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The Role of 13 Years Insomnia on Physiological Variables of an Active Man: A Case Report/Aktif Bir Erkegin Fizyolojik Degiskenleri Uzerinde 13 Yillik Insomnianin Rolu: Bir Olgu Sunumu.

Introduction

In modern society, reduction of sleep duration and quality is progressively increased. On the other hand, it is believed that sleep deprivation and lack impaired host defense and increased infections (1,2). Recent study has shown a close connection between sleep and the immune system (3). Human studies involving prolonged sleep loss indicated alterations of immune functions. Dinges et al. (1) found that 64 h of sleep deprivation was associated with increases in immune functions such as interleukin-6 and leukocytosis. Irwin et al. (4,5) reported that modest loss of sleep in humans resulted in a significant decreases of activity and number of natural killer (NK) cells and resulting decrements in immune system.

In addition to immune system, evidence suggests that sleep deprivation has effects on physical performance (6) (e.g. anaerobic power, muscle strength, endurance, physiological responses such as heart rate, ventilation, oxygen consumption); however, is not clearly understood in another studies (7,8). Rodgers et al., (8) reported that 48 h period of sleep deprivation significantly decreased the physical work tasks requiring 30-45% VO2 max without affecting anaerobic power. Further, Souissi et al., (7) demonstrated that duration of sleepless period may be important as peak power was not affected after 24 h sleep deprivation but significantly decreased after 36 hours of wakefulness.

Regarding the documents about the effects of sleep loss on immune and performance function, role of long term sleep deprivation (i.e., 13 years) on these variables is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show immune and performance profile of a man how had 13 years insomnia on immune function and exercise performance tests.

Case Report

According to case study approach of this work, an active man (trained at least four sessions per week strength and endurance training) (age, 27 years: height, 167 cm: body mass, 64 kg) who had 13 years insomnia was the subject of this study. The subject was tested in the physical fitness assessment center for four days at 48 hours intervals. Before participating, the subject read and signed an informed consent statement in adherence with the human subject's guidelines of Research Center and approved by the University Ethical Committee.

The subject was familiarized with testing procedures one week prior to initiation of the study, in addition to a 30 min familiarization period before each day of testing. All tests were scheduled over four days ([greater than of eual to]48 hours apart) at the same time of day (i.e., morning), under similar weather and field conditions. At first day, the subject recruited to laboratory for blood sampling to analyze biochemical and immune variables. On this day (day one), anthropometrical variables such as body mass, height, leg, foot length, arm span, hand and arm length, hip, lumber, knee and abdominal circumferences were assessed. On day two, upper and lower body strength such as hand grip strength, leg press, bench press, sit-ups test, pullups and sit-and reach test were measured. On the third day, 60-m sprint, 4x9-m shuttle run and anaerobic power test (i.e., Running Anaerabic Sprint Test) were collected. At final day, aerobic power (i.e., copper test), balance and vertical jump test were measured. For the analyze of biochemical and hormonal variables, a 10-mL blood sample was collected by venipuncture of an antecubital vein; the resultant samples were allowed to clot at room temperature for 15 minutes and then centrifuged at 1500 x g for 10 minutes. The serum was then pipetted into polyethylene blood tubes and frozen at -80 [degrees]C for subsequent analysis. The serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, testosterone, insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, growth hormone and C-reactive protein levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kits (Monobind Inc., Lake Forest, Calif., USA). Complete blood count analyses were conducted using automated hematology analyzer.

Subject anthropometric data is shown in Table 1. The performance measures are presented in Table 2. Table 3 contains testing results for biochemical variables.

Discussion

In relation to performance tests, studies have showed that sleep deprivation had negative effects on performance ability in men and women (1,3). Azboy and Kaygisiz (9) reported that sleep deprivation induced decrements in time to fatigue and impaired power explosive ability. They also addressed that explosive and physical exercises that need to less time could be impaired by sleep loss because of sleep deprivation induced restriction of body to product Adenosine triphosphate resulting in performance decrements. To the authors knowledge a large number of studies addressed that sleep deprivation is in relation to muscle fatigue, impaired neuromuscular coordination and cognitive tasks which induced decrements in physical performance ability (1,3,9,10); however, it seems that physical performance profile of our subject is good and long term (i.e., 13 years) insomnia had not any effects.

