The Role, Place, and Purpose of Southern Baptist Women, 1979-1987.
Fundamentalists elected Adrian Rogers as president of the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), and with the presidency came the power to appoint trustees to denominational entities. The 1979 election proved not to be an anomaly but a precedent as fundamentalists won each successive presidency thereafter to date. As fundamentalist trustees gained the majority throughout the 1980s, women found their previous gains eliminated and their hopes for the future dashed by an ever-tightening series of resolutions and statements that emphasized their submission to men. These declarations not only restricted their opportunities for ministry but also defined their role as women, wives, and mothers. These strictures, however, were often met with strong opposition.
The Southern Baptist movement against ordained women ministers and feminism began in earnest in 1980. Joyce Rogers, wife of SBC president Adrian Rogers, and her friend Sarah Maddox hosted a Woman's Concern Conference on the campus of Mid-America Theological Seminary in Memphis, Tennessee, in May of 1980. More than 4,000 Baptist women attended the conference, themed "A Wise Woman Builds." Keynote speakers included anti-feminist leaders Elisabeth Elliott, Beverly LaHaye, and Vonda Bright. Although the conference was planned for women, Adrian Rogers delivered the welcome, stating:
What is happening to America is not "just happening." It is the result of a well-orchestrated plan with Satan waving the flag. Feminist thinkers are out to subvert women and to bring in their heathen heaven to do this though humanist/feminist/socialist [sic]. There is a move to deny God, debase man, destroy the family, the world. Their plan is to free your children and from the [sic] puritanical parents.... In a world gone mad I thank God for some concerned women who are saying "back to the Bible." Stand up and be counted before the time runs out for America.'
The "Wise Woman" conference promoted the importance of wifely submission and stressed the idea that the woman's place was in the home. Workshops emphasized these roles with titles such as the "Basic Needs of a Man." (2) This conference helped define submission, domesticity, and anti-feminism as the core tenets of what the SBC would later depict as "biblical womanhood." A similar conference was held in late 1981 at the Ninth and O Baptist Church in Louisville, Kentucky, organized by Lilian Butler. Her husband and the pastor of the church, LaVerne Butler, was head of Kentucky's Moral Majority and a member of the Baptist Faith and Message Fellowship. With a theme of "The Virtuous Woman," the conference included sessions stressing childcare, housekeeping, and conservative politics. (3) The underlying message was that women were to be submissive, and that submissiveness was in tune with conservative politics.
The 1980 SBC annual meeting, held in St. Louis from June 10-12, marked another win for fundamentalists. Claiming inerrancy and a high view of scriptures as their mandate, president Adrian Rogers and the messengers wasted little time promoting their agenda and electing their candidates, including Bailey Smith, pastor of First Baptist Church of Del City in Oklahoma. Messengers passed resolutions that took hard stances against homosexual rights, abortion, and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). (4) They declared that all homosexual acts were abominations and that abortion could only be permitted to protect an expectant mother's life. The resolution concerning the ERA praised women and their contributions throughout its first sections and asked their employers to treat them fairly. The last line, however, demonstrated the SBC's new direction: "Be it finally RESOLVED, That this Convention, reaffirming the biblical role which stresses the equal worth but not always the sameness of function of women, does not endorse the Equal Rights Amendment." (5) This language would appear many times in resolutions concerning women. Many Southern Baptists were not pleased with the ERA resolution and wrote to Bailey Smith about their concerns. After receiving a letter from Linda Cornell who questioned the ERA resolution, an indignant president-elect Smith replied with a letter to her, writing that "one cannot be for the ERA and women at the same time." He stressed that the ERA was more about "homosexual rights" than women's rights." Smith mailed out hundreds of pamphlets supporting this view and in doing so paved the way for two very different issues to be viewed as one.
The 1980 convention also passed a resolution on doctrinal integrity that began the process of removing seminary professors who did not hold to biblical infallibility without any mixture of error. (7) This resolution would eventually include those who held to women's ordination.
