The Romanian crown domain--six decades of existence.
The period of the monarchy (1866-1947) (Constantiniu, 1997; Damean, 2000; Scurtu, 2001; Mamina, 2004) represents a very important period in the historical evolution of Romania. This fact is proven by the transformations during this period and in all the aspects: political, economic, social, demographical, administrative and cultural. This historical age was marked by the personalities of the kings: Carol I (1866-1914), Ferdinand I (1914-19127), Carol II (1930-1940) and Michael I (1927-1930; 1940 1947). The four kings, who succeeded to the throne left their mark, each in their own way, on the evolution of the entire Romanian state and society.
The reign of Carol I (1866-1914) is the most important because during this time the achievements from Romania were truthfully impressive: the institution and the international recognition of the constitutional hereditary monarchy regime, the gaining of the Independence, the proclamation of the Romanian Kingdom, the consolidation of Romania's position in Europe and its appreciation as an equilibrium factor in the Balkan area, the assurance of an internal political stability after the alternation to the governing of the liberals and conservatives, the remarkable progress registered for the modernization.
However, there were still moments when the King Carol I had to face the contradictory opinions of the different political and social categories, but also of the European powers with certain occasions: his arriving in Romania after the removing of A. I. Cuza, the proclamation of the Romanian Kingdom and of Carol as King (14th/26th of March 1881)--fact that generated vehement discussions inside and outside the country -, accepting in 1884 of the twelve agricultural estates offered by the Crown etc.
After the proclamation of the Romanian Kingdom, many political figures proposed, taking into consideration the new status of the country, to create a Crown Domain, made from estates that belonged to the state, which the King should administrate according to his desire. This Domain was supposed to have a status fundamentally different from the other royal properties, having the right to usufruct. This act was initiated with the purpose to establish a tighter connection between the Dynasty and the Romanians, the monarch belonging, along with the dwellers from this country, to the new life that included the agricultural aspect.
In 1884, at the proposal of the liberal Prime Minister, Ion C. Bratianu, was created a royal patrimony, made of 12 estates, from different areas of the country, on a surface of 118.286 ha (Mitu, 2008: 123) that had to supply the Crown with the necessary means for a dignifying position of the state and to create a tight connection between the King and the country, especially with the villagers. Despite the numerous protests from the opposition, the law establishing the scope of the Crown was voted on 10th/22nd of June 1884 (Hamangiu, 1907: 729-730).
According to this law, the estates from Sadova and Segarcea, (Dolj county), Rucetu (Braila county), Cocioc (Ilfov county), Gherghita (Prahova county), Domnita (Ramnicu-Sarat county), Dobrovat (Vaslui county), Malini, Borca, Sabaca--Farcaca (Suceava county), Bicaz (Neamt county) and Bucteni, with the mountains Clabucetul Taurului and Caraiman (Prahova county) constituted the Crown Domain. These rural immobile possessions were declared inalienable and imprescriptible, couldn't be sold, changed, given, mortgaged or subjected to any other usage than that already established. They also didn't pay taxes to the state but they paid the county and the communal taxes. The contracts and the papers referring to their administration granted, also, the tax-exemption in all the situations. The Decree from the 14th of November 1934 brought supplementary specifications, showing the fact that the law must be interpreted regarding the fact that the Crown Domain properties, regardless the way they are exploited, is not imposed any tax, under any name, to the state, public institutions, different ministries etc. if the laws that led to the creation of a tax or a duty didn't refer to the specific disposition that the Crown Domain should be subjected to that or those taxes. The Crown Domain could be taxed only by the county or commune but only regarding the agricultural areas and the buildings (Mitu, 2011a: 42). In 1940, through a decree-law from 14th of October (Mitu, 2011a: 42) all the exemptions and the reductions on the subject of taxes, duties and any contributions given to the members of the Royal Family, the Royal House and the Crown Domain. The personal real estates and those put into use, the mobile goods, any kind of income, the papers and the juridical facts had been subjected to the same fiscal regime as those of the private persons. Tax-exempted was also the civil list of the King Michael I and endowment of the Queen-mother Helen. The dispositions from this decree-law had been abrogated through the Law no. 45 from 1945 (Mitu, 2011a: 42). Through the decision no. 232 from 10th of March 1948, with retroactive effect, starting from the 1st of January 1948, were permanently abolished the laws that provisioned the exemptions or the reductions of taxes by which the members of the former Royal Family benefited, the goods that once constituted the Crown Domain being subjected to the fiscal regime that was referring to the state's possessions (Mitu, 2011a: 44).
