Printer Friendly

The Spectrum of Biopsy-Proven Glomerular Disease in China: A Systematic Review.

Byline: Yue. Yang, Zheng. Zhang, Li. Zhuo, Da-Peng. Chen, Wen-Ge. Li

Background: Chronic kidney disease has become a leading public health concern in China, as it is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs. However, the overall situation regarding common glomerular diseases in China remains unclear. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the national profile of the common types of glomerulonephritis in China. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, and Wanfang databases for English and Chinese language articles from inception to September 2017. We also collected potentially relevant studies and reviews using a manual search. The following words in combinations are as keywords: 'renal biopsy', 'kidney pathological diagnosis', and 'spectrum of pathological types'. Results: We identified 23 studies involving 176,355 patients from 15 provinces/cities in China. The detection rates of primary glomerulonephritis (PGN) and secondary glomerulonephritis (SGN) were 0.740 and 0.221, respectively. Over the past 30 years, the top five types of PGN were immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN; 24.3%), mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN; 10.5%), membranous nephropathy (MN; 12.6%), minimal change disease (MCD; 9.8%), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS; 4.6%), and the top four types of SGN were lupus nephritis (LN; 8.6%), Henoch-Schonlein purpura glomerulonephritis (4.1%), hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN; 2.6%), and diabetic nephropathy (DN; 1.6%). The proportion of MN, MCD, HBV-GN, and DN tended to increase, while those of IgAN, MsPGN, FSGS, and LN tended to drop. Conclusions: Although the incidence of SGN is increasing gradually, PGN is still the leading form of kidney disease in patients undergoing renal biopsies in China. IgAN and LN are the most common types of PGN and SGN, respectively. Differences between regions are related to various factors such as nationality, environment, and diet. Furthermore, unified standards and norms for evaluating renal biopsies are urgently needed.

Introduction

In recent years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a leading public health concern in China and other countries,[1] as it is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. The overall prevalence of CKD in China ranges from 10.8% to 13%.[2] Despite numerous studies, there are no early diagnostic markers for CKD.[3] The renal biopsy is still the golden diagnostic criterion for nephropathy.

The first renal biopsies in China were performed in the 1980s. Now, they are performed widely in tertiary hospitals.[4],[5] Some hospitals have reported on the spectrum of pathological types seen in renal biopsies, but the overall situation regarding the common types of glomerular disease in China remains unclear. The distribution of the spectrum of glomerular disease varies temporally and geographically and in different ethnic groups.[6] Few studies have systematically investigated the spectrum of primary glomerulonephritis (PGN) and secondary glomerulonephritis (SGN) in China when stratified by geographic region and time period. Therefore, this study was focused on the detection rate of different types of glomerulonephritis and aimed to assess the national profile of the common types of PGN and SGN in China.

Methods

This systematic review followed the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions,[7] and the report complies with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines.[8] The protocol and registration information are available at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/(CRD 42017082724).

Search strategy

We performed a systematic electronic search of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, SinoMed (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang databases from their inceptions through September 2017.

All articles written in either Chinese or English containing any word regarding pathological types of renal biopsy were identified; the following words in combinations are as keywords: 'renal biopsy,' 'kidney pathological diagnosis,' and 'spectrum of pathological types.' After completing the electronic database search, we performed a manual search of professional journals and thesis.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Studies that met the following inclusion criteria were included in the review: (1) renal biopsy performed in a hospital located in China; (2) more than 1000 cases were reported in the study; (3) the total cases of renal biopsy, PGN, and SGN were reported or could be calculated; and (4) detection rates of various types of glomerular diseases were reported or could be calculated.

Studies were rejected for the following reasons: (1) inclusion of data from other countries or regions and (2) limits placed on age or gender.

Record selection and data extraction

Two authors (Yang Y and Zhang Z) performed the initial search independently, deleted duplicate records, screened the titles and abstracts for relevance, and identified records as included, excluded, or uncertain. In the case of uncertainty, a third researcher (Zhuo L) was responsible for examining the data and discussing the findings with the other two. Studies were included only when all three researchers reached a consensus.