Regarding the relationship between immune system and sleep, it appears that sleep deprivation is in relation to overstimulation of immune system (11). A research indicated that sleep deprivation in rats induced lymphocytes (12). Sleep deprivation resulted in lower resistance to bacterial infections (bacterial blood infections), but no fever or tissue inflammation developed (6). The data deriving from the human studies are inconsistent or contradictory (1,2). While it is evident that sleep loss exerts an influence on the immune system (13) it remains unclear whether the influence is beneficial or detrimental. An Ig concentration was found to increase after sleep loss (8), and so was the number of leukocytes after sleep deprivation. Other data show a decrease in the number of NK cells after sleep deprivation (12). In relation to Table 2, biochemical and immune system variables are not more or less than reference range which indicates long term sleep deprivation (i.e., 13 years) in this subject did not induce any effects.

There were a close relationship between sleep and hormones. Sleep deprivation induced an increase in T3, T4 and thyroid stimulant hormon concentrations (14). The human studies found that sleep deprivation is in line with increases in corticotrophin-releasing hormone, ACTH and corticosteroids. On the other hand, sleep loss resulted in a slight increase in plasma cortisol level, while plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity decreased and their release peaks were absent (10). The influence of sleep deprivation on growth hormone and testosterone secretions are particularly interesting. The physiological significance of the growth hormone and testosterone release could play an important role in the homeostasis. In the sleep-deprived subjects increases in the daily release of these hormones could be observed; however, the level of all hormones measures for the subject of this study was in between normal range which indicated adaptation to long term sleep deprivation on hormonal levels.

In conclusion, the results of our subject on the physical performance and biochemical tests in this study was generally in normal range database and immune system, hormonal secretion and cell blood content were in a good points.

Ethics

Informed Consent: Informed consent statement was in adherence with the human subject's guidelines of Research Center.

Peer-review: Externally peer-reviewed.

Authorship Contributions

Concept: H.A., Design: H.A., Data Collection or Processing: M.M., F.T., Analysis or Interpretation: A.A., Literature Search: A.A., Writing: H.A., A.A.

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study received no financial support.

References

(1.) Dinges DF, Douglas SD, Hamarman S, Zaugg L, Kapoor S. Sleep deprivation and human immune function. Adv Neuroimmunol 1995;5:97-110.

(2.) Jurkowski MK, Bobek-Billewicz B. Influence of sleep deprivation on immunity. Sen 2002;2:95-8.

(3.) Periasamy S, Hsu DZ, Fu YH, Liu MY. Sleep deprivation-induced multi-organ injury: role of oxidative stress and inflammation. EXCLI J 2015;14:672-83.

(4.) Irwin M, Mascovich A, Gillin JC, Willoughby R, Pike J, Smith TL. Partial sleep deprivation reduces natural killer cell activity in humans. Psychosom Med 1994;56:493-8.

(5.) Irwin M, McClintick J, Costlow C, Fortner M, White J, Gillin JC. Partial night sleep deprivation reduces natural killer and cellular immune responses in humans. FASEB J 1996;10:643-53.

(6.) Leger D, Metlaine A, Choudat D. Insomnia and sleep disruption: relevance for athletic performance. Clin Sports Med 2005;24:269-85.

(7.) Souissi N, Sesboue B, Gauthier A, Larue J, Davenne D. Effects of one night's sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance the following day. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003;89:359-66.

(8.) Rodgers CD, Paterson DH, Cunningham DA, Noble EG, Pettigrew FP, Myles WS, Taylor AW. Sleep deprivation: effects on work capacity, self-paced walking, contractile properties and perceived exertion. Sleep 1995;18:30-8.

(9.) Azboy O, Kaygisiz Z. Effects of sleep deprivation on cardiorespiratory functions of the runners and volleyball players during rest and exercise. Acta Physiol Hung 2009;96:29-36.

(10.) Van Dongen HP, Maislin G, Mullington JM, Dinges DF. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Sleep 2003;26:117-26.

(11.) Pietruczuk K, Jakuszkowiak K, Nowicki Z, Witkowski JM. Cytokines in sleep regulation and disturbances. Sen 2003;3:127-33.

(12.) Benca RM, Kushida CA, Everson CA, Kalski R, Bergmann BM, Rechtschaffen A. Sleep deprivation in the rat: VII. Immune function. Sleep 1989;12:47-52.

(13.) Bentivoglio M, Kristensson K. Neural-immune interactions in disorders of sleep-wakefulness organization. Trends Neurosci 2007;30:645-52.

(14.) Parekh PI, Ketter TA, Altshuler L, Frye MA, Callahan A, Marangell L, Post RM. Relationships between thyroid hormone and antidepressant responses to total sleep deprivation in mood disorder patients. Biol Psychiatry 1998;43:392-4.