Moderate Southern Baptist women began to push back and form their own societies in 1981, including an organization called Southern Baptists for Family and Equal Rights. Created in April at Binkley Memorial Baptist Church in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, its goal was to promote the ERA and oppose issues endorsed by conservatives that its members believed would damage families. (8)
At the 1981 SBC meeting in Los Angeles, June 9-11, the new leadership's agenda promoted gender hierarchy as a priority. Prior to the meeting an article written by Mrs. Troy E. Morris, titled "Ladies Help Us," appeared in the April/May edition of the Southern Baptist Journal Morris stressed the importance of women submitting to their husbands and supporting the conservative agenda at the upcoming SBC. (9) Adrian Rogers spoke at the Pastor's Conference and hammered home the biblical mandate for women's submission to men. (10) When the convention convened, Bailey Smith was re-elected president and messengers reaffirmed the 1980 resolution that stated, "this Convention, reaffirming the biblical role which stresses the equal worth but not always the sameness of function of women, does not endorse the Equal Rights Amendment." (11)
Prior to the 1982 SBC meeting in New Orleans, the Woman's Missionary Union (WMU) sponsored a "Women in Ministry Dinner," featuring sociologist Sarah Frances Anders as the keynote speaker. Her presentation prompted those present to start a support system for women in ministry and those seeking ordination. Carolyn Weatherford, WMU's executive director, responded by promising financial support. Over the next few months, Southern Baptist Women in Ministry (SBWIM) was formed. Future Baptist pastor of churches in Atlanta, Memphis, and Asheville, Nancy Hastings Sehested, proclaimed that "we are to our Convention like Paul's early Gentile converts. " (12) Describing the purpose of SBWIM, Betty McGary Pearce explained, "the organization was created through the increasing awareness... that Southern Baptist Women in Ministry needed to organize to provide support and encouragement which would enable women to minister in all the roles to which they believe God has called them." (13) From its inception, SBWIM members had no intention of keeping their subservient position in Southern Baptist life, nor did they desire to leave the SBC. (14) They sought change within the convention. SBWIM published a quarterly journal, FOLIO, that proved to be a significant outlet for female scholarship and the promotion of women in professional ministries. Similar to the Pastor's Conference, SBWIM met prior to the annual SBC meeting until 1992 when it began meeting in conjunction with the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship's (CBF) annual meeting. (15)
James Draper, pastor of First Baptist Church in Euless, Texas, was elected president of the Southern Baptist Convention in 1982. He agreed with actions taken by those who were attempting to move the SBC to more conservative theology and was much in line with his predecessors Adrian Rogers and Bailey Smith. In comparison to the three previous conventions, however, the 1982 SBC said nothing significant about the role of women. That changed at the 1983 SBC meeting in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, however. There, the messengers re-elected Draper and also passed a resolution concerning women that indicated the new direction of the SBC in relation to gender roles. The resolution "On Women" first affirmed Galatians 3:28 and stated that women should be treated equally and fairly in the workplace. The resolution then came to its purpose, stating, "Be it further RESOLVED, That for women who serve the Lord as homemakers, we affirm their special calling, honor them for their unique contributions to church and society, and support their right to financial security." The resolution implied that women who remained in the home were especially honored. The promotion of gender roles was overt, with the SBC endorsing an idea that would become its mantra in regard to gender relations: men should work outside the home, and women should remain in it.
In the Fall 1983 edition of FOLIO, Molly Marshall-Green wrote an article titled "Women in Ministry: A Biblical Theology." (16) A doctoral candidate in theology at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, she soon became one of the preeminent voices of Baptist biblical feminism. Marshall-Green challenged the fundamentalist claim that if one was an inerrantist and held a high view of scriptures, one had to believe that some ministerial positions were reserved exclusively for men and that women should be submissive to men. She wrote that the "longer I study Scriptures, the more convinced I become of the bedrock theological support for women being afforded equal access to all positions of theological ministry." Grounded in biblical exegesis, she based her beliefs on what she depicted as three "enduring theological principles." First, "all people bear the image of the Divine." Second, "equality reigns in the body of Christ's body the church." Third, Jesus demonstrated an "uninhibited acceptance of women as 'theology students,' his calling of women to serve, and his commission of women as primary witnesses to the resurrection." She concluded that scripture "does not ascribe certain prominent gifts to men and 'lesser' gifts to women." (17) Marshall-Green's exegesis provided a biblical and theological foundation for women who sought to give their gifts to God in whatever ministry they believed God had called them to.