Data were extracted by Yang Y and confirmed independently by two other authors (Zhang Z and Zhuo L). We also sought supplementary appendices of the included studies or contacted the corresponding authors to verify the extracted data and request any missing data. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion with the coauthors. The predefined outcomes were the detection rates of the top five types of PGN and top four types of SGN and their proportion trends.

Results

Basic information regarding the studies included

The electronic and manual searches identified 2027 potentially relevant papers. After browsing the titles and abstracts, we selected 421 papers. After reading the entire texts of these 421 papers, we excluded 398 papers and included 23 papers,[4],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30] with a total of 176,355 patients from 15 different provinces/cities in China. According to the geographical and administrative divisions, we divide our country into five regions: north, east, south, west, and central China, at least two studies were included in each region. In east and south China, the economically developed regions, more than 130,000 cases were enrolled, and even in west China, there are still more than 10,000 cases. The process of paper inclusion is shown in [Supplementary Figure 1 [SUPPORTING:1]], and the detailed information on the studies is summarized in [Table 1].{Table 1}

Detection rate of the main primary glomerulonephritis in China

The detection rate of PGN to renal biopsy patients in China was based on 22 studies [4],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29] involving 170,420 cases. The detection rate of PGN was 0.740 (126,031 cases).

IgA nephropathy (IgAN, 24.3%), mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN, 10.5%), membranous nephropathy (MN, 12.6%), minimal change disease (MCD, 9.8%), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, 4.6%) were the most common pathological types. Pathological data were also analyzed with different regions of China [Table 2].{Table 2}

Detection rate of the main secondary glomerulonephritis in China

The detection rate of SGN to renal biopsy patients in China was based on 23 studies [4],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30] involving 176,355 cases. The detection rate of SGN was 0.221 (38,979 cases).

Lupus nephritis (LN, 8.6%), Henoch-Schonlein purpura glomerulonephritis (HSP-GN, 4.1%), hepatitis B virus-associated nephritis (HBV-GN, 2.6%), and diabetic nephropathy (DN, 1.6%) were the most common pathological types. Pathological data were also analyzed with different regions of China [Table 3].{Table 3}

Trends in frequency of the most common glomerulopathies in China

To observe the changing trend of disease spectrum of renal biopsy, we set three periods: before 2000 (period 1), 2001-2010 (period 2), and after 2010 (period 3).

The trends of PGN proportion were based on 16 studies [4],[5],[9],[12],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[21],[22],[23],[25],[26],[28] involving 55,014 cases. The proportion of IgAN, MsPGN, and FSGS tended to drop, that is, 36.7% versus 28.3%, 33.7% versus 14.1%, and 7.0% versus 2.1% during period 1 and period 3, respectively [Figure 1]. The proportion of MN and MCD tended to rise, that is, 8.2% versus 16.3% and 1.4% versus 16.4% during period 1 and period 3, respectively [Figure 1].{Figure 1}

The trends of SGN proportion were based on 16 studies [4],[5],[9],[12],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[22],[23],[25],[26],[28],[30] involving 10,243 cases. The proportion of LN tended to drop, that is, 53.1% versus 23.9% during period 1 and period 3 [Figure 2]. The proportion of HBV-GN and DN tended to rise, that is, 2.7% versus 12.4% and 6.2% versus 18.8% during period 1 and period 3, respectively [Figure 2].{Figure 2}

Discussion

This systematic review identified 23 studies involving more than 170,000 patients from 15 provinces/cities in China. The detection rates of PGN and SGN in all renal biopsies were 0.740 and 0.221, respectively. PGN is still the leading kidney disease in patients undergoing renal biopsies in China, although the detection rate of PGN has decreased gradually, while the incidence of SGN has increased. The top five types of PGN were IgAN, MsPGN, MN, MCD, and FSGS and the top four types of SGN were LN, HSP-GN, HBV-GN, and DN.