The actions of organization and modernization had been realized under the guidance and the careful supervision of the six administrators: Ion Kalinderu (26th of December 1884-11th of December 1913); Barbu Stirbey (21st of December 1913-9th December 1919); Nicolae Micu (9th of December 1919-15th of May 1920), General Ernest O. Baliff (15th of May 1920-13th of February 1941), General Alexandru Manolescu (15th of February 1941-11th of July 1942); Dimitrie D. Negel (22nd of July 1942-30th of December 1947) (Mitu, 2011b: 303). The headquarters of the institution was established in Bucharest being managed by a general administrator. The exterior service was divided in 11 districts, each managed by a chief agronomist or sylviculturist, directly subordinated to the central administrator. The entire activity was structured on three sections: sylviculture, agriculture and accountancy. To the attribution of the fist two were designated the forest planning, meaning the making of agricultural exploitation and the control of the staff from the exterior service. The staff was appointed by addresses by the general Administrator and no decisions were taken without his consultation or accept (Mitu, 2011b: 303-304).
Noted by King Carol I, since 1872, when he was administrator of the State's Domains and Forests, Ioan Kalinderu was appointed, in 1884, at the leadership of the Crown's Domain institutions, function that he filled till the end of his life (1913). This was the period when he managed to fully compensate the attention and the trust that the king showed for him, becoming a conscience influencing agent, image creator and an instrument in making the people loyal to the king and the dynasty. Besides, he considered "this mission as the most complete and honourable work of his life" (Mitu, 2011c: 117).
In agreement with the King, he elaborated a workings plan that would lead to the transformation of the twelve estates of the domain, in models for the Romanian rural world. For this, as an evidence, there are the numerous leaflets addressed to the superiors of the administrations, addresses that prove the clarity of his way of thinking, the profound knowledge of the people and of the dwellers, but also his philanthropic spirit. "I always searched and I shall further search, that the progresses that had been achieved after the introduced reforms, to pass beyond the boundaries of the Crown's Domains, so that in such a way, the successful interpenetration of the measures taken after our initiative, to leave an impression in a circle as wide as possible" (Mitu, 2011c: 117-118).
A special attention was given both to the collaboration between the administrations superiors and the employed personnel and dwellers: "The Crown Domain Administration mustn't serve as a model only through the more systematic agricultural and forestry exploitations, through the improvements brought to the population from these Domains, both in material and moral way, but also as regarding the staff" (Mitu, 2011c: 120).
A special merit, that should be recorded, is represented by the registration at the Economy House or at its offices, of the office workers from the Crown Domain. This measure extended, starting with July the 1st 1893 to the inferior personnel also. On April 1st 1900, all the employees of the Crown Domain Administration were constituted in a society called Societate de pensii si ajutor mutual (Society of pensions and mutual help), under the presidency of the Administrator. Starting with 1903, the workers hired on the agricultural machines and those used in the forestry exploitations, had been insured against the working accidents (Mitu, 2011b: 306).
For the modernization must be mentioned that there had been made efforts in order to fit out the administrations with modern buildings for the employees, they embellished the villagers' households by giving them fruit and ornamental trees for free, they repaired and built schools, churches and health centers in all the administrations etc. In the first 16 years, were built: 37 houses for the personnel of the administration, 20 dwelling places for the workshops' superiors, 10 workshops (smithy, charts-workroom, rope-workroom, chimney-workroom), 14 stables, 16 stalls for cattle and a poultry raising house at Peric, a sheepfold Dobrovat, 3 pigsties at Dobrovat, Peric and Gherghita, 18 grain storehouses for a volume of 175.000 hectolitres, 43 corn storehouse, with a capacity of 2.800-4.500 hectolitres each, 12 sheds for the agricultural machinery, model houses and stables for the peasants, with vegetables gardens. All these investments cost The Crown Domain Administration 6.500.000 francs (Mitu, 2011c: 118).
