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The Role of International Legal Norms in the Fight Against Extremism and Terrorism in the Caucasus Countries.

At the present time, one of the global problems of the mankind, which requires the immediate search for rational ways to solve, are extremism and terrorism. The high social danger of extremism and terrorism is connected, first of all, with the fact that these crimes encroach on the most important and natural human right--the right to life.

Before proceeding to consider this problem from a regional prism, its correlation and content should be revealed. Extremism is illegal activity, as a result of which the fundamentals of the constitutional order, life and health of citizens of both one country and several countries, including the world community as a whole, are harmed or may be harmed. (1)

At the same time, extremism is a whole practice and the theory of achieving certain goals in various spheres--religious, social, national, political, etc., but using prohibited methods such as violence, encroachment on human rights and freedoms, aggression. One of the characteristics of extremism is its implementation not just in relation to a particular person, but just committing it in relation to a person as a representative of a particular national or religious group.

As for terrorism, as early as in 1937 the League of Nations defined the terrorist act in the Convention on the Prevention and Suppression of Terrorism as criminal acts against the state in order to arouse fear among certain people or group of people, but subsequently the Convention did not take effect (Convention on the Prevention and Suppression of Terrorism). (2)

In 1993, at the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, the essence of terrorism was revealed as 'activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy, threatening the territorial integrity and security of states and destabilizing legitimate governments'. (3)

Moreover, each terrorist act has its own goal, its methods of implementation, and the goals are mostly political ones, although there are also known cases of terrorism for religious, national and other claims, but whatever the goal of terror, one fact remains unchanged, in most cases, harm is inflicted on the ordinary people, citizens.

The concept of extremism should be viewed as a broader concept than terrorism, since terrorism is a form of manifestation of extremism, and is an extreme form of its manifestation.

The negative political phenomena considered by us did not bypass the Caucasian region too. Speaking about terrorism in the Caucasus, it is possible to mention the acts of terrorism that the peoples of the North Caucasus suffered in the 1990s, and namely since 1991, it was possible to observe the frequent use of terrorism as a form of achieving the set goals, which leads to destabilization of the situation in the region.

Among the terrorist acts in this region is the act in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, where eight terrorist acts were committed, in which 516 people died, more than 980 people were injured. The next terrorist act was committed on September 9, 2010 near Vladikavkaz Central Market, where 17 people were killed and more than 150 were injured of varying severity.

Despite the fact that according to the studies conducted by Global Terrorism Database--which is an open-source data base including information on terrorist events around the world from 1970 through 2016, the countries of the South Caucasus are among the countries with the lowest influence of terrorism, and among 163 countries which were surveyed, Georgia ranked 87th, Azerbaijan in 106th place, Armenia is in the 108th place, and Turkey is in the 14th place (the highest impact of terrorism), the situation in this region is relatively restless. (4)

Actions committed by the State of Armenia against the Republic of Azerbaijan should be considered as violent acts of extremism and terrorism in the region under consideration.

Unfortunately, the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia which are known to be the South Caucasian states, which began in 1988 in connection with Armenia's territorial claims against Azerbaijan known to the entire international community remains unresolved to date.

As a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, which is the largest conflict in the Caucasus, Azerbaijan suffered great losses. More than 20 percent of the territory of the republic was occupied, about one million people were forced to live as refugees and internally displaced persons, more than 18,000 Azerbaijanis were killed, more than 20,000 were injured, over 50,000 became disabled, more than 4,000 industrial and agricultural enterprises, 660 schools and kindergartens, 250 hospitals and medical institutions, 724 towns, villages and settlements were robbed, burnt and destroyed.

Historical facts show that Armenians had not lived in Azerbaijan until the XIX century. The settlement of the Armenians in the Azerbaijani lands always served the political interests of the Russian Empire. The events happened in the XIX century in all Eastern Europe, including Russia (Russia-Turkey, Russia-Iran wars) led to the weakening of the position of the northern neighbour of Azerbaijan in the region. Russia was also deeply concerned about the existence of a Muslim and a Turkish country on its southern border, and so began to think about realization the idea of settling the Armenians in the northern Azerbaijan.