At the 1984 annual SBC meeting held in Kansas City, Missouri, inerrantist pastor of First Baptist Church in Atlanta, Charles Stanley, was elected president, although current president James Draper wielded the gavel. Fundamentalists had elected the previous four SBC presidents and were consolidating their power through committee appointments of like-minded brethren to key denominational entities. In 1984, they decided it was time to address women's ordination. Evangelical leader and newly minted Southern Baptist Carl F.H. Henry brought Resolution 3 to the floor. It stated:
WHEREAS, While Paul commends women and men alike in other roles of ministry and service (Titus 2:1-10), he excludes women from pastoral leadership (1 Tim. 2:12) to preserve a submission God requires because the man was first in creation and the woman was first in the Edenic fall (1 Tim. 2:13ff). WHEREAS, The Scriptures attest to God's delegated order of authority (God the head of Christ, Christ the head of man, man the head of woman, man and woman dependent one upon the other to the glory of God) distinguishing the roles of men and women in public prayer and prophecy (1 Cor. 11:2-5). Therefore, be it RESOLVED, That we not decide concerns of Christian doctrine and practice by modern cultural, sociological, and ecclesiastical trends or by emotional factors; that we remind ourselves of the dearly bought Baptist principle of the final authority of Scripture in matters of faith and conduct; and that we encourage the service of women in all aspects of church life and work other than pastoral functions and leadership roles entailing ordination. (18)
Draper ruled against all who spoke against the resolution, and it quickly went to a vote. The resolution passed with 58 percent of messengers voting for and 42 percent against. (19) The convention ruled that God had created man first, and woman sinned first. Women were not to be ordained or lead men.
Female pastors resented the resolution, and all six presidents of the Southern Baptist seminaries spoke out against it. (20) Russell Dilday, president of Southwestern Seminary, stated, "based on questionable hermeneutics in interpreting the biblical passage... I regret, too, that the convention felt it could express itself on an issue that has nothing to do with convention life and deals only with local church decisions. That certainly contradicts the historical position our convention has taken through the years." (21) Randall Lolley, president of Southeastern Seminary, agreed with Dilday and declared that it was "bad exegesis, bad hermeneutics, bad theology, bad Christology,... bad soteriology, bad ecclesiology, bad missiology, bad anthropology, bad sociology, bad psychology, bad manners, and worst of all, 'bad Baptist.'" (22) Lolley also stated that "In the resolution the most debated concept is in the tenth Whereas--that woman was last in creation and 'first in the Edenic fall.' Now that phrase makes plain the real issue for Southern Baptist churches today. It is not location. It is not ordination. It is Womanhood!" (23) Now assistant professor of theology at Southern Seminary, Molly Marshall-Green stated that the resolution went against the Baptist principle of the autonomy of the local church. (24) No matter the argument, the resolution was never repealed and became the cornerstone for a new masculinity of "delegated order" known as complementarianism that would come to dominate the Southern Baptist Convention.
The Christian Life Commission (CLC) was among the first to respond to the Kansas City Resolution. Executive director Foy Valentine, a long-time advocate of women's ordination, allowed the CLC's Light to be an outlet for feminist positions. In the October 1984 edition, an editorial proclaimed that the fundamentalist position on women was "irresponsible literalism, interpreting the Bible outside a framework of grace." (25) Members of SBWIM continued their work and held conferences on the role of women in the church at Southern Seminary in the fall of 1984, and Southeastern Seminary held a similar conference the following spring. (26) The Student magazine dedicated an entire issue to women in ministry. Articles included stories of ordained women, the status of women, and whether women should be ordained. The most significant article was written by retired Southwestern Seminary ethics professor, T.B. Maston, who emphasized Galatians 3:28 and argued that female submission should be seen in the same light as the order for slaves to obey their masters. (27) These organizations and journals were among the few entities within the SBC to oppose the Kansas City Resolution. The editor of The Student, however, was relieved of his duties the following year for championing a cause that went against the inerrancy of scripture. (28)
With another victory under their belt, fundamentalist trustees of the Home Mission Board attempted to enact the Kansas City Resolution in its 1985 spring meeting. The goal was to stop sending Church Pastoral Aid (CPA) to churches with women pastors. At least one female pastor, Debra Griffis-Woodberry of Broadneck Baptist Church in Annapolis, Maryland, had received aid in the previous year, and the fundamentalist minority on the board wanted it to end. (29) Moderate members argued that the board should not interfere with local church autonomy, while fundamentalists argued that they should follow the will of the SBC and enforce the Kansas City Resolution. With moderates holding a slight majority on the board, the attempt to deny the church CPA was narrowly defeated 39-32. (30) Griffis-Woodberry was the last female pastor to receive CPA aid. The Home Mission Board also approved its last ordained woman to serve as a home missionary. After overruling an earlier vote, Janet Miller, an ordained minister, was approved to serve as a Yale University student worker. (31)
