The Perspective on Nature of Women Rights Violations in Pakistan.
Human Rights are the growing theme of great interest for researchers in Pakistan very recently. Human Rights are defined and protected, wherever there is great difference in approaches, philosophies and operational strategies. This article explores the nature and dynamics of Women Rights violations in Pakistan. This is sub-theme of Human Rights. Women are highly vulnerable in some pockets of Pakistani society. Women are abused, tortured and killed by various excuses and pretexts of honour. The article is based on data from primary field interviews and secondary sources. The study encompasses data from Sindh and Punjab. It includes the focus how women are victims of fatal violence in our society.
Keywords: Human rights, Women, Pakistan, Violation, Honour, Society
Women have been symbolized as commodity for male members in tribal structure. Women are considered Zar (wealth) which is possessed by men. There are terms like Zar (wealth), Zamin (land) and Zan (woman) which actually portray and reflect how we treat our women. Women face all sorts of sacrifices when revenges/enmities are settled. (Mehdi, 2000) Women are highly persecuted in Pakistan in all terms, conditions and social perspectives. This study engages to explore the reasons behind women-related human rights violations in Pakistan. Women are intentionally kept backward and harassed in their routine-life activities. Women in Pakistan have been intentionally kept backward and are left unaware about the laws which can provide them justice, relief and protection (Shaeed, 1997:54).Women are isolated socially and have barely any substantial knowledge of Islam. Women lives and fates are controlled, compelled and subjugated generally in Pakistan.
Society, law, culture and agriculture milieu have imprisoned women. Women have been uplifted in their social status by early traditions and Quranic assertions. However, women in Pakistani society are in great chains and fetters. Misinterpretation of Islam has lowered women status to personal property. Women are enslaved, given no inheritance and are ignored in terms of their rights. The jumble of Islamic, customary and statutory laws has compounded the complex of Women rights in Pakistan. The Criminal Justice System has practically played no role in empowering women to get fruits of her women rights.
Women are conceived as property and treated miserably impacting their role in social, economic and political terms. Women are highly ill-treated and subjected to worst forms of violence. Women homicide is considered suicide in many cases due to pathology of social attitudes regarding women. The criminal justice administration ignores all issues of women rights abuses. Women can get no relief because their fate is decided by male-dominated social members (Yasmeen Hassan, 1995).
The concept of women's rights
As rights applied to provide equity all human beings on the basis of law and state for survival strategy in a human society. However, women's rights stand for imparting and improving a status to women through the set of the practice and movement in a civil society. It smoothly states that women as human being having rights in a human society. Women rights defined as the frame work for developing concrete strategies in lieu of change in respective lives in spite of degradation, violence and marginality. Moreover, United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985), being associated with the different racial, religious, geographical, cultural, and class backgrounds resorted to develop the organization for improving took up organizing to improve the status of women in a civil society.
Hence fort, the rights for women all over the universe being related with creation of collaborative strategies as to protect and promote the basic rights of women in human society as per requirement of facilitation to make equal life like others for survival strategies. However, the rights of women push women to acquire bitter experience for their rights as or changes in the walks of life so as to sustain a fruitful life. Women's rights indicate that equality be provision to women like men in a society and fully all rights for women be promoted and protected in their surroundings on basis of the same pleasant and work as well enjoyment. In 1945, the Charter of the United Nations (UN Charter) narrated that rights for all should be based on equality without human discrimination in a civil society. Meanwhile the international rights for women stated that women and men must be equally enjoy the human rights without any difference and bias gender in a civil society.
Besides to this, women supposed as the protective approach and treated the differences as compared to men in society, furthermore, women kept like property and rearing children, watching homes, looking after the whole family and others, given status of mother, wife and sister in a society, even assigned other tasks like domesticity, housewife, servant of homes, family worker, labour work jobs. Irrespective to male who enjoying all over in the society shunning to work like women and engulfing all the rights of women, Hence forth, same work status assigned to male on the basis of equality that is recognised as the women's rights in human society. All societies of world discussed that women and men treated equally and honesty as per the rules of state and religion, it means that special treatment to the specificities of their lives, constructs women's experience as non-universal.