Finally, in 1988, the Armenians already begun to implement openly hostile policies against Azerbaijan. The conflict stirred up by the killing of two Azerbaijanis in Karabakh, the further destruction of Topkhana forest, and then continuing in the aspect of military operations once revealed again how serious the problem was. Conflict began to aggravate from day to day. In 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR made a decision on the integration of Nagorno-Karabakh to that country without any legal basis. The Armenians had already shifted the tactics of fight into the military aggression, and in this sense, mass protests in Azerbaijan were not able to change the direction of development of processes.

Undoubtedly, just the support of outside forces played a bigger role in the implementation of the aggressive policy of the Armenians. In this sense, the efforts of the USSR leadership at that time were particularly striking. The operations of the Soviet Army in Baku in 1990 confirmed this once again. Soviet soldiers' bullets suppressed the rallies held in protest against the annexation of Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia. During this military action, hundreds of Azerbaijanis were killed and about a thousand people were missing. A state of emergency was declared in the city for several months. All of this was aimed at breaking the heroic determination of the Azerbaijani people, undermining its ideas of freedom and contributing to the process of Karabakh annexation to Armenia.

After the January 20 tragedy that took place in 1990, the activity of the Armenian military units on the frontline increased a little. The villages and regions that were occupied one after the other proved that Karabakh was lost inch by inch.

Since 1992, the geography of the military operations carried out by the Armenian armed forces in the territory of Azerbaijan expanded and the regions of the republic were occupied one after the other.

On February 26, 1992, the Armenian armed forces committed the Khojaly genocide (5). It is important to note specially the role of the 366th regiment in this genocide. Urgent removing the 366th regiment from Khankendi is also evidence of the involvement of this regiment in Khojaly events. Immorality of commanding officers of the military unit reached such a point that they were unable to ensure the release of the regiment as they supposedly met with the resistance of the population. To this end, forces of landing division located in Ganja had to be involved. However, until these forces came, 103 people of the regiment, mostly Armenian soldiers who participated in the massacre deviated from obeying the command and remained in Karabakh. As a result of criminal bargain of the regiment commanders and irresponsibility of other persons responsible for the release of the regiment, a part of the military equipment, including armoured vehicles, was handed over to Armenians. This regiment repeatedly participated in the firing of Shusha and Khojaly, villages of Azerbaijan.

Armenian armed gangs and the members of the staff of the 366th motorized regiment participated in the firing of the settlements of Azerbaijan are the main criminals of vandalism committed in the Khojaly.

The actions of the Armenians and their mercenary assistants who participated in the Khojaly genocide are the brutal violation of human rights, impudent neglecting of international legal acts, the Geneva Convention, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Military Conflicts.

Six hundred thirteen Azerbaijanis were killed in this terrorist operation with the support of Russia's 366th Motorized Regiment. Among those killed during the Khojaly tragedy, 63 were children and 106 were women; 487 people were crippled, 1275 were captured, and most of them were elderly, women and children, 8 families were completely destroyed. Khojaly was engraved in history as one of the most striking example of centuries-old hostility of Armenians against Azerbaijanis. But it must be acknowledged that the authorities of that time also had great moral and political responsibility at occurring of this tragedy.

In May 1992 Armenian invaders occupied Shusha. With the occupation of Shusha, almost entire Upper Karabakh was under Armenian control. Taking into account the geostrategic significance of the town, this event was the biggest defeat of Azerbaijan since the beginning of the Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Shusha was in such a position that it was possible to defend it even with little force. However, the unrest and anarchy in Azerbaijan, the lack of control of the armed forces from a single centre, and the absence of a regular army were one of the main factors that stimulated this defeat. Shusha was also known as one of the ancient cultural centres of Azerbaijan. Its loss also shattered the spirit of the moral and psychological struggle of the people.

The scale of the military operations by the Armenian invaders expanded after the occupation of this town, and only a few days later, on May 17-18, enemies occupied Lachin located between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan.

