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The Pollen Morphology of some Lathyrus Spp. (Fabaceae) Taxa from Turkey.

Byline: FATMA GUNES

ABSTRACT

In this study, 10 wild species of genus Lathyrus grown in Turkey L. niger (L.) Bernh. subsp. niger, L. palustris L. subsp. palustris, L. tuberosus L., L. sphaericus Retz., L. setifolius L., L. clymenum L., L. nissolia L., L. aphaca L. var. aphaca, L. aphaca var. affinis (Guss.) Arc, L. aphaca var. bifilorus Post were examined for pollen morphology. Preparations were made using non-acetolysed and Erdtman methods. The shapes, apertureties, structures and sculptures of pollen were observed by using light microscope (LM). The pollen grains were 3-zonocolporate, of spheroidal-subprolate-prolate types (P/E=1.028-1.573), medium to large in size. Equatorial view; elliptical-obtuse-convex, polar view; circular to triangular-obtuse-convex. The smallest pollen grains belong to L. nissolia (P=32.791/E=24.747 in non-acetolysed, P=40.508/E=28.444 in Erdtman) and the longest to L. clymenum (P=52.418/E=35.815 in non-acetolysed, P=58.604/E=46.332 in Erdtman) taxa.

The ornamentation was reticulate or slightly perforate-foveolate. The pollen morphology of species was also studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, some photographs included in this work were taken using both LM and SEM.

Key Words: Lathyrus; Pollen morphology; Turkey

INTRODUCTION

Lathyrus belongs to the Fabaceae family and tribe Vicieae (Adans.) DC. This genus is represented by 13 sections and 150 types worldwide, 10 sections and 62 species in Turkey and 78 taxa (Davis et al., 1970, 1998; Kupicha, 1983; Guner et al., 2000). The species of Lathyrus, which are economically high in value, are known for their resistance to drought. L. sylvestris is used to prevent erosion on sawn or burnt land in America (Whyte et al., 1953). In the east Anatolian region of Turkey the halberds of the L. tuberosus are consumed as food, whereas L. ochrus and L. sativus are cultivated (Gunes, 2006). Approximately 33 species are used for decorative purposes (Campbell, 1997).

The morphological properties of the pollen of taxa belonging to the Lathyrus species have been studied by various researchers both in Turkey and worldwide. In Turkey, L. digitatus (Aytug et al., 1971), L. undulatus, L. sylvestris and L. ochrus Gunes and Cirpici (1998), L. pratensis, L. layardii, L. laxiflorus subsp. laxiflorus, L. laxiflorus subsp. angustifolius and L. czeczottianus (Gunes and Aytug, 2010), L. annuus, L. cicera, L. gorgoni var. pilosus and L. hirsutus (Gunes and Cirpici, 2010) have been determined for pollen morphology of the taxa.

Outside of Turkey e.g., in Russia, L. niger by Gapotchka and Chamara (1972) and Gapotchka (1974), L. palustris by Faegri and Iversen (1989), L. latifolius and L. tuberosus by Halbritter (2000); in France, L. sylvestris, L. pratensis, L. maritimus, L. nissolia and L. montanus by Moore et al. (1991); in Pakistan, L. emodii, L. cicera, L. humulis and L. pratensis by Perveen and Qaiser (1998); and in Bulgaria, L. grandiflorus, L. latifolius, L. sylvestris, L. tuberosus by Tosheva et al. (2004), L. alpestris, L. aureus, L. linifolius, L. niger, L. palustris, L. transsilvanicus, L. venetus and L. vernus by Tosheva and Tonkov (2005), L. digitatus, L. filiformis, L. pallescens, L. pancicii and L. pannonicus by Tosheva and Tonkov (2007), have determined the morphological properties for pollen belonging to the different species.

These researchers provided information on the pollen type (3-zonocolporate), pollen shape (spheroidal, subprolate, prolate), structure (tectate-infrastructurae) and ornemantation (reticulate-perforate-favolate) associated to the taxon belonging to the Lathyrus species. Tosheva and Tonkov (2007) L. filiformis, L. pallescens, L. pancicii determined a new pollen type seen in taxa called Lathyrus filiformis-type. Furthermore, Moore et al. (1991) also noted that the endexine thickness 2-3 times around the colpus and the porus and form a large costae formation.

The aim of this study was to determine through the use of LM and SEM, the extent to which morphological differences are well evaluated in 10 Turkish taxa of Lathyrus. This study also purpose to throw light on the problematic aspects of taxonomy and evolution.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Ten taxa of Lathyrus were collected from their natural habitats in Turkey between 1996 and 2009. All collected specimen were identified and deposited at the herbarium of Marmara University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (MUFE), Kafkas University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology. Initially the samples gathered in European-Turkey were used for this study; however, samples were then collected throughout Turkey. With this reason Erdtman (1960) studies belong to the samples collected from European-Turkey. The observations on fresh pollen were made using preperations from samples collected from localities referred in Table I. The Wodehouse (1935) method was used for measurements carried out on taxa L. aphaca var. aphaca and L. aphaca var. affinis. The preparations were made in accordance with the Wodehouse and Erdtman methods. Using an Olympus CH20 light microscope (LM), 13 characteristics belonging to pollen were measured and their photographs were taken at 1000 X.