Also, the creation of a new image of the Romanian village constituted the central objective of Ioan Kalinderu's managing system. The model peasants' houses, equipped with the necessary annexes: stable, shed, storehouse, barn, pigsty and hen house, surrounded by a small plantation, should have represented a model for the dwellers. With the help of the Administration, these houses were to replace the insalubrious small-cottages, dark and not spacious that generally formed the landscape of the Romanian village. At his request, the gardens, the parks, the alleys from around the administration's houses, the ward's houses but also the peasants' households, were decorated with fruit trees and roses or ornamental trees.
As regarding the aspects that concern the organization, the manpower and the exploitation of the Crown Domains, we must evidence the efforts of the leadership, along with the employed specialists, to practise modern farming, by the alternation of crops, use of the mechanized devices, industrial processing of the agricultural and forest products, the registering of the domains in the commercial circuit etc., in order to be an example for all the farmers from the neighbouring areas.
The improved agricultural machinery were brought, most of them, from countries such Germany, France, England, USA: Sakou Eckert ploughs, John Fawler mechanic ploughs, screening machines, Drill sowing machines, mowing machines, reaping machines, Ruston & Clayton threshing machines, ventilators, hay tossing machines etc. In 1905, the agricultural inventory of the Crown Domain of 1.245.820 lei included: 5 mechanic ploughs, 333 ploughs, 9 vineyard ploughs, 19 threshing machines, 139 sowing machines (41 through spreading, 96 in rows, one for the experimental field, one for beetroot), 69 reaping machines, 150 clod crushers (2 made of iron), 29 mowing machines, 23 mechanic rakes (one American), 19 screening machines (6 for the wheat's treatment with copper sulphate), 66 mechanic hoeing machines, 278 iron harrows, 12 iron beataxes, 31 winnowing machines, 14 forage choppers (1 for straws, 3 for hay), almost 11 corn threshing machines, 12 wheat threshing machines, 16 machines for chopping the beetroot, 3 machines for extracting the potatoes, 3 hay tossing machines, 16 elevators, 9 locomotives, 3 spins for selecting the seeds, 12 pulverizers for the vineyard, a systematic wine press, a wine press, 2 crushing machines, a circular sow, a crane, 8 pumps for cars, 6 pumps for fires, 225 charts, 6 wagons, 21 trucks, 4 carriages, 20 sledges (Mitu, 2011a: 64).
Although the mechanic work was extending more an more, the animals working wasn't removed. Under these circumstances, noble breed animals were brought, some especially for working and others for milk and meat. Once with the founding of the farms, the villagers had the possibility to improve the animal breeds from their own households, having at their disposal, freely, the sires on the domain but also information regarding the optimal life and food conditions.
The growing of the agricultural production, through the improvement of the cultivated plants' structure and their alternation on the land, according to the nature of the soil and the climatic conditions, represented another objective of Ioan Kalinderu's managing system. Following the model of the neighbouring states, he organized experimental fields, on which new types, breeds and varieties of cereals and fodder plants were created, in order to adapt easily to the climatic conditions of the region and have been introduced chemical and animal fertilizers, last of them being also available to the peasants. He introduced new plants, such as: flax, hemp, beetroot, potato etc. He gave much attention to the culture subordinate to the agriculture: vine, fruit trees, sericulture, and apiculture. He also encouraged and supported the development of the household industries: dairy producing, rope making, pottery, but also the organization of some mechanics workshops, smithy, well making, cooperage, straws, willow, club rush weaving etc (Mitu, 2011c: 119).