IgAN may be the most common type of PGN worldwide. While the detection rate in Africa was <5%,[31] it was 17.8-22.0% in America,[32],[33] 26-37% in Europe,[34],[35] and up to 30-40% in Asia.[36],[37] In countries in East Asia, the detection rate of MsPGN in a broad sense (IgAN and non-IgA MsPGN) can exceed 50%.[36],[37] Obviously, ethnic and genetic factors play important roles. The prevalence of IgAN and MsPGN has decreased in the recent decades. The main reasons for this may be that other types of PGN, such as MN, have increased and PGN is being diagnosed more accurately, while MsPGN tended to be misdiagnosed in the past.

MN was the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in middle age, whereas MCD was the most common histological diagnosis among younger patients. The detection rate of MN was about 20% in Brazil [38] and Italy [35] and 10% in the USA.[32] In Asia, MN was not as common in the past, but its incidence is increasing.[6],[29],[36] The presence of unidentified environmental factors, such as PM2.5, may increase the risk of MN.[29]

In recent years, the incidence of FSGS has tended to increase in the USA [39] and Brazil,[40] but it dropped in our study. The area-varying distribution of FSGS might be related to race and environmental factors.[39]

LN is the most common SGN worldwide, comprising 45.5-66.2% of all SGN.[31],[32],[34],[38] Our data showed a nonsignificant tendency for a decrease in the detection rate by decade. With advances in clinical medicine and technology, more autoimmune diseases are being identified and diagnosed, which may explain the trend in LN.

The prevalence of DN increased significantly after 2010. It is SGN caused by diabetes mellitus and is one of the most common diabetic complications. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased rapidly in recent decades, and it has become a global public health problem. Diabetes is the leading cause of CKD in developed countries, whereas glomerulonephritis has been identified as the predominant cause of CKD in developing countries. Zhang et al [41] was the first to report that CKD was more frequently associated with diabetes than glomerulonephritis in China, in both the general population and a hospitalized urban population. DN will likely play a more important role in the spectrum of SGN in China in the coming decades.

This present study also had limitations. Due to the high heterogeneity, the existing data are not suitable for meta-analysis. The inter-regional and regional differences and heterogeneity may be related to many factors. The reasons for the differences between regions are complex and may involve nationality, population mobility, economic conditions, education, environment, diet, and other factors. Second, there are significant differences in renal biopsy indications between regions; in some areas, it is considered only in patients with nephrotic syndrome and normal renal function. This will undoubtedly lead to heterogeneity in the spectrum of renal biopsy between hospitals. Third, the production and staining process of kidney sections and the diagnostic accuracy of pathologist differ across regions. In some underdeveloped areas, this is still a long way to go. Clinicians and pathologists in different provinces and cities require standardized training and the uniform guidelines are needed urgently.

In summary, although decreasing gradually, IgAN and MsPGN are still the most common types of PGN in patients undergoing renal biopsies in China, whereas LN is still the top SGN. The detection rates of MN, MCD, and DN are tending to increase, while that of FSGS is dropping. Differences between regions are related to various factors. Unified standards for assessing renal biopsies are urgently needed.

Supplementary information is linked to the online version of the paper on the Chinese Medical Journal website.

Financial support and sponsorship

This work was supported by Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China (No. 2013BAI02B04 and No. 2015BAI12B06).

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1. Bello AK, Nwankwo E, El Nahas AM. Prevention of chronic kidney disease: A global challenge. Kidney Int Suppl 2005;68:S11-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.09802.x.

2. Zhang L, Wang F, Wang L, Wang W, Liu B, Liu J, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China: A cross-sectional survey. Lancet 2012;379:815-22. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60033-6.

3. Nickolas TL, Barasch J, Devarajan P. Biomarkers in acute and chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2008;17:127-32. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0b013e3282f4e525.

4. Zhang X, Liu S, Tang L, Wu J, Chen P, Yin Z, et al. Analysis of pathological data of renal biopsy at one single center in China from 1987 to 2012. Chin Med J 2014;127:1715-20. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.20132765.