For scanning electron microscopy, the pollen grains were mounted on stubs with double-sided adhesive tape and coated with gold. These coated pollen grains were examined and then photographed using JEOL-JSM-5200 SEM at a magnification of 2000-5000-13000 X. The pollen morphological descriptions followed the terminology of Moore et al. (1991) and Punt et al. (1994).

RESULTS

The results for these Lathyrus species are given in Tables II and III and pictorially presented in Figs. 1-4. However, the detailed results obtailed from Lm and SEM are given below:

L. niger subsp. niger

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate.

Pollen group: Spheroidal [P/E= 1.135 (Non-acetolysed), subprolate P/E = 1.285 (Erdtman)].

Dimensions: Medium size [PXE= 33.336 X 29.363 um (Non-acetolysed), 41.288 X 32.136 um (Erdtman)]. Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi: long, straight, shallow, borders distinct, widened above pori or more widened than pori in mesocolpium, clt less than plt, with acute ends, clg: 24.669 um (Non-acetolysed), 30.097 um (Erdtman), clt: 2.475 um (Non-acetolysed), 1.508 um (Erdtman). Endoapertures-pori: large, lalongate, borders distinct, protruding in mesocolpium, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae (thickness nexine: 3.48 um), plg: 7.540 um (Non-acetolysed), 7.951 um (Erdtman), plt: 10.324 um (Non-acetolysed), 9.786 um (Erdtman) and plt/plg= 0.730 (Non-acetolysed), 0.813 (Erdtman).

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic; polar view - circular.

Ornamentation: Reticulate, reticules medium and irregular, Colpus area and apocolpium are psilate or slightly reticulate.

Ex/int (Non-acetolysed): = 1/1

Exine (Erdtman): = 2.5 um.

L. palustris. subsp. palustris

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate.

Pollen group: Spheroidal [P/E= 1.028 (Non-acetolysed), subprolate P/E= 1.271 (Erdtman)].

Dimensions: Medium size [PXE= 36.917 X 35.902 um (Non-acetolysed), 45.396 X 35.724 um (Erdtman)].

Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi: long, nearly reaching the poles, straight, borders distinct, clt less than plt, with acute ends, clg: 31.130 (Non-acetolysed), 41.180 (Erdtman) um, clt: 3.062 (Non-acetolysed), 1.972 (Erdtman) um. Endoapertures-pori: large, lalongate in non-acetolysed, lolongate in Erdtman, borders distinct, protruding in mesocolpium, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae (thickness nexine: 3.48 um), plg: 9.454 (Non-acetolysed), 11.645 (Erdtman) um, plt: 10.643 (Non-acetolysed), 8.909 (Erdtman) um and plt/plg= 0.888 (Non-acetolysed), 1.307 (Erdtman).

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic to circular; polar view - circular.

Ornamentation: Suprareticulate-foveolate, reticules medium and regular. Apocolpium and aperture area are psilate or slightly reticulate.

Ex/int (Non-acetolysed): = 2/1

Exine thickness (Erdtman): = 2 um.

L. tuberosus

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate.

Pollen group: Spheroidal [P/E= 1.094 (Non-acetolysed), subprolate P/E= 1.263 (Erdtman)].

Dimensions: Medium size [PXE= 34.691 X 31.719 (Non-acetolysed), 46.800 X 37.062 um (Erdtman)].

Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi: long, straight, with obtuse or acute ends, thin above pori, clt less than plt, clg: 24.508 (Non-acetolysed), 29.190 (Erdtman) um, clt: 3.503 (Non-acetolysed), 1.034 (Erdtman) um. Endoapertures-pori: not large, borders not distinct, protruding in mesocolpium, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae (thickness nexine: 4.46 um), slightly lalongate in non-acetolysed, slightly lolongate in Erdtman, plg: 9.048 (Non-acetolysed), 8.491 um (Erdtman), plt: 9.605 (Non-acetolysed), 7.656 um (Erdtman) and plt/plg=0.942 (Non-acetolysed), 1.109 (Erdtman).

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic to slighty rectangular-obtuse-convex; polar view - circular.

Ornamentation: Slightly reticulate-perforate, slightly distinct and irregular in mesocolpium. Apocolpium and aperture area are psilate.

Ex/int (Non-acetolysed): = 1/1

Exine thickness (Erdtman): = 2 um.