At the 1985 SBC held in Dallas, Texas, more than 45,000 messengers attended to vote for either moderate presidential candidate Winfred Moore or fundamentalist candidate Adrian Rogers. Rogers won easily, and the die had been cast. Moderate Baptists never again put up a serious effort to elect a president. The Southern Baptist Convention would remain a fundamentalist denomination. Perhaps because of the attention given to the presidential election, no resolutions concerning women were passed in 1985. The Kansas City Resolution was enough for now. Statistics, however, were disseminated on women serving in ministry positions in the SBC. According to Reba Sloan
Cobb and Betty McGary Pearce of the Center for Women in Ministry in Louisville, Kentucky, as of June 13, 1985,
* There were approximately 350 ordained clergywomen, with 14 serving as pastors.
* Women made up 16.7 percent of the student body at the six SBC seminaries, with Southern having the most at 25 percent.
* Only 2.27 percent of the seminary faculties were women.
* Three women taught in the schools of theology: Molly Marshall-Green and Pamela Scalise at Southern and Elizabeth Barnes at Southeastern.
* One woman served as a dean: Anne Davis of the School of Social Work at Southern. (32)
By 1986, fundamentalists held the trustee majority at the Home Mission Board. All funding for churches with women pastors ended. It was also determined that no ordained woman would be appointed or financially supported by the Home Mission Board. The following year at the October board meeting, a moderate trustee, Betty McGhee, pled with the board to reconsider its position on women in the ministry. A conservative trustee, Linda Principe, began to argue against her position when McGhee suffered a heart attack and later died. (33) After this tragic turn of events, the board determined that ordained women who were already serving could remain in their positions but none in the future would be appointed or receive support. (34)
Southern Baptists who supported the ordination of women suffered many setbacks in 1985 and 1986, but they also celebrated a few victories. Formerly SBWIM, Baptist Women in Ministry (BWIM) had active organizations at all six Southern Baptist seminaries. Moreover, a survey taken by sociologist Nancy Ammerman in 1986 demonstrated that not all Southern Baptists were against ordaining women to the ministry: 45 percent had no problem with their church hiring an ordained woman to their staff. Only 26 percent, however, believed that a woman should serve as the senior pastor. (35)
Several major events occurred in 1987. As part of a compromise, Roy Honeycutt, president of Southern Seminary, began the process of awarding tenure to Dr. Molly Marshall-Green. An ordained and practicing pastor, she would be teaching theology to women and men. She received tenure the following year. In return, fundamentalist Dr. David Dockery was named academic vice president. To the chagrin of the conservative trustees, Elizabeth Barnes was also appointed assistant professor of theology at Southeastern Seminary by one vote. She had been serving the previous three years at Southeastern on an administrative appointment. In return a fundamentalist, Dr. Roy E. DeBrand, was elected professor of preaching and worship by a 25-2 vote. (36) The Southern Baptist Alliance was also created in 1987. (37) The first group to leave the SBC over its fundamentalist positions and form an independent organization, it held the position that women could serve in any aspect of the ministry and also promoted women's ordination. (38)
The Southern Baptist Convention meeting in St. Louis, June 16-18, 1987, continued to push forward its agenda on gender roles. Its "Resolution on Honor for Full-Time Homemakers" stated:
WHEREAS, Much positive publicity is being generated honoring wives and mothers who pursue employment outside the home for personal fulfillment, financial reward, and independence; and WHEREAS, We recognize the accomplishments of women who choose such careers, and we also praise the contributions of full-time homemakers; and WHEREAS, There hasbeen a lack of recognition for the great benefits full-time homemakers provide for their families, churches, and nation; and WHEREAS, Full-time homemakers have shown dedication, diligence, and unwavering commitment to their families and to the Lord who has ordained the home as a workplace. Therefore, be it RESOLVED, That we, the messengers of the Southern Baptist Convention meeting in St. Louis, Missouri, June 16-18, 1987, honor the rich and valuable contributions of full-time wives and mothers who through their service and self-sacrifice have strengthened their families, enriched our nation, and pleased our God by honoring His purposes in their lives each day. (39)
The resolution was clear in purpose and meaning: women who worked outside the confines of the home received praise from the secular world; those who chose to remain in the home and serve as housewives and mothers were following God's plan and would receive praise from the SBC.