Occupation of Lachin was a serious stroke to Azerbaijan for a number of important reasons. The first point is that the occupation of the region showed that the war was beyond the borders of Nagorno-Karabakh. This fact confirms that Armenia's occupation policy serves not only the right of self-determination of Nagorno-Karabakh Armenians, but also to the great Armenian mythology. We note that Armenians claimed that their goals in the initial phase of the military operation were the liberation of Nagorno-Karabakh only. Occupation of Lachin showed that these allegations were not based on any logic and that Armenia's aggressive intentions had wider borders.

The second important point was pure military-strategic issues. The point was that after the capture of Lachin, the Armenians had the opportunity to support directly Nagorno-Karabakh. Lachin begun to play the role of communication corridor between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh, occupied by Armenians. Through this corridor Armenian armed units were provided with ammunition and food. Thus, this region became a very important tool for the Armenians to come to a higher position in the war. However, the fact that the war went beyond the borders of Nagorno-Karabakh did not lead to the active intervention of the international community in the processes. On the contrary, Azerbaijan still had to observe the indifference of the world community.

In April 1993 Kalbajar was occupied outside Nagorno-Karabakh. Following the occupation of Kalbajar, the United Nations Security Council adopted its first resolution on the Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. However, the measures envisaged in this resolution remain unfulfilled till present.

In October 1993 Armenians occupied the Zangilan region of Azerbaijan and this was the last occupation operation of the Armenian army in the frontline.

In that year, the rapid leave of military construction in Azerbaijan frustrated the desire of the other side to continue the aggression plans, and in May 1994 the Armenian leader had to agree to sign a cease-fire agreement. Let us note that earlier the proposals on stopping the fire were on the agenda, but Armenians did not want agree by no means.

But stopping the fire did not mean the end of the war. The acquisition of ceasefire allowed Azerbaijan to simply collect and build its forces, and in a very short time it was possible to create social and political stability in the country and eliminate economic trembling.

The Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh conflict still remains an urgent issue in the life of the South Caucasus. In fact, this is entirely natural. The ruins of conflict remaining in the background of the significant changes in the region negatively affect the overall situation, as well as play a crucial role in the relationships of the interests of the states here.

The issue has been getting international importance for several years, leaving the regional dimension. However, forces that have a real impact on the process (both from influential international organizations and from separate states) do not want to use concrete pressure mechanisms to achieve a single solution to the problem. Of course, it is important to take into account the impact of various factors here, but in any case the conflict must be solved, and there is only one way out: international law norms.

The interesting fact is that Armenia is a member of the OSCE since January 30,1992, UN member state since March 2,1992, and member of the Council of Europe since January 25, 2001. Moreover, Armenia ratified several the most important international documents on human rights, as well as the conventions directed on fight against terrorism without obeying them at the same time. These include: Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Reveal, Seizure and Confiscation of Income from Criminal Activity and Terrorism Financing 2008, European Convention on Terrorism Suppression 1978, International Convention for Fight against Bomb Terrorism 2001, International Convention on Fight against Terrorism Financing 2002.

Except for Armenia, which is a participant of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, the countries of the region (bordering on Azerbaijan-Turkey, Iran, Georgia), leading states of the world (USA, France, permanent and non-permanent members of the UN Security Council) recognize the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan. Therefore, currently the lands occupied by Armenia are an integral part of Azerbaijan in terms of international law.

After the escalation of the conflict on April 2-5, 2017 the Armenian Defence Ministry announced a list of those killed and their burial places. There is no even a single name of the residents of Nagorno-Karabakh. From here, it can be concluded that every participant in the occupation troops in that area is a mercenary.

Armenia, which has been occupying Nagorno-Karabakh and its surrounding regions for 23 years, uses mercenaries and other means to create illegal military units and terrorist groups in these territories. According to the latest information, Armenia is currently locating the PKK, one of the world's most dangerous terrorist organizations, in the occupied Azerbaijani territories.

The head of the International Association for the Baseless Armenian Claims Goksel Gulbey, who spread information about it, informed that, according to the latest information, the PKK has 12 training camps and 1750 terrorists in Karabakh. According to him, Armenia accepts Afghans and PKK members as mercenaries: "Up to 400 PKK members have arrived in Armenia from Syria for support. They are mercenaries.