L. sphaericus

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY IN Lathyrus SPP / Int. J. Agric. Biol., Vol. 13, No. 3, 2011

Table I: Examined specimens, distribution in the world and locality

Taxa###Section###Distribution###Locality###Herbarium and

###in the world###No

L. niger subsp.###Orobus###Eupope, N.W.###A1 (E) Kirklareli: Babaeski-Yenikoy, shrubs, 100 m, 26.05.1997, F. Gunes###MUFE 5416###

niger###Africa,###(Wodehouse and Acetolysis). A2(A) Istanbul: Sariyer, Bahcekoy Ataturk Arboretumu,###MUFE 5050###

###Caucasia###open forest, 115 m, 29.05.1996, F. Gunes (Wodehouse).###

L. palustris.###Orobus###Eupope, C.and###A2 (A) Istanbul: Riva stream, reed beds, behind the sports center, at sea level,###MUFE 5480###

subsp. palustris###E. Asia###14.06.1997, F.Gunes (Wodehouse and Acetolysis).###

L. tuberosus###Lathyrus###Europe,###A1 (E) Tekirdag: Saray-Vize road, Saray exit, road side, shrubs, 19.06.1998, F. Gunes###MUFE 5769###

###Caucasia,###(Wodehouse). Tekirdag: corlu, Yenimahalle village-Karahalil village road 2. km., stream###MUFE 5488

###Siberia, C.###coast, reed beds, 50 m., 21.06.1997, F. Gunes (Acetolysis). A9 Kars: Melikkoy, fields, 1890###KARS 26###

###m, 02.07.2004, F. Gunes (Wodehouse). B3 Isparta: Egirdir-Aksu road, 7th km after junction,###KARS 2337###

###Asia###KARS 2466###

###955 m, 12.06.2009, F. Gunes (Wodehouse). A8 Bayburt: Batburt-Gumushane road, Aksar

###village entrance, plantation border, 1614 m, 15.07.2009, F. Gunes (Wodehouse).###

L. sphaericus###Orobastrum###Europe,###A1 (E) Kirklareli: Kirklareli-Inece road, 5-6 km., shrubs, 17.05.1997, F. Gunes###MUFE 5165###

###Mediterranean###(Wodehouse). canakkale: Gelibolu-Ecabat, pazarlik village road 3. km forest borders, 150###MUFE 5666###

###m., 25.04.1998, F. Gunes (Acetolysis). B5 Kayseri: Mount Ali, 1650 m, 09.06.2009, F. Gunes###KARS 2292###

###(Wodehouse). C2 Denizli: Saraykoy, Babadag-Tekcam road, forest border, 937 m,###KARS 2355###

###13.06.2009, F. Gunes (Wodehouse). B7 Erzincan: Tercan-Erzincan road, Tunceli 15 km###KARS 2453###

###before the junction, oak forest, 1310 m, 10.07.2009, F. Gunes (Wodehouse).###

L. setifolius###Orobastrum###Medit., Near###A1 (E) Tekirdag: sarkoy, Ucmakdere village, on the skirts of cliffs, sl-50-m.,###MUFE 5684###

###East###03.05.1998, F. Gunes (Wodehouse and Acetolysis). B8 Siirt: Bitlis-Baykan road, 3rd km###KARS 2111###

###before Baykan, road sides, forest border, rocky shoulders, 704 m, 09.05.2009, F. Gunes###KARS 1521###

###(Wodehouse). C1 Mugla: Campus site of Mugla University, 30.03.2008, 54 m, F.###KARS 2069###

###Gunes (Wodehouse). C3 Antalya: Kemer-Kumluca road, 24th km before Kumlucay,###KARS 2009###

###375 m, 23.04.2009, F. Gunes (Wodehouse). C6 Hatay: Belen-Hatay road, Belen exit,###

###forest border, 565 m, 18.04.2009, F. Gunes (Wodehouse).###

L. clymenum###Clymenum###Mediterranean###A2 (E) Istanbul: Sariyer, Bahcekoy-Kilyos road 10 km, road side, 100 m., 26.05.1996,###MUFE 5041###

###F. Gunes (Wodehouse and Acetolysis). B1 Izmir: Narlidere, military region, 30 m,###MUFE 6131###

###20.05.1999, F. Gunes (Wodehouse).###

L. nissolia###Nissolia###Europe, Medit.###A1 (E) Kirklareli: caglayik-Derekoy road 2 km, road side, 525 m., 18.05.1997, F. Gunes###MUFE 5187###

###(Wodehouse). A4 Kirklareli: caglayik-Derekoy entrance, by the fountain-road side, 525 m.,###MUFE 5189###

###F. Gunes (Acetolysis). B7 Tunceli: Pulumur-Goneli Kaynak Tuzla road, 1. km., shrubs, 1935###KARS 2458###