Women, rights indicate the enhancement of the usage of temporary and permanent Particular strategies and measures in respect of the women as social change in all aspect of lives.
Violation against women rights and Islamic Law
Islam is totally against human violence which has created nuisance and disturbance for women in social milieu of social environment. Actual, violation strands for illegal behaviour with another human being in society. Islam acknowledges that women treated as human not inhuman way, meanwhile women when as becomes wife treated wrongly in the most of societies in its all forms and ways not as per rules of religion, but own will and wish to fulfil filthy human desires. The Quranic interpretation highly condoned abusive behaviour and violation to women in human society is not permitted to anyone. The Qur'an further, describes the reciprocal marital relationship stating "...they (your wives) are your garment and you are a garment for them..." (Qur'an, 2:187). Meanwhile, the Holy Quran narrates that whatsoever they adopt for you the same should for your life partners (wife).It is means that human right for both genders found equals in this respect.
The Universal Declaration states: "No one shall be subject to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment." Therefore, women have to articulate the experiences encountered by them through the individuals of society like rape, sexual harassment domestic violence, degrading way of male dominated figure which are generally violation of women rights in a civil society of the World. Although women signified as guideline of behaviour for family persons, a code of ethics and solution of human issues within family, but considered and given as low status engulfing the rights in a human society. The Prophet Muhammad said, "The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best behaviours, and the best of you are those who are best to their wives" again the Prophet said "Give her food when you take food, clothe when you clothe yourself, do not revile her face, and do not beat her" however, those who become against women they are actually opposite to covenant of Allah.
Islamic law also an address that rights of women in civil society that husband should provide all basic things to women like food, shelter, and clothing. A husband's absence from the home, his inability to fulfil his wife's sexual needs, or mistreatment of his wife's family members can result in dissolution of the marriage contract that is absolutely forbidden in Islam. Meanwhile God revealed the verse about men being caretakers of women (Qur'an, 4:34). Again the Quran directed "not drive them (the wife) out of their houses, nor should they themselves go forth, unless they commit an open indecency" (Qur'an, 65:1).
Also, husbands should not use divorce as an excuse to harm the wife in any way, rather the injunction is to "retain them with kindness or divorce them with kindness" (Qur'an, 65:2) finally Islam is highly directed that equality and humanity should be maintained as per rule of religion mentioned in Islam for rights of women in a civil society. Islam speaks of the kindness, justice and proper treatment for women.
The State of Women Rights in Pakistan and Related Studies
Islam is the religion which is highly humane to women especially. Islam denies separation of women but provides her unique role. Islam is practically against all types of slavery (The Inquiry Commission for Women, 1995).Human wages if differential in nature and scope can create several problems in terms of rural vis-a-vis urban labour. Wages in rural labour are lower than wages to urban labourers. This difference has also impacted society. As per Adams (1995) in Pakistan, as in other creating nations, settlements can have a significant impact on rustic wage dissemination. The country earnings have a tendency to be lower than wages earned in the urban part. It is this difference in the middle of rustic and urban wages that causes villagers to look for work somewhere else, either in urban communities or abroad (Adams, 1995).Women are target of various injustices in Pakistani society.
This is more critical the case due to tribal customs and self-willed execution of Islamic laws by the po wer structure of tribes. Women are maltreated due to gender weaknesses and ascribed and associated roles given by social structure (Simi andAsma, 1997). Women had been suffering from all sorts of lower status due to work of tribal codes, customary practices, Islamic codes and pro-male traditions. Women are highly persecuted and their opportunities have been blocked by male members. Women homicides have been defined as private affair of family members who name such offences as automatically granted by status of women. The state may not interfere as state is no party. They define it issue of family or crew. The father or any other powerful male member has authority to kill women on pretext of honour violation. There are no witnesses to protect women from getting slaughtered any ways. (Hassan, 1998) Women are commodified by values and customs of Pakistani society in some social tiers.