Two months later, Prescott Memorial Baptist Church in Memphis, Tennessee, called Nancy Sehested--one of the original founders of SBWIM--as pastor. Prescott had a membership of 235 and was one of the largest SBC churches to call a woman as pastor. (40) Other churches had been disfellowshipped in the recent past for having a woman pastor, and those events attracted moderate but not national attention. This time, it was different. Prescott was a member of the Shelby County Baptist Association, as was Adrian Rogers' Bellevue Baptist Church. (41)
Rogers could not let this happen in his own backyard. Within a month of Prescott's acceptance of the pastorate, the association called a special meeting to investigate the church's "doctrinal soundness." (42) The moderator immediately called the question whether to refuse to seat Prescott's messengers and voted before Sehested could respond. She pleaded to address the group but was told the question had already been called. Rogers then stood and told the others that they should listen to what she had to say. Of course, the pastors acquiesced to Rogers' request. Pastor Sehested went to the podium and passionately stated that she had the authority to preach the gospel. The Shelby Association's 400 male messengers--no female messengers were present--were not moved, and Prescott was disfellowshipped by a 75-25 percent vote. (43) Vaughn W. Denton, pastor of Kirby Parkway Baptist Church, explained why the association took this action: "We've never had a lady pastor before... We accept the Bible as totally infallible and inerrant. Many places in scripture talk about the services of women and their place in church, but the Bible never mentions a woman being called to pastoral leadership." (44) Betty Dawson, a deacon at Prescott, understood what was happening. She said the congregation was being "set up as an example for the whole Southern Baptist Convention to show what can happen to a church that doesn't follow the party line." (45)
This very public disfellowshipping of a church that had an ordained woman as pastor served its purpose of signaling a change in the SBC. Fewer and fewer churches were willing to face public scrutiny by calling a female pastor. Southern Baptist female pastors continued to find churches to serve, but almost all were in other denominations.
The next step in the gradual elimination of gender equality occurred in Danvers, Massachusetts, on December 2-3, 1987. Leading evangelicals John Piper, Wayne Grudem, Wayne House, Dorothy Patterson, James Borland, Susan Foh, and Ken Sarles issued what became known as the Danvers Statement. Under Piper's leadership, the group drafted a statement outlining what would become the definitive theological articulation of "complementarianism," the biblically derived view that men and women are complementary, possessing equal dignity and worth as the image of God, and called to different roles that each glorify him." (46) The rationale statement clearly delineated why it was deemed necessary. Among these reasons was a confusion "in our culture regarding the complementary differences between masculinity and femininity." The rise of feminist egalitarianism was destroying the home. There was also a continued ambivalence directed toward women who work in the home. Finally, men and women were taking roles in church leadership that did not conform to scripture. (47)
The statement then listed what it affirmed as biblical manhood and womanhood. Men and women have God-ordained roles that were part of the created order. Adam's headship in marriage was part of creation and not a consequence of the Fall. Men are to be in charge of the family, and women are to follow their lead in joyful submission. All people who determine a call to the ministry must do so in proper relation to biblically ordained gender roles. (48)
With the Danvers Statement came the birth of the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood (CBMW). Behind the lead of these prominent evangelicals, complementarianism was promoted as the standard for biblical gender roles. The CBMW continued to promote this view in a very popular 1991 book, Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood. Complementarianism as espoused by the CBMW was almost immediately embraced by Southern Baptists as proven by the scriptures. The CBMW is currently headquartered on the campus of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Southern Baptists' unofficial acceptance of the Danvers Statement and the CBMW was a visible sign that feminine evangelicalism and gender equality no longer had a place in the SBC's "Big Tent." All SBC actions, resolutions, and statements concerning women from 1979 to 1987 had been gradually moving the convention to a point where the Danvers Statement, though never officially approved or ratified, was not only palatable but logical. SBC leaders realized it would take time and that each phase had to be done slowly with each step gradually leading to the next. Only one phase remained, and it was a direct outgrowth of the Danvers Statement.