###m, 10.07.2009, F. Gunes (Wodehouse). A6 Amasya: Akdag, Egribuk village entrance, oak###KARS 2481###

###oak shrubs, 1183 m, 16.07.2009, F. Gunes (Wodehouse). B3 Ankara: Beypazari-Karasar ve###KARS 2387###

###Kibriscik road 28. km, 2 km before the junction, 1441 m, 17.06.2009, F. Gunes (Wodehouse).###

L. aphaca var.###Aphaca###E.###A2 (E) Istanbul: Silivri-Istanbul road Selimpasa entrance road side, 80 m., 26.04.1998, F.###MUFE 5678###

affinis###Mediterranean###Gunes and A. cirpici. A1(E) Tekirdag: canakci village entrance, road side, 01.06.1997, 160 m,###MUFE 5428###

###F. Gunes. A1(A) canakkale: Ecabat-Kilitbayir, military region, plantation border,###MUFE 5652###

###24.04.1998, 10 m, F. Gunes. B9 Agri: Tazekoy, 1526 m, 06.06.2009, F. Gunes.###KARS 2255###

L. aphaca var.###Aphaca###E.###A2 (E) Istanbul: Ataturk Arborutumu, forest border, 12.05.1996, 115 m, F. Gunes.###MUFE 5009###

aphaca###Mediterranean###A1(E) Edirne: Enez-Kesan road, Buyukevren village, aktoprakli site, 85 m.,###MUFE 5700###

###29.05.1998, F. Gunes. A2(A) Istanbul: Kumburgaz, highway road side, 60 m.###MUFE 5683###

###03.05.1998, F. Gunes.###

L. aphaca var.###Aphaca###E.###A2 (E): Istanbul-catalca road sides, 115 m., 18.05.1996, A. Cirpici and F. Gunes###MUFE 5014

biflorus###Mediterranean###(Wodehouse). A1(E) Kirklareli: Luleburgaz-Hamitabat village, forest borders plantation###MUFE 5225###

###borders, 100 m., 22.05.1997, F. Gunes (Acetolysis). A1(E) Edirne: Lalapasa, Kayapa village,###MUFE 5358###

###forest border, 24.5.1997, 450 m, F. Gunes and I. Deniz (Wodehouse). C6 Hatay: Dortyol,###KARS 140

###cokek plateau, 500 m, 28.05.2006, F. Gunes (Wodehouse).

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate.

Pollen group: Spheroidal [P/E= 1.083 (Non-acetolysed), subprolate P/E= 1.338 (Erdtman)].

Dimensions: Medium size [PXE= 33.959 X 31.349 (Non-acetolysed), 46.233 X 34.556 um (Erdtman)].

Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi: long, straight, with acute ends, nearly reaching the poles, borders distinct, clt less than plt, clg: 26.351 (Non-acetolysed), 35.876 (Erdtman) um, clt: 1.566 (Non-acetolysed), 1.740 (Erdtman) um. Endoapertures-pori: large, slightly lalongate in non-acetolysed, lolongate in Erdtman, borders distinct, protruding in mesocolpium, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae (thickness nexine: 3.48 um), plg: 8.404 (Non-acetolysed), 9.090 (Erdtman) um, plt: 9.048 (Non-acetolysed), 7.445 (Erdtman) um and plt/plg= 0.929 (Non-acetolysed), 1.221 (Erdtman) um.

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic to slighty rectangular-obtuse-convex; polar view - circular.

Ornamentation: Reticulate, reticules big, distinct and regular. Apocolpium and aperture area are psilate. Ex/int (Non-acetolysed): 2/1. Exine thickness (Erdtman): 2 um.

L. setifolius

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate

Pollen group: Spheroidal [P/E= 1.134 (Non-acetolysed), subprolate P/E= 1.312 (Erdtman)].

Dimensions: Medium size [PXE= 34.394 X 30.334 (Non-acetolysed), 45.098 X 34.367 (Erdtman)].

Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi:long, nearly reaching the poles, straight, borders not distinct, with acute to obtuse ends, clt less than plt, clg: 25.520 um (Non-acetolysed), 35.243 um (Erdtman), clt: 2.96 um (Non-acetolysed), 2.404 um (Erdtman). Endoapertures-pori: large, lalongate, protruding in mesocolpium, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae (thickness nexine: 4.64 um), plg: 7.059 um (Non-acetolysed), 7.934 um (Erdtman), plt: 11.335 um (Non-acetolysed), 12.203 um (Erdtman) and plt/plg= 0.623 (Non-acetolysed), 0.650 (Erdtman).