The profitability of the exploitations of the Crown Domain during the period 1884-1914 emerges from the following table (The National Central Historical Archives Service, file: 39/1911, f. 12; 40/1912, f. 1; 42/1914, f. 3):
No. The Cashing Expenses % from Incomes crt. years expenses 1 1884 379769.93 23852 6 355917.93 2 1885 937191.39 144260.97 15 729930.42 3 1886 902798.97 216765.37 24 686033.6 4 1887 1030773.82 289216.72 28 741557.1 5 1888 1107573.55 268627.62 24 838945.93 6 1889 1220080 338140.34 27 881939.66 7 1890 1329761.98 390848.75 29 938913.23 8 1891 1304491.72 327895.06 25 976596.66 9 1892 1275493.75 406914.68 33 868579.07 10 1893 1390670.91 510594.5 37 880076.41 11 1894 1160263.22 496428.8 43 663834.42 12 1895 1543251.17 493952.3 32 1049298.87 13 1896 1844700.91 593404.64 32 1251296.27 14 1897 1350290.41 593186.29 44 757104.12 15 1898 1469581.99 498644.67 34 970937.32 16 1899 977821.23 638806.93 65 339014.3 17 1900 1172106.45 285331.37 24.34 886775.03 18 1901 1240371.29 538840 43.45 701531.29 19 1902 1841244.43 572550.65 31.09 1268693.78 20 1903 1411623.95 586909.93 41.59 824714.02 21 1904 1137037.61 484000 35.33 653037.56 22 1905 1573074.61 415000 26.38 1158074.61 23 1906 1366897.67 672993.96 49.23 693903.71 24 1907 1740093.76 721000 41.43 1019093.76 25 1908 1207081.11 700000 57.99 507081.11 26 1909 1645944.55 130000 7.89 1515944.55 27 1910 2137877.12 272535.65 12.74 1865341.47 28 1911 2783979.08 139566 5 2644413.08 29 1912 1768487.55 228368.25 12.91 1540116.3 30 1914 -- -- -- 975075.8 Total 40250331.08 11978635.45 887.37 29183771.38
According to the table above, the exploitation of the Crown Domain brought substantial Royalty income. The King Charles I himself, acknowledged in his will, the significant contribution of these domains in the increasing wealth of the Royal family: "Through a good standing and severe in household expenditure, without aid, many smaller required from all sides, my wealth grew from year to year; the domain of the Crown revenues contributed, in particular, at the increase, thanks to a very good administration and provision of Mr. Kalinderu, who worshiped with a boundless devotion, at this institution, so useful for the whole country" (Mitu, 2010a: 148).
An important role was played by the Crown Domain Administration in assuring the necessary conditions for the growth of the socio-cultural level for the villagers, as schools, churches and libraries building, providing the schools with publications and the necessary didactic material, work-shops and theatres. In each village were organized courses, were delivered lectures, were commemorated through a festivity the great moments or the historical personalities, were organized campaigns for gathering folklore, proverbs, sayings, old adages, were built museums and cultural societies (Mitu, 2011b: 313-316).
The school and parish libraries, those from the cultural societies ones and those of the administrations houses had been endowed with a great number of books--didactic books, literature, history, science, practical works--and magazines whose number was increasing each year, through the acquisition of new books and magazines. Therefore, the subjects were diverse and for all the categories of readers. Preponderant, were the compilations that appeared under the aegis of "The Popular Library of the Crown Domain Administration". They had been realized at the call of Ioan Kalinderu, in simple and common terms. Very many of them were also in the houses of the peasants, to whom were distributed on free.
In 1884, on the Crown Domains, existed 18 schools that functioned, most of them, in rented rural houses, built of half timber walls or entirely of timber. After the implication of the Administration leaded by Ioan Kalinderu, in 1908/1909, their number raised to 42 buildings, among which only three schools functioned in rented houses. The rest of 39 schools benefited by their own places, according to the last pedagogical norms: large rooms, well illuminated and properly endowed (Mitu, 2011c: 121). He also took some measures regarding the introduction of gymnastics and military exercises in schools, the creation of school choirs, he encouraged the students to participate to the completion of a proverbs compilation, whose author was to participate to the Orientalists Congress in Rome, he got the people involved in money collecting for the building of monuments in the memory of some personalities such Ion Creanga, V. Alecsandri.
On the expense of the Administration, have been founded school museums and cultural societies, creating proper functioning conditions, placing at their disposal the edifices and the necessary furniture. The heating, the maintenance of the buildings and the books, that constituted the library, were also under the care of the Administration. During 1899-1910, had been constructed on the crown's domains 11 popular banks with 5.642 members, with a subscribed share capital of 721.890,88 lei and a paid up share capital of 801.727,37 lei, 5 consumption societies, 3 societies for the purchasing and selling of products, 4 societies for the vegetables culture, 9 purchasing societies (Mitu, 2011c: 122).
He gave consistent amounts of money for the remaking and the construction of new churches, mayoralties and other institutions. Observing, during his monthly visits on the Crown's Domains, the lack of people from the Sunday and Holiday services, Ioan Kalinderu appealed to the teachers and to the personalities of the communities ,,asking them to take part at the services and, through their example, to attract as many children as possible and also dwellers.