By the year 2000, complementarianism had been promoted to the degree that it was engrained in SBC life. It was now time to make it an official part of the Baptist Faith and Message. Article 18 states, "A husband is to love his wife as Christ loved the church. He has the God-given responsibility to provide for, to protect, and to lead his family. A wife is to submit herself graciously to the servant leadership of her husband even as the church willingly submits to the headship of Christ." (49) With the passage of the BF&M 2000, Southern Baptist Convention fundamentalists had completed the task it began in 1979. Women were relegated to second-class status.
(1) Adrian Rogers, "Welcome to the Women's Concerns Conference," Bellevue Messenger, 16 May 1980, 1.
(2) Elizabeth H. Flowers, Into the Pulpit: Southern Baptist Women and Power Since World War II (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2003), 77-82.
(3) Roy Jennings, "Biblical Submission Explained to Women," Baptist Press (20 May 1980); Mike Davis, "Women Praised, Chided, Encouraged at Conference," Baptist Press (May 20, 1980); Program, "International Christian Women's Concerns Conference," Women: 1980-83, Christian Life Commission Resource Files, Box 57.24, Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives, Nashville, Tennessee (SBHLA).
(4) Southern Baptist Convention, "Resolution on Homosexuality," 1980, http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/608/resolution-on-homosexuality; "Resolution on Abortion," 1980, http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/19; "Resolution on Women," 1980, http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/1091/resolution-on-women (accessed 23 July 2019).
(5) "Resolution on Women," 1980.
(6) Linda E. Connell to Bailey Smith, 29 July 1980; Bailey Smith to Linda E. Connell, 11 August 1980; Linda E. Connell to Bailey Smith, 13 August 1980, Equal Rights Amendment, 1980, Bailey Smith Papers, Box 1, folder 18, SBHLA.
(7) Southern Baptist Convention, "Resolution on Doctrinal Integrity," 1980, http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/443 (accessed 23 July 2019).
(8) Newsletter, "Southern Baptists for the Family and Equal Rights," vol. 1, no, 2 (October 1981); Newsletter, "Southern Baptists for the Family and Equal Rights," vol. 1, no. 3 (April 1982), Folder: "Southern Baptists for the Family and Equal Rights, 1981-1985," Resource Center for Women and Ministry in the South records, Box 7; David M. Rubenstein, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Duke University.
(9) Mrs. Troy E. Morris, "Ladies Help Us," Southern Baptist Journal 9, no. 4 (April/May 1981), 12, SBHLA.
(10) "'Submissive' Wives," Biblical Recorder (NC) (20 June 1981), 11; Folder 18: Baptist Faith and Message Fellowship - 1981 (R-W), M.O. Owens Papers, Box 4, SBHLA.
(11) Southern Baptist Convention, "Resolution on the Role of Women," 1981, http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/1092/resolution-on-the-role-of-women (accessed 23 July 2019).
(12) Katie McCoy, "Anchored Against the Tide: Female Pastors in the SBC and Contemporary Drifts Towards Compromise," Baptist Theology, White Paper 37 (January 2011) http://www.baptisttheology.org/white-papers/anchored-against-the-tide-female-pastors-in-the-sbc-and-contemporary-drifts-toward-compromise/ (accessed 23 July 2019).
(13) Cited in Patrick J. Campbell, "A Critique and Evaluation of the Women Serving in the Role of Pastor in the Southern Baptist Convention with Particular Emphasis Upon the New Testament Scriptures" (Ph.D. diss., St. Louis: Covenant Theological Seminary, 1986), 23.
(14) David Stricklin, A Genealogy of Dissent: Southern Baptist Protest in the Twentieth Century (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1999), 134.
(15) Flowers, Into the Pulpit, 132.
(16) Molly Marshall-Green, "Women in Ministry: A Biblical Theology," FOLIO (Fall 1983), 1.
(17) Flowers, Into the Pulpit, 95-96.