Table II: (Non-acetolysed) Pollen characteritics of the examined taxa. M; arithmetic means, s; Standard deviation, var.; variations, P: polar diameter, E: equatorial diameter, P/E: Pollen shape, Ex/int: the ratio of exine to the intin, clg: colpus length, clt: colpus width, plg: porus length regarding the poles, plt: porus width regarding the equatorial diameter, plg/plt: porus shape, t: one edge of polar triangle. Marks (except variations) are in micrometers (um). Variation numbers are bar numbers in LM

TAXA###P###E###P/E###Ex/int###clg###clt###plg###plt###plg/ plt###t###

L. niger###M###33.336###29.363###24.669###2.475###7.540###10.324###16.163###

###s###+-1.031###+-0.838###1.135 (W)###=1/1###+-1.157###+-0.885###+-0.563###+-0.693###0.730###+-0.895###

###var.###11-12###10-11###Subprolate###-----###19-23###1-4###6-8###8-10###12-15###

L .palustris###M###36.917###35.902###31.130###3.062###9.454###10.643###11.811###

###s###+-1.304###+-1.283###1.028 (W)###=2/1###+-1.480###+-1.131###+-0.989###+-0.856###0.888###+-1.798###

###var.###12-14 11.5-13.5###Spheroidal###-----###24-30###1-5###7-10###7-10###8-15###

L. tuberousus###M###34.691###31.719###24.508###3.503###9.048###9.605###13.035###

###s###+-1.141###+-1.264###1.094 (W)###=1/1###+-1.611###+-1.194###+-0.804###+-1.161###0.942###+-0.939###

###var.###11-13###10-12###Spheroidal###-----###19-25###1-5###6-9###7-10###7-15###

L. sphaericus###M###33.959###31.349###26.351###1.566###8.404###9.048###14.979###

###s###+-1.127###+-1.447###1.083 (W)###=2/1###+-1.931###+-0.553###+-0.887###+-0.758###0.929###+-1.707###

###var.###11-12###10-12###Spheroidal###-----###20-26###1-2###5-8###6-9###10-16###

###M###34.394###30.334###25.520###2.958###7.059###11.335###

L. setifolius###S###+-0.964###+-1.190###1.134 (W)###=1/1###+-1.591###+-0.858###+-0.643###+-0.881###0.623###non-###

###var.###11-12###10-11###Spheroidal###-----###19-25###1-4###5-7###8-11###measured.###

L. clymenum###M###52.418###35.815###37.623###3.109###7.511###11.629###

###s###+-2.152###+-2.303###1.464 (W)###=3/1###+-1.346###+-0.674###+-0.733###+-0.608###0.646###non-###

###var. 16-19.5###11-14###Prolate###-----###30-35###1-4###5-8###9-11###measured.###

L. nissolia###M###32.791###24.747###21.885###1.889###5.966###8.253###13.147###

###s###+-1.346###+-1.180###1.325 (W)###=3/2###+-0.981###+-0.625###+-0.492###+-0.538###0.723###+-1.287###

###var.###10-12###8-9###Subprolate###-----###16-20###1-3###4-6###6-8###10-13###

L. aphaca var.###M###40.126###26.767###27.701###1.9256###4.369###8.313###

###s###+-1.637###+-1.054###1.499 W)###=2/1###+-1.104###+-0.611###+-0.491###+-0.903###0.526###non-###

aphaca###var. 12.5-15###8-10###Prolate###-----###22-26###1-3###3-4###6-9###measured.###

L. aphaca###M###40.144###27.196###34.034###2.459###7.517###10.440###

###s###+-1.485###+-1.396###1.476 (W)###=2/1###+-2.044###+-0.792###+-0.935###+-0.984###0.720###non-###

var.affinis###var.###15-17###10-12###Prolate###-----###26-33###1-3###5-8###7-11###measured.###

L. aphaca###M###45.604###31.720###31.738###1.879###6.612###10.718###

###s###+-2.028###+-1.644###1.438 (W)###=2/1###+-1.778###+-0.563###+-0.706###+-0.972###0.617###non-###

var.biflorus###var.###16-19###11-13###Prolate###-----###25-31###1-2###5-7###8-11###measured.

Table III: (Erdtman) Pollen characteritics of the examined taxa. M; arithmetic means, s; Standard deviation, var.; variations, P: polar diameter, E: equatorial diameter, P/E: Pollen shape, Ex: exine thickness, Ex/int: the ratio of exine to the intin, clg: colpus length, clt: colpus width, plg: porus length regarding the poles, plt: porus width regarding the equatorial diameter, plg/plt: porus shape, t: one edge of polar triangle, structure: exine, sculpture: ornamentation. Marks (except variations) are in micrometers (um). Variation numbers are bar numbers in LM

TAXA###P###E###P/E###Ex###clg###clt###plg###plt###plg/ plt###Costae###Structure###Sculpture###

