the overall rural population with 60 percent for males and 46 percent for females. The trend across provinces is more or less similar to the pattern in school enrolment. Rural Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have a clear edge over rural Sindh and Balochistan in terms of overall and gender literacy rates. Highest (37 percent) female literacy rate is observed in rural Punjab whereas only 9 percent females are literate in rural Balochistan.

According to Chart 4.16 about 2 percent annual growth in adult literacy rate is documented during the period 2005-11. Incidentally highest (2.6 percent) annual growth is observed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province followed by Punjab with a magnitude of 2.3 percent. In rural

Sindh and Balochistan growth of 1.5 percent per annum is recorded.

Table 4.7 Adult Literacy Rate in Rural Areas [2010-11]

###[15 plus age Cohort]

###Overall###Male###Female

###Pakistan###44.9###60.0###29.9

###Punjab###48.7###60.9###36.7

###Sindh###38.6###48.0###17.2

###Khyber Pakhtunkhwa###42.5###62.4###23.8

###Balochistan###30.2###49.2###9.0

NOTES:

1. However more recently official statistical sources have also started reporting enrolment rates using the age group 6-10 years for primary school enrolments. Although this age group has also been suggested by the National Education Policy (GoP 2009) the Policy has not yet been owned and implemented by any provincial government.

2. In Pakistan there is a marked distinction between facilities in public and private schools as well as in schools in urban and rural areas. While government schools in urban areas are better equipped than those in rural areas private schools have better provision of facilities than public schools.

3. The enrolment rates are estimated from PSLM 2010-11. However the PSLM does not collect income of consumption information. By combining consumption information from HIES 2011 data and applying Small Areas Estimation Technique predicted consumption is estimated for the PSLM data set. Thus this section provides evidence of relationship between school enrolment and predicted consumption and predicted poverty status. For methodological detail see Jamal (2013).
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Publication:Annual Review Social Development in Pakistan
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Dec 31, 2013
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