The attitudes developing from religion and class system have lowered status of women in society. Women do not belong to any class, creed, religion but a lowest of all generated by the name of female. Women have no privileges but only restrictions. Women or property, commodity or thing which can be traded, sold and purchased. (Tahira, 1999)
Women are murdered in our country like sheep and goats. State and society cannot protect women being weaker to powerful customs (Jehangir, 1999). Women are target of honor killing leaving male members free and safe. Male members or co-culprits escape any sort of revenge. Women are highly exploited. Every murder gets coloring of honor killing freeing male members from getting prosecuted (Amnesty International,1999).Women are violently victimized by society leaving women to knock no door of justice. Women have been lowered to exist in no social position. Women face violence as permanent feature of typical male behaviour. (Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, 1999)
The concept of honour of women is typically defined and maliciously executed by male. Women are attached symbol of honour preparing her to die by male choice. Women freedom and free will are hanged in the way. Women are killed because they have allegedly violated moral codes of tribal community. This is will of male-dominated patriarchal society.
Farida (1998) 'Engagements of Culture, Customs and Law: Womens' Lives and Activism' asserted that culture has influenced the law in past. Law is currently also influenced by culture and powerful customs. Laws are implemented and enforced as per social conventions. So application of laws pertinent to women has been subject to customs, cultural practices and conventions. Thus honour killing has been customarily accepted and tolerated by our society. Women are executed by various reasons by male members of society. The choice of killing women is tribally shaped. However, Islam does not allow injustices against women. Society needs to control such assault on women. Women (Simi, 1997)
There are certain effects and implications of hold of customary laws and practices in tribal and rural set-up of Pakistan. The laws govern the sex relations in poorly-developed areas of Pakistan. Women or girls have no freedom to select their life-partners. Women are sold like any cheap commodity. Women have no property right. Women who fail to give birth to male child are considered evil (Ali, 2000:175)
Women being killed on the pretext of honour is not Islamic practice or convention but purely a tribal tradition (Hassan, 1998)
There are no generally acknowledged figures for the quantity of reinforced youngster workers in India. Once more, Government's dedication to general instruction and destitution annihilation projects have brought about noteworthy diminishing in number of reinforced works. In the customary commercial ventures of astounding hand-woven fabrics and painstaking work, expanded mindfulness by universal purchasers and stringent weighs put set up by multinational companies on their suppliers has brought about suppliers and producers to supplant reinforced tyke work by rather offering instructive offices to offspring of their representatives and labourers. Global Tourists to places like Rajasthan additionally have influence and have at commonly reported occurrences of tyke work to powers who quickly act to check any youngster work. Conversely, of 20 million fortified workers in Pakistan 7.5 million are youngsters.
Objective of the research
Objective of the study presents two provinces like Sindh and Punjab where women confronting violation of rights and made feeble figure of human society. Women are made voiceless in male dominated society. However, the study highlights the core issues of violation of rights of women in a civil society.
Methodology of the Study
However, the nature of the present study employed a descriptive and a qualitative approach and covered through in-depth Interviews from the respondents.
The present study is based on evaluative research because it covers the different forms of violation taking against the right of women in Pakistani society. Furthermore, it explores out the reasons behind of violence against the right of women in a civil society. However, Evaluative research is such a form of research that deals with complex social phenomena, and traces out the facts from a problem in spite of involvement of the different elements for clarity of sense (Walliman, 2005). A qualitative approach was applied for such the study and comprised of qualitative interviews focusing on unstructured and focused interviews from the respondents with help of list of topics narrating the questions and discussion the reality of matter pertaining to violence and right of women in Pakistani society. Moreover the list of questions along with sensible approach presents human conversation is considered as interview guide (Fielding and Thomas, 2001).