L. niger###M###41.288###32.136###30.097###1.508###7.951###9.786###Tectate###Reticulate, reticules big###

###s###+-1.615###+-1.539###1.285###=2.5###+-1.816###+-0.423###+-0.465###+-1.032###0.813###3.48###infrastructurae###and regular###

L .palustris###var.###15-17###11-14###Subprolate###24-30###1-2###6-8###7-10###

###M###45.396###35.724###41.180###1.972###11.646###8.909###Tectate###Reticules medium and###

###s###+-1.960###+-2.132###1.271###=2###+-2.264###+-0.812###+-0.802###+-1.099###1.307###3.48###infrastructurae###regular###

###var.###16-19###13-15###Subprolate###30-40###1-3###9-11###5-10###

L.###M###46.800###37.062###29.190###1.034###8.491###7.656###Slightly reticulate,###

tuberousus###s###+-1.109###+-2.984###1.263###=2###+-1.591###+-0.756###+-0.541###+-0.656###1.109###4.64###Tectate###Perforate-foveolate,###

###var.###16-20###12-16###Subprolate###23-28###0.5-1.5###7-8###6-8###infrastructurae###slightly distinct and###

###irregular###

L.###M###46.234###34.556###1.338###35.876###1.740###9.090###7.445###Reticulate , reticules big###

sphaericus###s###+-1.834###+-1.620###Subprolate- =2###+-1.875###+-0.519###+-1.008###+-0.904###1.221###3.48###Tectate###or medium size, distinct,###

###var.###17-19###12-14###Prolate###27-34###1-2###6-9###5-8###infrastructurae###and regular###

L. setifolius M###45.098###34.367###35.243###2.404###7.934###12.203###Reticulate, reticules###

###s###+-3.942###+-2.878###1.312###=2###+-1.261###+-0.694###+-0.598###+-0.742###0.650###4.64###Tectate###distinct and medium size###

L.###var.###14-21###11-15###Subprolate###27-32###1.5-2.5###6-8###10-12###infrastructurae###

###M###58.604###46.332###47.166###3.109###8.236###14.245###Tectate###Reticulate, reticules###

clymenum###s###+-3.193###+-3.018###1.265###=1###+-2.096###+-1.420###+-1.740###+-1.540###0.578###1.74###infrastructurae###regular, distinct and###

L. nissolia###var.###20-26###15-20###Subprolate###37-45###1-5###4-11###10-15###medium size###

###M###40.508###28.444###28.490###1.578###6.009###9.094###Reticules regular,###

###s###+-1.808###+-1.832###1.424###=2###+-1.643###+-0.687###+-0.759###+-1.214###0.661###4.06###Tectate###medium size and distinct###

L. aphaca###var.###14-17###10-13###Prolate###22-27###1-3###4-7###6-10###infrastructurae###

###M###44.824###32.656###33.269###1.462###6.287###8.770###Reticulate and Perforate-###

var.###s###+-3.058###+-1.957###1.373###=2###+-2.588###+-0.605###+-0.871###+-1.230###0.717###3.48###Tectate###foveolate, reticules###

biflorus###var.###15-20###11-14###Prolate###25-34###1-3###4-7###5-9###infrastructurae###medium size, distinct###

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic; polar view - circular to slightly triangular.

Ornamentation: Reticulate, reticules distinct and medium size. Apocolpium reticulate, aperture area are psilate. Ex/Int (Non-acetolysed): 1/1. Exine thickness (Erdtman): 2 um.

L. clymenum

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate.

Pollen group: Prolate [P/E= 1.464 (Non-acetolysed), subprolate P/E= 1.265 (Erdtman)].

Dimensions: Medium size [PXE= 52.418 X 35.815 (Non-acetolysed), 58.604 X 46.332 (Erdtman)].

Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi: very long, nearly reaching poles, straight, borders distinct, with acute ends clt less than plt, clg: 37.623 um (Non-acetolysed), 47.166 um (Erdtman), clt: 3.109 um (Non-acetolysed), 3.109 um (Erdtman). Endoapertures-pori: large, lalongate, protruding in mesocolpium, borders distinct, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae (thickness nexine: 1.74 um), plg: 7.511 (Non-acetolysed), 8.236 (Erdtman) um, plt: 11.629 um (Non-acetolysed), 14.245 um (Erdtman) and plt/plg= 0.646 (Non-acetolysed), 0.578 (Erdtman).

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic; polar view - triangular to slightly circular.

Ornamentation: Reticulate, reticules, regular, distinct and medium size, collumellae are visible inside the lumina. Apocolpium slightly reticulate and aperture area are psilate. Ex/int (Non-acetolysed): 1/2. Exine thickness (Erdtman): 1 um.

L. nissolia

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate.

Pollen group: Subprolate [P/E= 1.325 (Non-acetolysed), prolate P/E= 1.424 (Erdtman)].