5. Chen H, Zeng C, Hu W, Wang Q, Yu Y, Yao X, et al . Analysis of 10594 renal biopsy data (in Chinese). J Nephrol Dialy Transplant 2000;9:501-9.

6. Woo KT, Chan CM, Mooi CY, -L-Choong H, Tan HK, Foo M, et al. The changing pattern of primary glomerulonephritis in Singapore and other countries over the past 3 decades. Clin Nephrol 2010;74:372-83.

7. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The Cochrane Collaboration; 2011. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/handbook. [Last accessed on 2017 Nov 11].

8. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG; PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. BMJ 2009;339:b2535. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b2535.

9. Li Y, Ye B. Clinical and pathological analysis of 1171 cases of renal biopsy (in Chinese). J Hangzhou Med Coll 2003;24:236-7.

10. Li LS, Liu ZH. Epidemiologic data of renal diseases from a single unit in China: Analysis based on 13,519 renal biopsies. Kidney Int 2004;66:920-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00837.x.

11. Wang S, Zhou Z, Wang G, Chen B, Wei L, Xia X, et al . Clinical epidemiology of renal diseases in Jiangxi based on pathology data (in Chinese). Acta Acad Med Jiangxi 2005;45:119-22.

12. Du J, Wang H, Yu Y, Lian Y, Chen W, Zhang J, et al . Analysis of clinical pathological data of 1542 cases of renal biopsy (in Chinese). J Fourth Mil Med Univ 2006;27:1599-602.

13. Li Y, Wang Y, Li X, Yao L, Feng J, Ma J, et al . Analysis of 1259 renal biopsy data in Liaoning area (in Chinese). China J Mod Med 2006;16:2830-3.

14. Liu X, Kong Y, Gan N, Cai M, Ye P. Summary and analysis with 1245 cases of renal biopsy data (in Chinese). Mod Prev Med 2009;36:2997-9.

15. Xu Y, Tang D, Liu H, Lin H, Lang D, Huang Z. Clinicopathological analysis on 1672 biopsies of glomerular diseases (in Chinese). J Guangdong Med Coll 2009;27:377-9.

16. Liao B. Analysis on Clinicopathological Data of 3035 Cases Undergoing Renal Biopsy (in Chinese). Guangxi Medical University; 2010.

17. Zhang L, Liu Y, Guo M. Clinicopathological analysis on 1200 patients with kidney disease by renal biopsy through skin in North district (in Chinese). J Xinxiang Med Coll 2010;27:391-4.

18. Li J, Sun L, Sun Z, Wang B, Bai L, Zhao Z. Analysis of 1042 cases renal biopsy in Dalian area (in Chinese). J Dalian Med Univ 2011;33:492-4.

19. Du M. Analysis the Pathologicalfeatures and Clinical in 1148 Cases Underwent Renal Biopsy (in Chinese). Dissertation, Xinjiang Medical University; 2011.

20. Shang Y, Yin A. Analysis on clinical pathological data of 5000 cases undergoing renal biopsy in a hospital in Xi'an (in Chinese). Chin J Prev Control Chron Dis 2011;19:289-91.

21. Shi S. The Pathological Types and Epidemiology Analysis in 36379 Chinese Glomerular Disease Patients (in Chinese). Dissertation, Fujian Medical University; 2012.

22. Wu G, Xing G, Quan S, Zhou Y, Liu Z. Analysis of 6995 cases of renal biopsy (in Chinese). Chin J Pract Intern Med 2013;33:728-30.

23. Luo J. Analysis of 1224 renal biopsy data (in Chinese). Int J Urol Nephrol 2013;33:739-42.

24. Wei Z, Liu L, Li X, Sun L, Fu W. Renal needle biopsy: Analysis of 1071 cases (in Chinese). Med J Qilu 2013;28:49-52.

25. Liu D, Zhang M. Pathological analysis of 1594 cases with renal biopsy (in Chinese). China Foreign Med Treat 2014;33:169-70.

26. Sun Y, Mu Z, Gao Y, Liang Y, Xun L, Wang X, et al . Pathological analysis of 1363 cases of renal biopsy (in Chinese). Shaanxi Med J 2014;43:1413-5.