Sample Size Selection:
For the present study women of two provinces like Sindh and Punjab were selected, who were deprived of human rights in a civil society. The respondents were of all ages and lacking the basic rights and their rights made violated through the dominated figure of a society.
Primary and secondary sources of data were acquired from the respondents of Sindh and Punjab provinces. Meanwhile the primary source of data gained through locating respondents of the both provinces and secondary data covered through research journals, articles and other stuffs regarding violation right of Women in Pakistan.
Tool and techniques
The different cases of women were covered from the both provinces of Pakistan. The unstructured interviews based study carried out for covering the main purpose of a study. The respondents were asked specific questions highlighting the occurrence of violation of rights in a society. Relevancy of items maintained for confirmation of results of such the questions carried out within two provinces of Pakistan
As the data for the present study was quite difficult to collect while the respondents were the women of two provinces of Pakistan. It was mostly complex to express the reality of matter for women being deprived and feeble in male dominated society. Keeping the views of research and taking the respondents into confident and giving them surety of exposing the truth before other kept secret, After that, the respondents showed an interest of sharing information in a proper way.
Limitation of study
The study was limited two provinces like Sindh and Punjab, and the respondents for such the study were only women of Sindh and Punjab not of other provinces of Pakistan. The study revealed violation of rights of women irrespective to it, there are sides being concerned with women social problems in a civil society
Rationale of study
Pakistan is a rich country and created on the basis of scarification of human lives on the Earth. As for rights of the individuals who confronted with a lot of problems.irrespective to it, women realized as pious figure of a human society. However, Pakistani women treated in different perspective in Pakistani society in spite of provision of rights to them as per rules of life and religions of world. Moreover, Women right violation issue increasing in Pakistani society on account of the said in the literature treated through the various odd practices of dealing with them in homes or houses by the family members. In addition to narrating such the facts and figures entangled with the innocent women good for nothing in a civil society. Besides to this, the prevailing laws and norms of societies failed to cope with such an issue taking with women and government machinery remained silent and calm instead of power and control over the public in the country.
The written documents are made dormant and agencies and civil societies lacking interest to grip such the uprising scenarios in a civil society. Apart from this, woman is made from rip of man, and isolated to man whereas coarse and harsh attitude of male dominated society resulted the drawbacks for women targeting women with the various punishments that being forbidden in civil society. The overall women treated wrongly in a society in spite of availability of norms and laws for leading a meaningful life, but women are just puppet in the hands of male dominated society. Here women are said worried and failure in every field of success in the walks of life. The present study highlighted several tactics of right violation of women in Pakistan through the nature and the different perspective ways. In nutshell, women treated badly in a society owing to male dominated factor in human society.
The study justified that women should be rendered status and position in a civil society rather than treating inhuman manners in such a way that is totally denied in the entire religions of world, the study figured out the facts and solution of such unwanted violation of rights of women in Pakistani society.
Research outcomes focused on the innumerable findings regarding right violation, nature and perspective in Pakistani society. Women are maltreated in male dominated society owing to the different genuine factors which constantly affect the status and life of woman in Pakistani society, Research declared the various reasons and logic behind violation of rights of women like slavery factor and enclosed within the walls of homes. In addition to assigning labour of home and field the whole time without any rest provided such the women in a society. Even more, they are not paid of their labour and work and made injustices with them in Pakistani society. Male dominated society treated women in the different perspective inspite of equality discussed in the religious books of World treating women on equal basis and provide them their due rights as narrated through laws and norms of society.
Male considered woman less and weak figure of society referring fake description and oriented stories as proving low status of women in human society. Meanwhile women are given less opportunities finding out feeble positions in a civil society. Male dominated society where male has power to kill any woman on the pretext of property or honour matter without any hindrance and restriction that is why women are given no more respect and veneration in a society. The right of handing over property from portion of family is not allowed to women due to different reasons as may be an old traditional practice followed from the different era and at the present times. However, tribal people avoid providing the basic right to women in social life. Women are sold and traded like goat and sheep for sake of the different reasons in Pakistani society. In other words, women are exploited for the various reasons and in inhuman ways. This is the whole because of male behaviour in a civil society.