Dimensions: Medium size [P X E= 32.790 X 24.747 um (Non-acetolysed), 40.508 X 28.444 um (Erdtman)]. Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi: long, not straight, borders slightly distinct, with acute ends, clt less than plt, clg: 21.885 (Non-acetolysed), 28.490 um (Erdtman), clt: 1.890 (Non-acetolysed), 1.578 um (Erdtman). Endoapertures-pori: not large, lalongate,

protruding, borders distinct, protruding in mesocolpium, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae (thickness nexine: 4.04 um), plg: 5.966 (Non-acetolysed), 6.009 (Erdtman) um, plt: 8.253 (Non-acetolysed), 9.094 (Erdtman) um and plt/plg= 0.723 (Non-acetolysed), 0.660 (Erdtman) um.

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic to slighty rectangular-obtuse-convex; polar view - circular.

Ornamentation: Reticulate, reticules regular, medium size and distinct. Apocolpium psilate and aperture area are slightly reticulate. Ex/int (Non-acetolysed): 3/2. Exine thickness (Erdtman): 2 um.

L. aphaca var. affinis

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate.

Pollen group: Prolate (P/E= 1.476).

Dimensions: Medium size (PXE= 40.144 X 27.196 um).

Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi: long, straight, borders distinct, with acute ends, clt less than plt, clg: 34.034 um. clt: 2.459 um. Endoapertures-pori: large, borders distinct, lalongate, protruding in mesocolpium, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae can not measured, plg: 7.517 um, plt: 10.440 um and plt/plg= 0.720.

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic; polar view - circular.

Ornamentation: Reticulate, reticules medium size, distinct. Apocolpium and aperture area are psilate. Ex/int: 2/1.

L. aphaca var. aphaca

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate. Pollen group: Prolate (P/E= 1.499).

Dimensions: Medium size (PXE= 40.126 X 26.767 um). Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi: not long, straight, borders not distinct, with acute ends, clt less than plt, clg: 27.701 um, clt: 1.926 um. Endoapertures-pori: small, lalongate, borders distinct, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae (thickness nexine) can not measured, plg: 4.369 um, plt: 8.313 um and plt/plg= 0.526.

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic; polar view - circular to triangular.

Ornamentation: Reticulate-perforate-foveolate, reticules medium and slightly distinct Apocolpium and aperture area are psilate or slightly reticulate. Ex/int: 2/1.

L. aphaca var. biflorus

Pollen class: 3-zonocolporate.

Pollen group: Prolate [P/E= 1.438 (Non-acetolysed), prolate P/E= 1.373 (Erdtman)].

Dimensions: Medium size [PXE= 45.604 X 31.720 um) (Non-acetolysed), 44.824 X 32.656 um (Erdtman)].

Apertures: Apertures with an operculum (thickening of the middle of the aperture membrane). Ectoapertures-colpi: long, straight, borders slightly distinct in non-acetolysed, distinct in Erdtman, with acute ends, clt less than plt, clg: 31.738 um (Non-acetolysed), 32.688 um (Erdtman), clt: 1.879 um (Non-acetolysed), 6.545 um (Erdtman). Endoapertures-pori: large, lalongate, borders distinct, protruding in mesocolpium, with an annulus (thickness sexine) and costae (thickness nexine: 3.48 um), plg: 6.612 um (Non-acetolysed), 14.887 um (Erdtman), plt: 10.718 um (Non-acetolysed), 16.427 um (Erdtman) and plt/plg= 0.617 (Non-acetolysed), 0.717 (Erdtman).

Outlines: Equatorial view - elliptic to slighty rectangular-obtuse-convex; polar view - circular to triangular. Ornamentation: Reticulate-perforate-foveolate, reticules medium size, distinct Apocolpium and aperture area are psilate or slightly reticulate.

Ex/int (non-acetolysed): = 2/1.

Exine thickness (Erdtman): = 2 um.

DISCUSSION

The pollen of the examined taxa were 3-zonocolpotrate and its pollen groups were spheroidal, subprolate and prolate. The longest pollen grains belong to L. clymenum (P=52.418/E=35.815 um in non-acetolysed and P=58.604/E=46.332 um in Erdtman) and the smallest L. nissolia (P=32.791/E=24.747 um in non-acetolysed and P=40.508/E=28.444 um in Erdtman). While pollen belonging to L. niger subsp. niger, L. palustris subsp. palustris, L. tuberosus, L. sphaericus and L. setifolius are fresh, when they become fossilized in response to spheroidal they form subprolate. The fresh pollen for L. clymenum are prolate and its fossilized pollen are subprolate.