It is already long known that Armenians create mercenaries, illegal military units and terrorist groups in Nagorno-Karabakh. The world community is well aware also that the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh has become a virtually uncontrolled space. The Armenian government realizes all its dirty acts in these lands. Mercenaries are being brought in Nagorno Karabakh from different countries, Syria, Lebanon and other places, by means of ASALA terrorist organization. Founded in 1975, the headquarters of the organization is in Beirut, and the training bases are located in Syria. The aim of the organization is to build 'Great Armenia' on the territories of Eastern Turkey, Northern Iran and Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. ASALA is carrying out terrorist acts mainly against Turkish and Azerbaijani citizens. One of the key figures in the collaboration with the terrorist group, such as Abu Nidal, Black September, was the leader of ASALA, Akop Akopyan. A. Akopyan, who took responsibility for the death of the Turkish ambassador in Athens in the 1980, said in an interview with The New York Times on 01.08.1980: 'Our enemy is the Turkish regime, NATO and Armenians who do not cooperate with us.' In April 1980, ASALA reached an agreement with the PKK to hold joint terrorist attacks and formalized these intentions in Lebanon. In a statement issued in Beirut on 28.08.1993, ASALA said it would not allow realization of the project associated with the 'pan Turkish oil pipeline' (Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan).

Today, Armenians in uncontrolled Nagorno-Karabakh and seven adjacent territories have concentrated illegal ammunition. Today, occupied territories are actually becoming a base for the preparation of terrorist groups. Terrorists trained there spread to the whole world, including some European countries. At the same time, drug trafficking is also carried out in these areas.

Formation of a terrorist centre in Nagorno-Karabakh by Armenians is a problem not only of Azerbaijan but also of the whole region, as the weight of the current situation has already surpassed the point touching Azerbaijan. From this point of view, the elimination of uncontrolled areas and fair settlement of the conflicts only can lead to the solution of the problem and eliminate the realizing danger. It would be naive to argue that the root of the problem would be cut in these lands if the conflict seats were not removed, resolved.

No terrorist act had ever taken place between the Georgian and Azeri peoples in Transcaucasia before Armenia started its path of separatism.

There was no terrorist organization in Azerbaijan and Georgia either before the revolution, or after the revolution, but there are numerous Armenian terror organizations operating in different parts of the world and carried out bloody actions. These are (6):

Armenakan Party: was founded in 1885. This party, engaged in armed clashes and terrorist acts in the Van, Mush, Bitlis, Trabzon regions and Istanbul, was cooperating with the Armenians living in Iran and Russia.

The Hnchak Party: was founded in 1887 in Geneva. The main purpose of the organization is to create the 'Greater Armenia' state by uniting the Anatolian region of Turkey; the territories called 'Russian' and 'Iranian' Armenia. It is indicated in Paragraph 4 of the Party's program: 'In order to achieve the objective, propaganda, agitation, terrorism and the creation of a destructive organization must be chosen.'

Dashnaksutyun--the Armenian Federative Revolution Party, was founded in 1890 in Tiflis. The main purpose is to establish the 'Greater Armenia' state in the territories of Nagorno-Karabakh, Nakhchivan and Turkey's Anatolia. Dashnaktsutyun, which held its first congress in Tiflis in 1892, issued a resolution to organize the assassination of the Turks. Just after this congress Dashnaksutyun commanded 'Kill Turks, Kurds everywhere, in martial arts, kill the Armenian traitors, revenge!' There are a number of terrorist groups created by the Dashnaktsutyun party: The Revengers of the Armenian Genocide group, which started functioning in 1973, killed Turkish diplomats in Austria, Denmark and Portugal in 198082; the secretive terrorist group dro and its divisions: DRO-8, DRO-88, DRO-888, DRO-8888. Dashnaks continue its activity in this direction.

Armenian Secret Army of Liberty (ASOA): established in 1975 in Beirut. The headquarters is in Damascus. There are more than a thousand fighters in Palestinian bases. In the first six years of activities, the organization carried out terrorist acts that killed 19 Turkish diplomats in different countries of the world.