However, women have no right to select any male of own choice within own compartments of survival fitness in a civil society. As religious directions and Quranic descriptions urged to have freedom life in case of choosing life partner so as to lead a balanced life on the earth while male enjoyed such pleasant part of life and women encountering the complexities and difficulties in every pace of survival in a civil society. Irrespective to it, women are made disfigured with assistance of throwing acidity on body as well face that is entirely against norms of human rights in a human society.
Summary and Results
* It was learnt that only eight (8) percent women had permission to choose partner in Sindh.
* Fate of women is settled by tribal jirga laws which have no statutory status in Pakistani laws but are popularly practiced in backward areas of Pakistan. Killing and other serious issues related to women are settled by family or tribal chief reviewed by tribesmen.
* Aside from contemplations of human respect of ladies, there are additionally convincing social and financial motivations to do this. The quantity of instances of brutality in diverse classes of offenses and their territory insightful breakdown is as per the following. There were: 4.10 Cases of Violence against Women: Comparison between 2008 and 2009 As indicated by the information gathered by Aurat Foundations workplaces in Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta amid 1st January to 31st December 2009, through its squeeze cutting Administration, the instances of roughness against ladies have expanded in 2009 when contrasted with the earlier year in 2008. There were 7571 instances of brutality against ladies in 2008, which have hoped to 8548, an increment of right around 13 percent. This is regardless of the way that fewer measurements were accessible from a few areas of NWFP and Baluchistan because of security circumstance.
* The women working in rural regions deprived an account of the different factors as they are degraded, disrespected and exploited at every step of social life.
* Women are supposed to be puppet at the hands of Male dominated society. Male is considered as the master of fate of women in a civil society.
* Asma Jahangir (HRCP Newsletter, July 99)
* Farida, Shaheed (1998) Engagements of Culture, Customs and Law: Women's Lives and Activism, In Shaping Women's Lives: Laws, Practices and Strategies in Pakistan, ShirkatGah, Lahore, 1998, P.70.
* Fielding, N., and Thomas, H. (2001). Qualitative Interviewing. In Gilbert, N. (Edt). Researching Social Life. [2nd Ed]. London. The Sage Publication
* Hassan (1998) "Reflection on the Law of Qisas and Diyat", Kifayat Academy, Lahore.
* Honour Killings of Girls and Women in Pakistan" by Amnesty International 1999, Geneva.
* Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (1999) "The State Of Human Rights in 1998.
* Khalid, M. Rahman (1999) Dr.Riffat Hassan. A Feminist Theologian", In: The Review, 29 July-4 August 1999, And P. 22.
* Report of The Commission Of Inquiry For Women, August 1995, P.9.
* Shah, Nafisa (1998) A Story In Black: Karo Kari Killings In Upper Sindh, Reuter Foundation Paper 100, Oxford, 1996, P. 56.
* Simi, Kamal, Asma Khan (1996), A Study Of The Interplay... Vol. II, P.2.
* Simi, Kamal, Asma Khan (1997) A Study Of The Interplay Of Formal And Customary Laws On Women, Vol, and 1, 1997, P.2.
* Simi, Kamal, Asma Khan (1999) A Study Of The Interplay Of Formal And Customary Laws On Women, Vol, And 3, 1999.
* Tahira Shahid Khan Dr. (1999) Wedding Bells In: The Review, 4-10 March 1999, P.8.
* Walliman, N. (2005). Your Research Project. [2 Ed]. New Delhi: Vistaar
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* Yasmeen Hassan (1999) The Heaven Becomes Hell. A Study of Domestic Violence in Pakistan, ShirkatGah, 1995, P.49.