Becoming advantageous, the Domains' Administration, through the benevolence of the sovereigns, annually offered money, products and timber to the people in need, scholarships for the poor pupils and students. Once with the end of the First World War, the Domain got involved in creating places for the invalid people, for the children orphan after the war and other charities. From the Crown Domain's funds was created the Institute for the study of history from the Superior Dacia University.
The Central Administration fought intensively against the immorality and misery, considered in all the respects, heading sometimes to pedantism.
The agrarian reform from 1921 led to a reduction of the agricultural surface of about 46.400 hectares of agricultural field designated for the appropriation of the dwellers (Mitu, 2011a: 162). The diminishing of the agricultural areas, including the number of estates, imposed the reorganization of the administrations: the Domain Domnita was entirely expropriated; the Domains Borca with Sabaca and Farcaca and also Cocioc with Gherghita were administratively joined. The Union from 1918 led to the entering in the Crown Domain of a new estate from Basarabia, the Domain Romanecti (Orhei county) (The National Central Historical Archives Service, file: 1884/1885: f. 3-4; 1939: f. 105; 1073/1944: f. 76). In the period before the War this estate belonged to the Russian royal family.
The economical crisis from 1929-1933 and the Second World War (19391945) negatively affected the activity on these estates. At the mountain administrations, where the main activity was the forestry exploitation, was registered a stagnation of the works and a great decrease in the sailing of the timber. The administrations from the field area registered reductions on the cultivated surfaces and in production.
Starting with 1934, the effects of the crisis had been attenuated and then liquidated by the ever increasing request of agricultural and forestry products, after the growth of the prices on the internal and external market. During 1934-1939 were registered requests for export, especially for the viticultural products and timber.
In 1938 were sent from the Segarcea Administration 14.000 bottles of Bordeaux wine in Switzerland, 55.300 bottles in Indies, 7.500 bottles in Argentina (S.A.N.I.C., file 268/F.D.: f. 23.). Requests for wine were registered in Warsaw, Poland for the preparing of vinegar.
For timber were registered requests from Albania, Iraq but also from the Society BELROM S.A.R., as a representative of the concern Samac--Luxemburg New York, announcing that it was willing to take in 1939, from the entire production of timber from Valea Bistritei and the region Falticeni of the Crown Domain, a quantity of almost 30.000 [m.sup.3] of semi-finished and planed timber (Mitu, 2011a: 164-165). The export was made only in trans-ocean countries, in the Eastern Asia, in Africa, in North, Central and South America and Australia.
The breaking out of the Second World War led to a new decrease of the activity. This is due to the fact that men were sent to the battle-front, were requisitioned materials and animals for the war needs, but was also due to the plunders and destructions caused by the Soviet, German and even Romanian armies. The losing of the Domain Romanecti in 1945 meant the first step to the dismembering of the Crown Domain. Once the power was seized by the communist regime, the imminent disappearance of the Domain emerged. After the forced abdication of King Michael, on December 30th 1947, the Crown Domain became the state's property.
The efforts made for the organization, modernization and the increase of productivity, were successful at the national and international exhibitions, to which this institution attended.
A great success the Crown Domain registered in 1906, at the Jubilee Exhibition from Bucharest, where there were commemorated 1.800 years from the arriving of the first colonists in the Romanian territories, 40 years of reign under Carol I and 25 years from the proclamation of the Romanian Kingdom (Mitu, 2010a: 149). At this exhibition, the Domain showed to the visitors all the products obtained in all the administrations, from agricultural and forestry products to the industry items. Ion Kalinderu was awarded a special prize, representing a silver vase with allegorical figures, exquisitely made. This prize was offered by the king himself "to the most remarkable farmer" (Mitu, 2010a: 151). Exposing the motifs for which the Crown Domains were awarded this special prize, Dr. C. Istrati, said: "The Crown Domains are for a long time a good example for the entire country, having an important influence on the activity of our great landowners. All that was done there was due to a serious thinking, had been studied and applied before on a large scale, only after it had been experienced on a smaller scale" and continued, referring to the industry that was developing in the perimeter of the Administrations: "A good result was that regarding the industry and especially the industry that works with the products from agriculture and particularly during the winter's months, by our villagers" (Mitu, 2010a: 153).