27. Yang Z, Zhang Y, Sun Y, Liu S. Data analysis 4382 cases of renal biopsy pathological (in Chinese). Chin J Lab Diagn 2015;19:1557-60.

28. Li Q, Wang J, Sun J, Li L. Clinical and pathological analysis of 1217 percutaneous renal biopsy (in Chinese). Anhui Med J 2016;37:74-6.

29. Xu X, Wang G, Chen N, Lu T, Nie S, Xu G, et al. Long-term exposure to air pollution and increased risk of membranous nephropathy in China. J Am Soc Nephrol 2016;27:3739-46. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2016010093.

30. Wang P, Tang L, Yao J, Su H, Liu Y, Kong X, et al. The spectrum of biopsy-proven secondary glomerular diseases: A cross-sectional study in China. Clin Nephrol 2017;88:270-6. doi: 10.5414/CN109115.

31. Okpechi IG, Ameh OI, Bello AK, Ronco P, Swanepoel CR, Kengne AP, et al. Epidemiology of histologically proven glomerulonephritis in Africa: A Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2016;11:e0152203. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152203.

32. Swaminathan S, Leung N, Lager DJ, Melton LJ 3rd, Bergstralh EJ, Rohlinger A, et al. Changing incidence of glomerular disease in Olmsted county, Minnesota: A 30-year renal biopsy study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;1:483-7. doi: 10.2215/CJN.00710805.

33. Malafronte P, Mastroianni-Kirsztajn G, Betonico GN, Romao JE Jr., Alves MA, Carvalho MF, et al. Paulista registry of glomerulonephritis: 5-year data report. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006;21:3098-105. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfl237.

34. Schena FP. Survey of the Italian registry of renal biopsies. Frequency of the renal diseases for 7 consecutive years. The Italian group of renal immunopathology. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997;12:418-26.

35. Stratta P, Segoloni GP, Canavese C, Sandri L, Mazzucco G, Roccatello D, et al. Incidence of biopsy-proven primary glomerulonephritis in an Italian province. Am J Kidney Dis 1996;27:631-9.

36. Woo KT, Chan CM, Chin YM, Choong HL, Tan HK, Foo M, et al. Global evolutionary trend of the prevalence of primary glomerulonephritis over the past three decades. Nephron Clin Pract 2010;116:c337-46. doi: 10.1159/000319594.

37. Nationwide and long-term survey of primary glomerulonephritis in Japan as observed in 1,850 biopsied cases. Research group on progressive chronic renal disease. Nephron 1999;82:205-13. doi: 10.1159/000045404.

38. Polito MG, de Moura LA, Kirsztajn GM. An overview on frequency of renal biopsy diagnosis in Brazil: Clinical and pathological patterns based on 9,617 native kidney biopsies. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010;25:490-6. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfp355.

39. Braden GL, Mulhern JG, O'Shea MH, Nash SV, Ucci AA Jr., Germain MJ, et al. Changing incidence of glomerular diseases in adults. Am J Kidney Dis 2000;35:878-83.

40. Bahiense-Oliveira M, Saldanha LB, Mota EL, Penna DO, Barros RT, Romao-Junior JE, et al. Primary glomerular diseases in Brazil (1979-1999): Is the frequency of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis increasing? Clin Nephrol 2004;61:90-7.

41. Zhang L, Long J, Jiang W, Shi Y, He X, Zhou Z, et al. Trends in chronic kidney disease in China. N Engl J Med 2016;375:905-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1602469.
COPYRIGHT 2018 Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Review Article
Author:Yang, Yue; Zhang, Zheng; Zhuo, Li; Chen, Da-Peng; Li, Wen-Ge
Publication:Chinese Medical Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Mar 18, 2018
Words:3522
Previous Article:Imaging Gliomas with Nanoparticle-Labeled Stem Cells.
Next Article:Aberrant Functional Connectivity Patterns of Default Mode Network May Play a Key Role in the Interaction between Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and...
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |