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The Relationship of Job Stress and Turnover Intention in Commercial Banks of Pakistan by Assessing the Mediating Role of Burnout.

Byline: Dr. Aqeel Ahmad and Sher Afgan

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to inspect the relationship of job stress with turnover intention by assessing the mediating role of burnout in the commercial banking sector of Pakistan. A total of 300 survey questionnaires were distributed and 246 were returned the response rate was 82%. The findings showed significant positive relationship between job stress and turnover intention. Secondly, the relationship of job stress and job burnout was tested. The findings of the study demonstrated significant positive relationship between the two variables showing that with increase in the amount of job stress, employees get more burnout. Thirdly, the effect of burnout on turnover intention was checked. The results showed significant positive association between burnout and turnover intention i.e., higher the burnout, higher will be the intention to quit. The mediation effect of burnout among job stress and turnover intention was tested.

The findings showed that job burnout partially mediates the relationship between job stress and turnover intention. Finally, another objective of this research was to find out the association between job stress and job performance. The findings of the study showed significant negative relation between the two variables i.e. as stress at job increases, performance of employees' decreases.

Key Words: Job Stress, Turnover Intention Burnout, Bank

Introduction

The individuals around the globe that are employed face a relentless and perplexing problem within the organization named as stress, which then impacts efficiency and performance of employees. Job stress has been a matter of concern for all the stakeholders and employees of the companies. Various researchers concluded that stress at job is a problematic issue for several organizations (Cooper and Cartwright, 1994; Ornelas and Kleiner, 2003). Researchers recognized that in recent times the cost of job stress is very high in several organizations over the world. For example, job stress costs Australian business approximately $15 billion, the American $200 billion, and the UK Pound 63 billion. This cost is associated with the inefficiencies created by job stress like high absenteeism rate, low productivity, reduced performance, and turnover.

The cost of job stress are manipulated in terms of higher rate of workforce turnover, minimized profitability, low production, and budget linked with hiring and developing replacement workforce (Shahu and Gole, 2008; Yahaya, Arshad, Ismail, Jaalam, and Zakariya, 2009).

All employees require some degree of stress to perform and to get things done. Excess stress though for a long time period is not good for employees. Stress if exceeds normally leads to burnout. Burnout is a phenomenon which is commonly used to explain the physical and emotional exhaustion practiced by individuals as a direct consequence of too much job related stress. Burnout can be a reason of significant emotional, physical, spiritual and psychological damage to individuals. Many studies concluded burnout to significantly impact intention of workforces to quit their organizations and it was fairly well acknowledged by binary studies conducted in Australia (Sims, 2007) the later research proposed emotional exhaustion and cynicism (two aspects of burnout) as significant forecasters of intention to turnover (Sims, 2007).

A study conducted in South African by Rothmann and Joubert (2007) stated corresponding results and Knudsen, Ducharme and Roman (2006) in a study established a positive association among emotional exhaustion and intention to quit (Singh, Fogarty, Moore and Rhoads, 2000; Chaung, Huang and Lin, 2003). High turnover can be extremely destructive for any organization. Hom and Griffeth state that four types of cost are associated with high turnover which include separation cost (all cost incurred concerning laying off the worker), replacement cost (all cost incurred for hiring new worker in the organization), training cost (all cost spent for development of the worker), and vacancy cost (all cost incurred as a result of non- production due to space between worker loss and replacing a newly hired worker).

Job stress is a comparatively emerging phenomenon of contemporary life styles. Over the previous few decades, the nature of work is under gone radical changes and even now it is going through modifications at fast speed. It is now universally understood fact that individuals from almost every aspect of life have to deal with stress. Stress has impacted virtually all professions, beginning from a general worker to a doctor, or an engineer to a sales personnel and obviously increased stress directs towards quitting the job.

Objectives of the study

* To inspect association between stress at job and turnover intention in the commercial banking sector of Pakistan.

* To test the impact of job stress on burnout in commercial banking sector of Pakistan.

* To investigate the relationship among burnout and intention to turnover in commercial banking sector of Pakistan.

* To conclude whether burnout mediates the association among stress at job and turnover intention in Pakistani commercial banking sector.

* To examine the relationship among stress at job and job performance in the Pakistani commercial banking sector.

Stress

Literature Review

The pioneer idea about job stress concept came from Seyle (1963). In current era, stress has turned out to be a worldwide phenomenon faced by large number of employees around the globe. Furthermore, stress has proven to be a huge problem for employers specifically in developing countries. Over the last few decades, the nature of organizational tasks has changed mainly because of technological advancements, globalization and reorganization among different countries. As a consequence, there are numerous variables that are resulting the employees and employer to be affected from stress. For instance, demand for excessive work, ergonomic inadequacies, time pressure, problematic clients and role conflicts are few of the elements which will cause stress to employer and employees (Nawaz, Mohsan, and Khan, 2011).

Recently Bankers are under tremendous amount of stress caused by diverse stress backgrounds like Role conflict, keeping up to date with fast technological changes, concern for individuals, role doubt, lack of feedback, career development, contribution, being inventive and innovative, current episodic events, organizational environment and structure. Stress has come out to be a common problem for human resource managers of recent time (Avey, Luthans and Jensen, 2009). The outcome generated as a consequence of stressors like Role overload, Role ambiguity, and Role conflict. Hobfoll (1989) concluded that job stress is source of tension generation which is consequence of the gap about what is anticipated and what is performed. Stress is an undesirable response individuals have to immense pressure exerted on them by placing extra ordinary demands upon them. To be more precise, stress is physical or emotional response to environmental events and tasks (Lussier, 2008).

Burnout

When employees sense they are no more capable to offer themselves at a psychosomatic level it is called as state of emotional exhaustion (Maslach and Jackson, 1981). The workers feel fatigued, tired their emotive dynamisms are shattered, when this frame of mind becomes continuing and for a longer period of time, the workers are assumed to be exhausted emotionally. The burnout is usually practiced in organizations that offer human services (Maslach, 1981, 1986).

Turnover

Almost for every organization, the employees' intention to turnover is the most important topic. Work on intention to turnover started in 1950 by the management research scholars. Throughout the world the organizations are facing several challenges with rising amalgamation of the world economy into one, giant marketplace offering resilient competition universally. It is concentrated over market clearance phase along with expenditures attached with massive labor turnover. Intention to turnover is defined as the person's own anticipated probability (subjective) that he or she is permanently quitting the business at some specific upcoming time.

The phenomenon of turnover is comprehensively researched in organizational viewpoint and predominantly in businesses that offer services. Plenty of literature is existing on the reasons and outcomes of involuntary and voluntary turnover. Several ways are used to elucidate it "it is observed as voluntary departure of person from business" (Price and Mueller, 1981). It stems from a mixture of events occurring in business, psychological dynamics and workplace circumstances interact among each other to influence staff behavior in and toward the association (Fang, 2001). Intention to turnover happens while the worker looks for another employment. Kim and Stoner (2008) describe "turnover happens once the worker detaches from employment". It's imperative to know specific situations associated with job that might affect a worker to quit her/ his position.

Famous view about workers exit their jobs are because of either un-satisfaction or superior prospects with other business. The current study inspects the variables that can predict intention to quit. More specifically, this study demonstrates the direct and indirect effect of stress at job on intention to turnover.

Job performance

Job performance is the sum of output that workers deliver to the business, which it identifies. It is the aggregate of opportunities, motivation and abilities (Scott, 1986). The performance assessment of employee is a critical function of the organizational HR department (Riggio, 2009) . Worker Performance Managing is a course for founding a mutual workforce know how about what is to be attained in a business entity and it is related to synchronizing the objectives of organization with the workers agreed deliverable results, skills, measures, development plans, and competency requirements. Consequently, performance of employees concentrates on the betterment, learning and development to gain an overall business strategy and to produce a high performance level.

Because workforce is considered to be an asset which assists the organizations' smooth going, the performance evaluation in system of HR management endorses the point that its consequences reveal the achievement and also a vital step in the area of adaption, placement and several other personal actions to succeed (Marikova, 2005).

Job Stress and Turnover Intention

Turnover is a vital subject matter for management, especially in tight labor market of the 21st century (Batt and Valcour, 2003). The work burden rises due to enormous obligations, lack of staff, as well as extra duties assigned by management, hence it becomes stressful for the employees and therefore they quit job, specifically during critical conditions (Thaden, 2007). The turnover customary elements, work exhaustion and the organizational commitment were associated with intention to quit. Leontaridi and Ward (2002) found significant association amongst levels of stress and turnover intention. Work related stress and its impact on psychiatric symptoms are linked with staff 's tendency to quit the employment (Braaten, 2000). Greater the extent of stress the higher the employee intent to quit (Kavanagh, 2005; Cropanzano, Bryne, and Rapp, 2003). Turnover is increased by stress (Moore, 2000).

According to CA'te and Morgan (2002) stress is fundamentally a shape of unpleasant emotion that has got a great potential to enhance the employee turnover. There is positive affiliation among stress at job and intention to leave the current job (Williams, 2003).

Job Stress and Burnout

One of very common definition of job stress is physiological, cognitive, emotional and behavioral reaction to the dynamic and harmful perspectives of work, the environment in which the work is being done and overall organizational climate. Job stress is characterized by feelings of helplessness in accomplishment of task assigned (Mirela and Adriana, 2011). The other outcomes of job stress include significant decrease in the level of organizational commitment and job satisfaction which may lead to depression, non-productive work behaviors and intentions to quit. Work related stress is associated with burnout, job satisfaction and physical as well as mental health outcomes (Kalliath and Morris, 2002; Piko, 2006; Pillay, 2009).

Stressors contributing to the experience of work related stress, including poor supervision, conflict with peers and patients, high job demands (Chayu and Kreitler, 2011; Hayter, 1999) and overtime (Garrosa, Rainho, Moreno, and Monteiro, 2010) are all associated with one or more dimensions of burnout. The Maslach Burnout Model (1996) postulates that prolonged exposure to environmental and situational stressors resulting in work related stress, contributes to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a lack of personal accomplishment.

Burnout and Turnover Intention

A study's results suggested that higher emotional exhaustion results in higher intention to quit the job, on the other hand job satisfaction prohibits turnover intention (Otis and Pelletier, 2005). Employees who get burned out and irritated with the tasks assigned to them are more probable to have greater turnover. (De Croon, Sluiter, Blonk, Broersen, and Frings-Dresen, 2004). A large number of burnout researches are based on the concept of burnout proposed by Maslach and Jackson (1986). As per job burnout's conceptual frameworks (Cordes and Dougherty, 1993; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, and Schaufeli, 2001), burnout is determined to significantly mediate the association among prolonged job stressors and many attitudinal consequences. Intention to turnover is one of the consequences of burnout that has been supported empirically by many research findings (Harrington, Bean, Pintello, and Mathews, 2001; Huang, Chuang and Lin, 2003).

Job Stress and Job Performance

A physiological methodology conceptualizes job stress as a negative mental state which is the consequence of a response to the characteristics of the workplace environment that appear to be physically and emotionally threatening (Jamal, 2005). Workers who suffer from higher level of work stress are more probable of being less motivated, less safe at job, physically unhealthy, and less productive. Their organizations likewise are more averse to succeed in competitive market. There are different sources of job stress and its mode of affecting people is also different. According to the findings of Pawar and Rathod (2007) there is adverse association between stress at job and job satisfaction amongst naval force trainees. They further found that the key determinants of job stress are less autonomy and more insecurity of job.

A study was conducted by Jamal (1984) to inspect the connection amongst stress at job and job performance among blue-collar workers and managers. Stress was defined as the outcome of an employee resulted from workplace environment that employee perceives as unsecured.

Theoretical Framework

Theories assist us to recognize fundamental procedure and on that base, select an appropriate course of action. Stoner and Freeman (2000) state that theory is logical and consistent group of postulation presented to interpret the association between two or more facts that are observable. Effective theories assist us to forecast what will occur under certain circumstances. It is true fact that no matter how much one has the grip of a principle, the theories and history of any arena assist us to implement them to real cases. The schematic diagram illustrates independent variable namely job stress, job burnout as a mediating variable, and turnover intention and job performance as dependent variables.

Job-stress and Intention to Turnover

Sager (1994) conducted a study among sales managers to inspect the linkage between stress at job and turnover intention. A significant association of 0.45 was found between the two variables, pointing out that the workers with higher stress level tend to be more inspire to leave the job than the workers who suffer lower level of stress. A cross-cultural study was conducted by Jamal (1999) to find out the effect of stress on teachers. The findings of the study showed correlation of 0.27. The findings of many studies conclude the higher the level of stress, the higher is the intention to quit (Chen, Lin, and Lien, 2010; Applebaum, Fowler, Fiedler, Osinubi, and Robson, 2010). Noor and Maad (2008) found positive association between stress, work life conflict, and intention to turnover. Arshadi and Damiri (2013) conducted a research to examine the impact of stress at job on intention to turnover and job performance by assessing the moderating (OBSE) role.

The consequence of research revealed positive association between stress at job and intention to quit. Up till now, the findings of all the studies seems to propose significant affiliation between stress at job and intention to turnover.

hypothesis 1: There is a significant relationship between job stress and turnover intention

Job Stress and Job Burnout

Burnout symbolizes extended psychological reaction to long-lasting emotional plus interpersonal stressors originate during job that's demonstrated through feelings of depersonalization, lack of accomplishment and emotional exhaustion (Maslach, Schefeli and Leiter, 2001). Many researches have inspected the burnout backgrounds and have concluded that stress at job forecasts burnout directly (Aryee, 1993; Netemeyer, Boles, and McMurrian, 1996; Russell, Altmaier and Velzen, 1987; Taris, Peeters, Le Blanc, Schreurs and Schaufeli, 2001; Lin, Cravens, Grant, and Moncrief, 2013). Maslach, Schaufeli, Leiter, 2001 in a theoretical review about job burnout, suggested that work related stress in direct predictor of job burnout. The argument of Maslach. was well supported by the empirical findings of the study investigating the impact of work-related stress and societal support on burnout, which showed that burnout, is significantly predicted by work related stress (Russell, Altmaier, and Van Velzen, 1987).

Hock (1988) also determined that the employees suffering from higher stress level were more probable of being burnout, reported that stress at work was correlated with physical and psychological burnout with the respective values of 0.42 and 0.52. Taris, Peeters, Le Blanc, Schreurs, and Schaufeli, (2001) conducted a study by selecting a sample of Dutch teachers, found that three elements of job burnout (and so burnout as a whole) are predicted by work related stress. In 8 year longitudinal study to explore the backgrounds of burnout among blue and white collar employees, Kalimo, Toppinen-Tanner, and Mutanen's (2002) established that stress at job like pressure of time was positively associated with job burnout. The review of literature up to this stage recommended that that job stress significantly affects burnout.

hypothesis 2: Job stress has significant effect on burnout.

Burnout and Intention to Turnover

One of the basic outcomes accompanied with burnout is intention to turnover. Research studies have investigated that the higher levels of burnout boost up intention to leave one's job (Lee and Ashforth, 1993; 1996). Burnout is concluded to be principal depression forecaster and in turn depression has been recognized to predict turnover intentions (Anderson, 2008). Jamal (1999) conducted a cross-cultural study of Pakistani and Canadian teachers and determined that three aspects of job burnout i.e. depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and lack of accomplishment (and overall burnout) were significantly associated to intention to quit. So, keeping in line with previous research findings, it is hypothesized that burnout significantly affects intentions to turnover.

hypothesis 3: Burnout has significant effect on intention to turnover

Mediating Effect of Burnout Among Job Stress and Turnover Intention

Lee and Ashforth (1993) in the longitudinal study to inspect the effect of job stress on intention to turnover proposed that two of the aspects of burnout i.e. depersonalization and emotional exhaustion would be associated to intentions to quit. Lin, Cravens, Grant, and Moncrief, (2013) carried out a study to investigate the link between burnout, occupational stress, and intention to turnover among managerial employees. The objective of the research was to investigate the relationship among occupational stress, burnout and intention to turnover plus discover their accompanying aspects among employees at managerial level in Guangzhou, China. Lower job satisfaction and higher occupational stress were accompanied with higher level of burnout, specifically in the depersonalization and emotional exhaustion aspect of burnout.

Lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion (burnout) were related to higher turnover intention among staff. Hence, the model under consideration suggests that job burnout mediates the association among stress at job and intention to turnover.

hypothesis 4: Burnout has significant mediating effect between job stress and turnover intention

Job Stress and Job Performance

Job performance can be expressed as set of certain behaviors that a worker demonstrates that are matched with his job description and workplace demands, which are triggered towards success of the overall organization (Donovan, Cox, and Ferguson, E., 2004). It is a common factor that businesses require and value employees who perform better, and these high class performers are thought out to be valued assets for the business (Brown and Peterson, 1993; Babin and Boles, 1996; Munro, Peter, and Smith, 1998; MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Ahearne, 1998; Bhuian and Mengue, 2002; Kim, and Stoner, 2005; Le Rouge, Nelson, and Blanton, 2006; Arnold, Flaherty, Voss, and Mowen, 2009; Yang, 2010; Aghdasi, Kiamanesh, and Ebrahim, 2011; Yucle and Bektas, 2012). One of the earlier study by Jamal (1985) to inspect the association between stress at job and job performance hypothesized that there would be negative correlation between job stress and job performance for white and blue collar employees.

Job performance was measured in term of quality of tasks accomplished, quantity of work and effort exerted to accomplish the tasks assigned. The findings of the study indicated that stress at job was negatively and significantly correlated with above mentioned three elements of job performance for both blue and white collar employees. A similar study was conducted by Aryee (1992) to inspect the association between stress at job and job performance. The findings of the research specified that there was a significant relationship among each of the three predictors of stress at job (role ambiguity, role conflict, role involvement) and quality of work done. In another study Vaitor (2001) investigated the association between stress at job and job performance among female managers. The results of the research showed that job performance was significantly predicted by job stress. These findings are in line with those of Jamal (1985) and Aryee (1992) as discussed earlier.

Bashir and Ismail (2010) conducted a study in the banking sector of Pakistan to check out the link between stress at job and job performance. The sample for the study was 144 graduate senior workers like customer services officers and managers from highly recognized emerging banks in Pakistan. The research tool for the study was questionnaire. The data gathered by questionnaire was subjected to statistical test regression and correlation. The result of the study confirmed negative significant correlation between the two variables. The findings of all the studies seem to propose significant affiliation between stress at job and job performance.

hypothesis 5: There is a significant relationship between job stress and job performance

Data collection

Methodology

For the study of the topic, the big five commercial banks in district Okara Pakistan were targeted. These banks include Muslim Commercial Bank, Habib Bank Limited, Allied Bank Limited, United Bank Limited, and Bank Al-Falah Limited. The questionnaire was circulated among 300 respondents through simple random sampling to the branch and operation managers. A total of 300 survey questionnaires were distributed and 246 were returned the response rate was 82 %. The items of the constructs for present study are adapted from Stanton, Balzer, Smith, Parra and Iroson. (2001) (Job Stress), Maslach and Jackson (1981) (Burnout), Kelloway, Gottlieb, and Barham, (1995) (Intention to Turnover), Esson (2004) (Job Performance).

Analysis

There is significant strong positive correlation (r=0.784, pless than 0.01) between Job Stress and Job Burnout. The association between job burnout and intention to quit is also highly positively correlated (r=0.799) at a significance level of (pless than 0.01).

Job stress and intention to quit are significantly positively correlated at (r=0.768, pless than 0.01). Where all other variables are positively correlated, the relationship between job stress and job performance is strongly negatively correlated (r = -.748) at a significance level of (pless than 0.01).

Hypothesis Testing

Job Stress and Turnover Intention

The outcomes of the study showed that the variable has a significant association with turnover intention. Job stress has a strong positive relationship with turnover intention with (=0.768) and (pless than 0.01) indicating job stress contribute 76.8% to turnover intention of employees. Furthermore, R square value is 0.589 showing that the effect of job stress on turnover intention is 58.9% explained. Results of the study validate Hypothesis 1 i.e. there is a significant relationship between job stress and turnover intention. Table 1 and 2 show the results.

Table 1 Model Summary

###Adjusted R###Std. Error of

###Model###R###R Square

###Square###the Estimate

###1###.768a###.589###.588###.20961

Job Stress and Job Burnout

The regression result confirmed the significant strong positive relationship between job stress and job burnout with (=0.784) and (pless than 0.01). Job stress contributes more than 78% to intention to quit. Regression analysis further illustrates the relationship between job stress and job burnout is proved the value of R square 0.614 which indicates the effect of job stress on job burnout is 61.4% explained. Current study justifies Hypothesis 2 i.e. Job stress has significant effect on burnout.

Table 2 Model Summary

###Adjusted R###Std. Error of

###Model###R###R Square

###Square###the Estimate

###1###.784a###.614###.612###.22360

Job Burnout and Turnover Intention

The analysis illustrates that the relationship between job burnout and turnover intention is significant with (pless than 0.01) and strong positive with (ss=0.799) expressing that for one percent increase in job burnout will have 79.9% effect on intention to quit. R square value for the model is 0.639 which shows the impact of job burnout on turnover intention is 63.9% explained. In the light of these regression analysis results Hypothesis 3 (i.e. Burnout has significant effect on intention to turnover) is accepted. Table 3 shows the discussed results.

Table 3 Model Summary

###Adjusted R###Std. Error of

###Model###R###R Square

###Square###the Estimate

###1###.799a###.639###.637###.19659

The mediating effect of job burnout is tested with the help of Barron and Kenny (1986) causal steps method. For testing the mediation effect, the following conditions need to be met.

Dependent variable should be significantly related to independent variable. If this condition is not met statistically, the analysis for mediation stops (Mackinnon, 2008).

Independent variable should be significantly related to mediating variable.

When controlling for effect of mediating variable on dependent variable, the effect of independent variable on dependent variable should no longer be significant (complete mediation). However, when controlling for effect of mediating variable on dependent variable, the effect of independent variable on dependent variable is reduced in magnitude but remains significant there is evidence of partial mediation (Preacher and Hayes, 2004).

Table 4 Results of Mediated Regression Approach

###Dependent###independent###adjusted

no.###Beta###t###sig.###r2

###variable(s)###Variable(s)###r2

###Intention to

1###Job Stress###.768###18.719###.000###.589###.588

###Quit

2###Job Burnout###Job Stress###.784###19.700###.000###.614###.612

###Intention to###Job Burnout###.512###8.919###.000

3###.691###.688

###Quit###Job Stress###.366###6.383###.000

The results of causal steps method for testing the mediating effect of job burnout are presented in Table 4. In first step, job stress (IV) and intention to quit (DV) are significantly related to each other with beta value .768 (total effect). This fulfills the first condition of Barron and Kenny (1986) approach. Second step shows that job stress (IV) and job burnout (mediating variable) are significantly related to each other with (pless than 0.01), justifying the second condition for mediation effect. With the inclusion of job burnout in third step reduced beta value to .366 but remained significant (direct effect). This proves that job burnout partially mediates the relationship between job stress and intention to quit. Hence Hypothesis 4 is accepted. The indirect effect of job stress on intention to quit is equal to the product of job stress job burnout path and job burnout intention to quit path i.e. (.512) (.784) = .40. (See Figure 3)

The estimated Mediator Model Job Burnout (Job Stress - Intention to Quit) The numbers in the Figure represent Standardized Regression Coefficients. **pless than .01 Fig.2

Significance of Indirect Effect

The significance of indirect effect is tested using the Sobel test (Barron and Kenny, 1986; Preacher and Hayes, 2004; Shrout and Bolger, 2002). For this purpose, online Sobel test calculator (http://quantpsy.org/sobel/sobel.htm) is used. The result showed that the indirect effect of job stress on intention to quit via job burnout is significant with p less than 0.01 and test statistics value of 8.156. This further strengthens the hypothesis that job stress partially mediates the relationship between job stress and turnover intention (See Figure 4).

Fig.3 Sobel Test Results

Where a = raw (un-standardized) regression coefficient for the association between IV and mediator. b = raw coefficient for the association between the mediator and the DV (when the IV is also a predictor of the DV).

Job Stress and Job Performance

The regression result ratifies the significant strong negative relationship between job stress and job performance with (ss= -0.784) and (pless than 0.01). Job stress contributes 78.4% negatively to job performance. Further, regression analysis demonstrates the relationship between job stress and job performance is proved the value of R square 0.560 which indicates the impact of job stress on job performance is 56% explained. Current study fulfills Hypothesis 5 i.e. there is a significant relationship between job stress and job performance.

Table 5 Model Summary

###Adjusted R###Std. Error of

###Model###R###R Square

###Square###the Estimate

###1###.748a###.560###.558###.40095

Table 6 Regression Analysis

###Un-standardized###Standardized

###Model###Coefficients###Coefficients###T###Sig.