DOI: 10.4274/jtsm.69885

[iD] Hamid Arazi, [iD] Abbas Asadi (*), [iD] Mohammad Mirzaei, [iD] Fatemeh Tavana

University of Guilan, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Rasht, Iran

(*) Payame Noor University, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Address for Correspondence/Yazsima Adresi: Hamid Arazi PhD, University of Guilan, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Rasht, Iran

Phone: +98 13 33690161 E-mail: hamidarazi@yahoo.com ORCID-ID: orcid.org/0000-0002-1594-6515

Received/Gelis Tarihi: 30.04.2018 Accepted/Kabul Tarihi: 09.01.2018
Table 1. Subject's anthropometric variables

Variable                Data          Variable           Data

Femur length (cm)        47    Wrist circumference (cm)  17
Calf length (cm)         41    Elbow circumference (cm)  26.5
Leg length (cm)          85    Chest circumference (cm)  94
ARM SPAN (cm)           160    Waist circumference (cm)  77
Elbow length (cm)        26    Thigh circumference (cm)  52
Hand palm (cm)           18.5  Hip circumference (cm)    87.5
Arm length (cm)          69.5  Calf circumference (cm)   38
Sole of foot (cm)        26    Shoulder width (cm)       17
Arm circumference (cm)   35    Chest width (cm)          11

Table 2. Subject's performance tests

Variable                   Data        Variable               Data

Hand grip strength (kg)     -     60-m speed (sec)             9.63
Right hand                  44    4 x 9-m shuttle run (sec)   10.36
Left hand                   45    Vertical jump (cm)          53
Bench press strength (kg)   80    Sit-ups (rep/min)           40
Leg press strength (kg)    180    Sit-and-reach test (cm)     94
RAST (sec)                  44.3  Cooper test (min:sec)       15:35
SEBT balance test (cm)
Anterior                    97    Anteromedial                85
Posterior                  109    Anterolateral               79
Medial                      70    Posteromedial              110
Lateral                    100    Posterolateral             109

RAST: Running Anaerobic Sprint test, SEBT: Star Excursion Balance test

Table 3. Subject's biochemical variables

Variable                          Data  Normal ranges

CBC-index
WBC (103/uL)                      6.91    4-11
RBC (106/uL)                      4.93    4.5-5.9
HGB (g/dL)                       15.1    13-17
HCT (%)                          43.7    41-53
MCV (fL)                         88.6    80-100
MCH (pg)                         30.6    27-34
MCHC (g/dL)                      34.6    32-36
PLT ([10.sup.3]/uL)             323     140-450
RDW-SD (fL)                      44.2    37-54
RDW-CV (%)                       14       9-14.6
PDW (fL)                         12.3     9-17
MPV (fL)                          9.8     5-10.5
P-LCR (%)                        24.2    13-43
PCT (%)                           0.32    0.17-0.35
Neutrophils (%)                  55.1    40-75
Lymphocyts (%)                   37.5    20-45
Monocyts (%)                      2.9     2-10
Eosinophils (%)                   4.2     1-6
Basophils (%)                     0.3     0-1
Biochemistry
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dL)      92      70-100
Cholesterol (mg/dL)             163     Desirable <200
                                        Borderline 200-239
                                        High >239
Triglycerides (mg/dL)            93     Normal <150
                                        Borderline 150-199
                                        High 200-249
                                        Very high >499

HDL (mg/dL)                      35     >40: risk factor for CHD
                                        <60: negative
                                        risk factor for CHD
LDL (mg/dL)                      92     Goal: less than 3.5
                                        Ideal: less than 2.5
LDL/HDL                           2.6   <10

C-reactive protein (mg/L)        <2     Up to 200
IgE (IU/mL)                      99.9
Hormones
Testosterone (ng/mL)              5.05  2.5-10
Insulin (uIU/mL)                  3.7   Less than 35
ACTH (Pg/mL)                     21     6-76
Cortisol (ug/dL)                 14.5   5-23
Growth hormone (ng/mL)            0.05  Less than 5

ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic hormone, CBC: Complete blood count, WBC:
White blood cells, RBC: Red blood cells, HGB: Hemoglobin, HCT:
Hematocrit, MCV: Mean corpuscular volume, MCH: Mean corpuscular
hemoglobin, MCHC: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, PLT:
Platelet, RDW: Red cell distribution width, SD: Standard deviation,
MPV: Mean platelet volume, P-LCR: Platelet larger cell ratio, PCT:
Procalcitonin, CHD: Coronary heart disease, LDL: Low density
lipoprotein, HDL: High density lipoprotein, PDW: Platelet distribution
width
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Title Annotation:Case Report / Olgu Sunumu
Author:Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Tavana, Fatemeh
Publication:Journal of Turkish Sleep Medicine
Article Type:Clinical report
Date:Jun 1, 2018
Words:2136
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