The fresh pollen for L. nissolia are subprolate and its fossilized pollen are prolate. The fresh pollen and the fossilized pollen for L. aphaca var. bifilorus are prolate. When the pollen for L. clymenum are fossilized, they are shorter. The pollen length for L. aphaca. var. bifilorus was left unchanged however, the pollen lengths for other taxa lengthened after being fossilized (Table II and III).

The pollen shape in equatorial view is elliptical- obtuse-convex, polar view circular to triangular-obtuse- convex as determined. The aperture sistem is consists of ectoapertures (colpi) and endoapertures (pori). There are operculum above apertures, usually colpus long, borders distinct, with acute ends and thick costae near pori. The longest colpi L. clymenum (37.623 um, in non-acetolysed and 47.166 um in Erdtman and the smallest L. nissolia (21.885 um in non-acetolysed and 28.490 um in Erdtman was observed in the taxa. The narrowest colpi L. tuberosus (1.034 um in Erdtman, L. sphaericus (1.566 um in non-acetolysed), widest colpi L. clymenum (3.109 um in Erdtman, L. tuberosus (3.503 um in non-acetolysed) observed in the taxa. clt less than plt in all taxa. The pore shape of examined taxa was lalongate. Even though different figures were observed for pollen types Non-acetolysed and Erdtman, their pore shapes did not change. Pori usually large, borders distinct, annulus distinct, thick costae formed near pori.

The biggest pore determined in Erdtman was L. setifolius and L. clymenum, in non-acetolysed L. palustris and L. clymenum (Table III).

In the Erdtman method the exine thickness is 2.5 um for L. niger subsp. niger, 1 um for L. clymenum and 2 um in other taxa. Generally, the ornamentation was reticulate. No significant differences were observed in the localities within the comparative study. Aytug et al. (1971) stated that the morphological properties of pollen did not change with environmental and geographical conditions. Our findings support the accuracy of this information. L. tuberosus (Tosheva et al., 2004), L. niger (Gapotchka and Chamara, 1972; Gapotchka, 1974, Moore et al., 1991; Halbritter, 2000; Beug, 2004; Tosheva and Tonkov, 2005) and L. palustris Tosheva and Tonkov (2005) are all researches that have carried out studies on the morphological properties of pollen for taxa. The pollen grains of L. niger is related to Lathyrus-type (Beug, 2004), while Moore et al. (1991) assign this pollen grains to Vicia cracca-type. Halbritter (2000) reported the presence of psilate ornamentation.

Gapotchka and Chamara (1972) and Gapotchka (1974) reported that the grain size is P x E = 34.7 x 26.0 um, the ornamentation is perporate.

According to Tosheva and Tonkov (2005) the grain size is P x E = 34.6 x 26.6 um, the ornamentation is perporate - foveolate. Our findings, Tosheva and Tonkov (2005) findings P x E = 33.336 x 29.363 um in non-acetolysed, 41.288 X 32.136 um Erdtman and the ornamentation show compliance excluding these properties. L. palustris is Lathyrus-type acording to (Beug, 2004), while Moore et al. (1991) assign this pollen grains to Vicia cracca-type. According to Faegri and Iversen (1989) the pollen grains have distinct reticulum and heavy costae along the colpi. Tosheva and Tonkov (2005) reported that P x E = 46.7 x 36.6, subprolate. Our results confirm the previous data (Table III).

The thickest costae was observed in L. setifolius (4.64 um) and the thinest costae was observed in L. clymenum (1.74 um). When researches carried out to date are examined, among the Lathyrus taxa (Aytug et al., 1971; Moore et al., 1991; Perveen and Qaiser, 1998; Gunes and Cirpici, 1998, 2010; Tosheva et al., 2004; Gunes and Aytug, 2010), for whose pollen morphological properties have been determined (44 taxa), it is observed that the longest pollen belongs to L. clymenum and the smallest pollen belongs to L. nissolia.

The differences in pollen morphology of 10 Lathyrus taxa could be an indication of their genetic differences. Cronquist (1968) reported that pollen sculpture types have valid morphological features in taxonomy. Thus, the taxonomic value of these taxa in Lathyrus taxa, as well as their polen morphology, could be a distinguishing criterion. Thus, morphological structures of pollen seem to be useful for differentiating taxa; thus, it is suggested that they could be of benefit in taxonomical studies.

Acknowledgement: The authors would like to thank to Scientific Research Project Commission of Marmara University (Project No: 1996 FEN-16) for financial support.

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FATMA GUNES Kafkas Universty, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Biology, Kars, Turkey Corresponding author's e-mail: drgunes@gmail.com To cite this paper: Gunes, F., 2011. The pollen morphology of some Lathyrus Spp. (Fabaceae) taxa from Turkey. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 13: 151-158 GUNES et al. / Int. J. Agric. Biol., Vol. 13, No. 3, 2011

Kafkas Universty, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Biology, Kars, Turkey
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