Geqaron: was created by AS ALA in February 2001. The goal is to conduct terrorist acts against Turkish origin political leaders, diplomats and businessmen in the South Caucasus and Central Asia.

The Armenian Freedom Movement (AOD) was established in 1991 in France. Terrorist activity is carried out in close contact with ASALA.

Armenian Front of Freedom: This terrorist organization, founded in 1979, is part of ASALA. It is preparing terrorists against Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Orli Group: It was created by Armenian youth living in France in 1981. The organization carried out more than 10 terrorist acts in various airports around the world by 1987.

Justice Commandos of Armenian Genocide: It was founded in 1972 during the congress of Dashnaksutyun Party in Vienna. The purpose of the Justice Commandos of Armenian Genocide is to concentrate young Lebanese citizens of Armenian origin in military units and to organize bloody terrorist attacks against Turks and Azerbaijanis.

Armenian Unity: established in 1988 in Moscow. They have close ties to ASALA and provide them with counterfeit documents for the activity of terrorists in the former Soviet Union. They participate in the transfer of arms and wagons to Nagorno-Karabakh.

Democratic Front: operates in the US, Canada and Western Europe. The main purpose is to disintegrate the Turkish state.

Apostol: was established on April 29, 2001 by the Armenian Defense Ministry, consisting of Armenian, Syrian and Lebanese citizens. The purpose of the organization is to carry out acts of terrorism in Turkey and Azerbaijan.

In 1988-1994, 32 terrorist acts were committed against Azerbaijanis by the Armenians. As a result, more than 2,000 people were killed and many were injured. Including (7): in passenger buses--68 people died and 132 were wounded;

--In passenger and cargo wagons--74 people were killed and 125 wounded;

--In air transport-104 people were killed;

--In Baku Subway-27 people were killed and 91 wounded;

--In the sea ferry carrying passengers-25 people were killed, 88 were wounded;

--Against civilians and militants--881 people were killed and 1239 wounded;

Against civil and state facilities -10 people were killed, 30 were wounded, and so on.

Apparently, the preparation and formation of terrorist groups threatening Europe and the entire world as a whole on the territories of Azerbaijan occupied by Armenia is an indisputable fact. As the visible figure behind these groups is the Armenian lobby. Therefore, serious measures should be taken to liberate those territories from the Armenian occupation and to take under the official control of the Azerbaijani state. Until the territory is liberated from the occupation, the area must be controlled by international organizations. Otherwise, the terrorist groups prepared and exported from Nagorno-Karabakh may become a serious problem for the region as well as Europe.

The Armenian side repeatedly attacked the peaceful population of Azerbaijan, which is unquestionably a violation of the norms of international law.

An illustrative example is one of the recent crimes committed by Armenia against Azerbaijan, the Armenian armed forces fired from 82 and 120 mm mortars and heavy grenade launchers the village of Alhanli of Fizuli region, which led to the death of the residents of the village Allahverdiyeva Sahibaldris (born in 1967), and Guliyeva Zakhra Elnur (born in 2015). Unfortunately, Armenia does not observe the ceasefire regime, which the parties reached in 1994, and peace negotiations that remain inconclusive are still held under the aegis of OSCE Minsk Group and co-chairmanship of Russia, France and the United States. Until now, Armenia has failed to comply with four UN Security Council resolutions on the liberation of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas. (8) It is interesting that Armenia has been a participating State of the OSCE since January 30, 1992, member of the United Nations since March 2, 1992, a member state of the Council of Europe since January 25, 2001. In addition, Armenia has ratified a number of the most important international human rights instruments, as well as conventions aimed at combating terrorism, while not respecting them. These include: the Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure, Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and the Financing of Terrorism of 2008, the European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism of 1978, the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings of 2001, the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism 2002.

As for the international legal framework for combating the phenomena under consideration, despite the fact that the international legal framework for combating terrorism and extremism has been formed at present, unfortunately, international legal norms in this field are not always observed.

First of all, it should be noted, considering the fact that extremism, as well as terrorism, pose a threat to the entire world community and humanity as a whole, then the struggle against them must be comprehensive, that is, it must be conducted in all directions--at the state, regional and world levels.