###B###Std. Error###Beta

###(Constant)###7.185###.305###23.544###.000

1

###Job Stress###-1.422###.081###-.748###-17.631###.000

Discussion

The prime objective of this study was to inspect the relationship of job stress with turnover intention by assessing the mediating role of burnout in the commercial banking sector of Pakistan. For this goal, first, direct association of job stress with turnover intention was tested. The findings showed significant positive relationship between job stress and turnover intention expressing that as much as stress at job increases the employees' intention to quit the job increases. These findings are consistent with that of Sager (1984), Noor and Maad (2008), Chen, Lin, and Lien, (2010), Applebaum, Fowler, Fiedler, Osinubi, and Robson, (2010), Arshadi and Damiri (2013), and Iqbal Ehsan, Rizwan, and Noreen, (2014). Secondly, the relationship of job stress and job burnout was tested.

The findings of the study demonstrate significant positive relationship between these two variables showing that with increase in the amount of job stress, employees get more burnout. Hock (1988) also determined that the employees suffering from higher stress level were more probable of being burnout, reported that stress at work was correlated with physical and psychological burnout with the respective values of 0.42 and 0.52. Many researchers (e.g. Aryee, 1993; Netemeyer, Boles, and McMurrian, 1996; Russell, Altmaier and Velzen, 1987; Taris, Peeters, Le Blanc, Schreurs and Schaufeli, 2001; Lin, Cravens, Grant, and Moncrief, 2013) have come up with similar findings. Thirdly, the effect of burnout on turnover intention was checked. The results showed significant positive association between burnout and turnover intention i.e., higher the burnout, higher will be the intention to quit.

Research studies have investigated that the higher levels of job burnout boost up turnover intention (Lee and Ashforth, 1993, 1996; Jamal, 1999; Anderson, 2008). The mediation effect of burnout among job stress and turnover intention was tested following Barron and Kenny (1986) causal step method. Furthermore, Sobel test was applied to check the significance of indirect effect. The findings show that job burnout partially mediates the relationship between job stress and turnover intention. The results of the study on key effects are coordinated with burnout theoretical framework (e.g., Cordes and Dougherty, 1993; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, and Schaufeli, 2001). Additionally, another objective of this research was to find out the association between job stress and job performance. The findings of the study showed significant negative relation between the two variables i.e. as stress at job increases, performance of employees decreases.

One of the earlier study by Jamal (1985) to inspect the affiliation between stress at job and job performance hypothesized that there would be negative correlation between stress at job and job performance for white and blue collar employees. Outcomes of various researches provided the confirmation of strong negative affiliation among stress at job and job performance (Aryee, 1992; Viator, 2001; Bashir and Ismail, 2010). Findings verify the significant associations of all variables of the hypothesis.

Conclusion

The main objective of this study was to inspect the relationship of job stress with turnover intention by assessing the mediating role of burnout in the commercial banking sector of Pakistan. For this goal, first, direct association of job stress with turnover intention was tested. The findings showed significant positive relationship between job stress and turnover intention expressing that as much as stress at job increases the employees' intention to quit the job increases. Secondly, the relationship of job stress and job burnout was tested. The findings of the study demonstrate significant positive relationship between these two variables showing that with increase in the amount of job stress, employees get more burnout. Thirdly, the effect of burnout on turnover intention was checked.

The results showed significant positive association between burnout and turnover intention i.e., higher the burnout, higher will be the intention to quit. The mediation effect of burnout among job stress and turnover intention was tested. The findings showed that job burnout partially mediates the relationship between job stress and turnover intention. The results of the study on key effects were coordinated with burnout theoretical framework. Additionally, another objective of this research was to find out the association between job stress and job performance. The findings of the study showed significant negative relation between the two variables i.e. as stress at job increases, performance of employees decreases.

Implication and Recommendations

The findings of the study affirm that job stress boost up burnout and employee turnover intentions. It is a matter of fact that an organization cannot be totally stress free. However certain steps can be taken by management to lower down job stress. Since job stress is associated with employees' performance, it is extremely vital to minimize it by implementing the accurate HR polices. Management should keep an eye on burnout factor as well. Burnout can be minimize by applying right working conditions, by lessening role ambiguity, and by offering counseling and psychological training courses to keep employee interested and motivated about their job. Due to day by day increasing competitive environment and financial instability in the banking sector it is very vital for management to retain competitive and skilled workforce. For this purpose, equal promotion and right compensation policy should be implemented so as to minimize the risk factor of employees' turnover.

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