(18) Southern Baptist Convention, "Resolution on Ordination and the Role of Women in Ministry," 1984, http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/1088 (accessed 23 July 2019).
(19) Flowers, Into the Pulpit, 103.
(20) Eileen Campbell-Reed, Anatomy of a Schism: How Clergywomen's Narratives Reinterpret the Fracturing of the Southern Baptist Convention (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2016), 32.
(21) "Seminary Presidents Respond to Kansas City Resolution," Folio 2.2 (Autumn 1984), 7
(23) "Lolley Affirms Christian Women as Ministers," Baptist Standard (12 September 1984); Southern Baptist Convention, Christian Life Commission Resource Files, Box 78.18, SBHLA.
(24) Molly Marshall-Green, "Toward Encompassing Theological Vision for Women in Light of Baptist Tradition," Folio 4.2 (Autumn 1986): 1.
(25) Cited in Campbell, "A Critique and Evaluation," 28.
(26) Nancy Ammerman, Baptist Battles: Social Change and Religious Conflict in the Southern Baptist Convention (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995), 92.
(27) T.B. Maston, "The Bible and Women," The Student, 64:8 (February 1985), 48.
(28) Ammerman, Baptist Battles, 93.
(29) "Ordination Local Church Matter, Says HMB," Baptist Standard (20 March 1985); Southern Baptist Convention, Christian Life Commission Resource Files, Box 78.18, SBHLA.
(30) Ammerman, Baptist Battles, 224.
(31) United Press International, "Baptist Board Names Woman as Yale Chaplain," Los Angeles Times, 3 August 1985, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1985-08-03-me-3310-story.html (accessed 23 July 2019).
(32) 2985 News, Southern Baptist Convention, Dallas, June 11-13, 1985; Women in Baptist Life Collection, Box 1.9, SBHLA.
(33) Kathy Palen, "Subcommittee Reviews Tax Exemption of TV Ministries," Baptist Press (12 October 1987), http://media.sbhla.org.s3.amazonews.com/6461,12-Oct-1987.PDF (accessed 23 July 2019).
(34) Flowers, Into the Pulpit, 115.
(35) Ammerman, Baptist Battles, 96.
(36) "Southeastern Board Elects First Woman Theology Prof." Baptist Press (13 March 1987), 2; Southern Baptist Convention, Christian Life Commission Resource Files, Box 78.18, SBHLA.
(37) Flowers, Into the Pulpit, 121.
(38) Stricklin, A Genealogy of Dissent, 139.
(39) Southern Baptist Convention, "Resolution on Honor of Full-Time Homemakers," 1987, http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/533/resolution-on-honor-for-fulltime-homemakers (accessed 23 July 2019).
(40) Marjorie Hyer, "Baptist Group Ousts Church with Female Pastor" (20 October 1987), https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1987/10/20/baptist-group-ousts-church-with-female-pastor/6510f2cd-935b-4c57-abbc-da6c0d82cebb/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.bb7edc620338 (accessed 23 July 2019).
(41) Flowers, Into the Pulpit, 111.
(42) Hyer, "Baptist Group Ousts Church."
(43) "Baptist group votes to expel church with female pastor," The Atlanta Constitution (20 October 1987); Southern Baptist Convention, Home Mission Board Historical Collection, Box 9.11, SBHLA.
(44) Hyer, "Baptist Group Ousts Church."
(45) "Baptists Butting Heads over Woman Pastor has Familiar Ring in Memphis," Commercial Appeal, https://www.commercialappeal.com/story/news/2017/11/08/baptists-butting-heads-over-woman-pastor-has-familiar-ring-memphis/845144001/ (accessed 23 July 2019).
(46) Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, "Our History," https://cbmw.org/about/history/ (accessed 23 July 2019).
(47) Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, "Danvers Statement," https://cbmw.org/about/danvers-statement (accessed 23 July 2019).
(49) Southern Baptist Convention, "The Baptist Faith and Message: The 2000 Baptist Faith and Message," http://ww.sbc.net/bfrn2000/bfm2000.asp (accessed 23 July 2019).
Joseph E. Early Jr. is professor of church history at Campbellsville University.
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|Author:||Early, Joseph E., Jr.|
|Publication:||Baptist History and Heritage|
|Date:||Jun 22, 2019|
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