At the same time, the struggle against extremism and terrorism within the framework and by the forces of one state is ineffective, since its qualitative counteraction, along with military-force methods, requires as well financial, information, ideological, legislative means. (9) Thus, international cooperation is an indispensable element in the fight against terrorist activity, both in developing a single strategy to counter terrorism and eliminating its causes, as well as in the exchange of intelligence data and other special information. Terrorism has its own specifics in various regions of the world, which dictates the need for adaptation of standardized norms and strategic provisions to local conditions. (10)

One of the defining areas for countering terrorism and extremism is the timely detection of terrorist and extremist inclinations in order to prevent their implementation in time. (11) Of course, the fight against these negative phenomena must be carried out first of all at the international level, by joint efforts of all countries of the world. The core of the international struggle against extremism and terrorism is the universally recognized principles and norms of international law created under the auspices of the United Nations, which must both be adopted and incorporated into the legislation of the UN member states and are respected by them both in foreign policy pursued by them and in domestic policy. In addition, many organizations have been established under the aegis of the United Nations to date, whose main purpose is the fight against terrorism precisely.

Thus, one of such organizations is the UN Counterterrorism Committee established in accordance with the provisions of UN Security Council Resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1624 (2005), which contributes to strengthening the capacity of UN member states to prevent terrorist acts both at the national and interregional levels. Resolution 1373 (2001) reflects the most important areas of the fight against terrorism, and calls on all member states to put in place priority measures to combat:

--Criminalize the financing of terrorism;

--Immediately block any funds associated with persons who are involved in terrorist acts;

--Not to provide financial support to terrorist groups in any form;

--Prevent the granting of asylum, assistance or support to terrorists;

--Exchange information with other governments with respect to any groups that commit or plan to commit terrorist acts;

--Cooperate with other governments in the investigation, detection, arrest, extradition and prosecution of persons implicated in such acts;

--Establish in the national law criminal responsibility for active and passive assistance to terrorism and bring perpetrators to justice. Taking into account that the countries of the Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Russia, etc.) are also member states of the UN, therefore they must also comply with the international legal norms on combating terrorism created under the auspices of the UN, moreover, they have to implement these norms in national legislation, and ensure their compliance. Being in the neighbouring geographic location, their joint cooperation would have a fairly positive effect in the fight against terrorism in the region.

Among the regional organizations to combat terrorism, we can name the Anti-Terrorist Centre of the Commonwealth of Independent States, created by the decision of the Council of CIS Heads of State of June 21, 2000, which is a constantly acting specialized body of the Commonwealth of Independent States and is intended for ensuring coordination of interaction between the competent bodies of the CIS member states in the field of combating international terrorism and other manifestations of extremism.

The main direction of the work of the UN Security Council is also the struggle and prevention of the commission of terrorism.

An important international legal document aimed at eradicating terrorism is the special resolution adopted on January 16, 1997 at the 51st session of the UN General Assembly supplemented the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (adopted in December 1994), and according to which the member states of the United Nations were called upon to work out in certain necessary cases, especially by signing bilateral and multilateral agreements and arrangements, the procedure for mutual legal assistance directed provision and acceleration investigations and gathering of proofs as well as development of cooperation between law enforcement agencies in order to identify and prevent terrorist acts (12). The counterterrorism normative framework of the United Nations was first built on the VII Chapter of the UN Charter, which at the present time is a base of modern international anti-terrorism legislation. Today, this activity is built on the 5 key elements proposed by Kofi Annan, namely:

--Persuade the terrorist groups to not resort to violence;

--Restriction of terrorists in the means for conducting attacks;

--Limiting the support of terrorist groups by other countries;

--Development of opportunities of countries in the prevention of terrorism;

--Protection of human rights during the antiterrorist struggle.

In general, 13 main universal decrees and protocols aimed at combating terrorist activities have been developed under chairmanship of UN since 1963, which include:

* The Convention on Crimes and Certain Other Actions Committed on the Aircraft Board 1963 (the Tokyo Convention);

* Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircrafts 1970 (The Hague Convention);

* The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation 1971 (Montreal Convention);

* Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, Including the Diplomatic Representatives 1973;

* Convention on the Suppression of Taking Hostages 1979 (Hostages Convention);

* Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials 1980 (the Convention on Nuclear Materials);

* Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving the International Civil Aviation of 1988;

* Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation 1988;

* Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosive Substances for the Purpose of Detection 1991;

* The International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings 1997;

* The International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism 1999;

* International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism 2005.