The exhibit was closed on November 23rd, in the presence of Queen Elisabeth and the princely couple, Ferdinand and Mary. In the speech that Ion Lahovary delivered, the mentioned all the objectives and the purposes of the organizers: "We desired to show to the foreigners and to the Romanians that what Romania once had been and what is today, after 40 years of glorious reign of the King Carol I ... we wanted that the foreigners to know and that the Romanians to know themselves better, to know that between the Danube and the Carpathians leaves, grows and becomes stronger a hardworking, brave and peaceful people, leaded by a patriot and wise king" (Mitu, 2010a: 153).
Mentions regarding the exhibitions organized during the period 1906-1918 aren't any, although we don't doubt about their existence, the archive of the Crown Domain being destroyed during the First World War (1916-19180).
The union of Basarabia with Romania from 1918, extended the possibility to participate at the exhibitions organized in the Romanian province from over the Prut. Thus, when such an event was organized at Chicinau, on August the 5th 1925, the Segarcea Crown Domain, recognized especially for the wines produced there, answered positively to the invitation to participate with agricultural, forestry, viticultutal and animal products (Mitu, 2010a: 153).
On the international plan, a first important success was registered by the Administration at the Paris exhibition from 1900. This success is evidenced by the great number of prizes obtained: a great prize awarded to the administrator Ion Kalinderu for the entire activity in the service of the Crown Domain, two golden medals, 5 silver medals, one bronze medal and three mentions (Ollanescu, 1901a: 442-444, 447; Vlad, 2001a: 174). For the period between the wars we have more information regarding the presence of the Crown Domain at the universal exhibitions. We mention here the exhibition from 1925 organized at Lemberg, Ukraine, that from 1929 in Warsaw where there had been exhibited three different types of wines, grapes and other fresh or conserved fruit. In 1935, with the celebration of the Belgian state of 100 years from the inauguration of the first continental railway and 50 years from the creation of the independent state of Congo, took place the universal the exhibition from Brussels (Holland). the exhibition lasted 194 days, housing the stands of 8.930 exhibitors from all continents countries. the presents at this exhibition was under the patronage of King Carol II, initiative due to the Committee led by Ion Manolescu Strunga, the Minister of the Industry and Commerce. In the pavilion there had been organized section for agriculture, transportations, textile products and ancient, religious and rural art. We find the Crown Domain at the agrarian section, exposing different samples, along with the Institute of agronomic researches, The State Farm Zorleni, Jean Camaracescu, The Viticulture School from Chisinau etc. The exhibition was marked by the artistic dimension. The awarding ceremony of the participants to the exhibition, organized on October 15th 1935, offered to Romania 97 rewards, placing it on the 15 th place (Vlad, 2001b: 101; Mitu, 2010b: 234-235).
The exhibition from U.S.A. in 1938 was the last exhibition at which the Crown Domain took part. Its presence was facilitated by the election of the first president of the American confederate nations. It was called one of the most grandiose exhibitions in the entire history, having 44 million visitors. It took place at Flushing Meadows--Corona Park, in two seasons, 1939-1940, and named "Building the World of Tomorrow" (Mitu, 2010b: 235).
Among the exhibiters from New York, there was also the Administration of the Segarcea Crown Domain, with the new presentation of wines. The range of wines exposed here were the noble ones, internationally recognized. The total number of wine bottles that went to America was 15.240. Besides wine, there were sent 400 bottles of brandy and 200 bottles of sterilized grapes juice (Mitu, 2010b: 235). These drinks could be tasted and bought from the restaurant-pavilion.
All these exhibitions offered the opportunity for our products, obtained in the thirteen administrations, to be recognized and appreciated. Thanks to this possibility of promotion, many requests had been registered for our wines and wood products, the proof being the contracts concluded with different foreign societies.
An institution that struggled with the poverty, an important factor in the education and the culture of the villages through rational methods and activity, the Crown Domain constituted an example of what can be achieved, in a short time, in a country that was obliged to make large steps on the development ladder.
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Received: April 25 2014
Accepted: June 16 2014
Narcisa Maria Mitu, 3rd deg. Scientific Researcher, PhD ,,C.S. Nicolaescu-Plopcor" Institute of Socio-Human Researches, Craiova, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Paper|
|Author:||Mitu, Narcisa Maria|
|Publication:||Revista de Stiinte Politice|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2014|
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