Of course, the international legal framework described above is effective today, and it has yielded positive results, but unfortunately, we can still observe the fulfilment of extremism and terrorism both in the world and in the Caucasus, in particular. In this regard, it is necessary to continue the joint work of states on the development of a common antiterrorist strategy and methodology for combating terrorism.

DOI: 10.24193/subbeuropaea.2017.4.12

Published Online: 2017-12-29

Published Print: 2017-12-29


[1.] ***, (1941) "Art.1.2 / Wurth P. La Repression internationale du terrorism", Lausanne: Imprimerie la Concorde.

[2.] ***, (1993) "Vienna Declaration and Program of Actions adopted at World Conference on Human Rights", June 25, 1993. A/CONF.157/23/ UN document.

[3.] ***, (1997) "Measures to eliminate international terrorism", Resolution adopted by General Assembly (under the report of the Sixth CommitteeA/51/631), [],

[4.] ***, (2005) President Library of Operational Department of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Baku: Journal of electronic materials with complete text.

[5.] ***, (2017) "State Committee: Attacks of the Armenian side on the peaceful population of Azerbaijan--gross violation of the norms of international law" in, [].

[6.] ***, (2016) [phrase omitted] in Sputnik Georgia. [ minimalno.htmlj.

[7.] Budaeva, S. V.; N.V., Degtareva (2014) "International cooperation the field of fight against terrorism", Vestnik Zab GU, No 05 (108), p. 66.

[8.] Khadysov, M.A. International legal counteraction to extremism, [http://online].

[9.] Mavrin, O. V. (2012) "Prevention of extremism and terrorism in the Republic of Tatarstan", Politbook, No 4.

[Please note: Some non-Latin characters were omitted from this article.]

Maleyka Abbasova *, Ayten Huseynova Bashir kizi **

* Maleyka Abbasova, Ph.D., Baku Business University, Vice-Rector for Scientific Affairs. Contact:

* Ayten Huseynova Bashir kizi, PhD. Student, Baku Business University. Teacher at the Chair of Humanities.


(1) M.A. Khadysov, International legal counteraction to extremism, [].

(2) ***, Art. 1.2/Wurth P. La Repression internationale du terrorism", Lausanne: Imprimcric la Concorde, 1941, p.50.

(3) "Vienna Declaration and Program of Actions adopted at World Conference on Human Rights", June 25,1993. A/CONF.157/23/UN document, July 12,1993, p. 7.

(4) ***, in Sputnik Georgia. [ terrorizma-na-Gruziju-minimalno.html].

(5) ***, President Library of Operational Department of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Baku: Journal of electronic materials with complete text, 2005.

(6) ***, President Library of Operational Department of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Baku: Journal of electronic materials with complete text, 2005.

(7) ***, President Library of Operational Department of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Baku: Journal of electronic materials with complete text, 2005.

(8) ***, State Committee: Attacks of the Armenian side on the peaceful population of Azerbaijan--gross violation of the norms of international law", 2017, [].

(9) Mavrin O. V., "Prevention of extremism and terrorism in the Republic of Tatarstan", Politbook, No 4, 2012, p.182.

(10) Budaeva S. V., Degtareva N.V., "International cooperation in the field of fight against terrorism", Vestnik Zab GU, N<<05 (108), 2014, p.66.

(11) Mavrin O. V., "Prevention of extremism and terrorism in the Republic of Tatarstan", Politbook, No 4, 2012, p.183.

(12) "Measures to eliminate international terrorism", Resolution adopted by General Assembly (under the report of the Sixth CommitteeA/51/631), January 16, 1997, [].
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Author:Abbasova, Maleyka; kizi, Ayten Huseynova Bashir
Publication:Studia Europaea
Geographic Code:4EXAR
Date:Dec 1, 2017
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