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The Mission of the Church to People with Disabilities in Southern and Central Africa: An Appraisal.

"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to bring
good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the
captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go
free, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favour." (Luke 4:18-19)


This paper examines the church's role regarding people with disabilities (PWDs) in Southern and Central Africa on the basis of Christ's "mission statement" as recorded in the gospel of Luke, as quoted above. My main argument is that the church, as a sacred institution whose main objective is to save the whole humanity and restore the human race into a covenant relationship with God, is duty bound to serve everyone regardless of their social, physical, mental, economic, political, and spiritual status. The inclusive-ness of Christ's mission in the world is seen in the comprehensiveness of his mission statement. This includes people who in this earthly life were considered social outcasts deserving no attention from the Son of God. By including the blind, the poor, and the captives as the main focus of his mission, Jesus the Christ took a daring step of reaching out to people who during Christ's earthly ministry would be categorized as sinners. In this regard, the church as the body of Christ and the kingdom of God in the making on earth is duty bound to follow in the footsteps of its founder, who discriminated against no one but took the love of God to everyone, particularly PWDs.

Disabilities: A challenge since creation

Biblical scholars have characterized God's work of creation in Genesis 1:1-31 as the establishment of order out of chaos that ended with the biblical declaration in Genesis 1:31 that "God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good." The goodness of God inherent in the orderliness of the universe experienced its first challenge with the fall of Adam and Eve, which began a chain of evil that affected all of humanity and required undoing through the atoning work of Christ. In this paper, disabilities are taken as the general malaise that has affected humanity since the time of creation and is in need of general restoration. This malaise is manifested in different ways in different peoples: visible in some and invisible in others. In other words, the whole of humanity is, in one way or another, affected by some disability that requires the saving mission of the church as entrusted to it by the Lord Jesus Christ.

One of the missions of the church regarding PWDs is to promote and enhance their human dignity. In doing this, the church is fulfilling the basic divine demands as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). This declaration traces its roots to a few years just after the Second World War. The values enshrined in this declaration set universal standards on how the people of the world should treat one another. Its preamble recognizes and reaffirms the inherent dignity, equality, and inalienable rights of all members of the human family as the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world. The UDHR notes that human beings should treat one another in a spirit of brotherhood because we are all born free and equal in dignity and rights and because dignity is an essential part of what it means to be human. This reminds the church that every person, including PWDs, is of value and is worthy of respect.

One of the missions of the church, therefore, is to remind itself and its members of the uniqueness of every human being. Despite obvious differences between PWDs and those without disabilities, the church needs to accept its responsibility to invest PWDs with honour and dignity. (1) PWDs are quite often unhappy with how they are treated by the church and society at large. They prefer a relationship based on mutual respect, rather than on power and hurtful healing theology. (2) Miriam Spies puts it succinctly:
When noticed in my wheelchair, I have been greeted with the words, "I
will pray for you" or "Bless you." In those moments, I am seen as
someone to be pitied or in need of healing. Often, they leave so
quickly that I cannot explain how I don't believe in curing disability,
nor do I think God does. I believe disability is part of God's vast
array of creation and I am as beloved and gifted by God's grace as they
are. When others cannot affirm this, I feel belittled and used. (3)


The view that PWDs are part of God's creative act has been reiterated by Karim Okiki, a young Kenyan woodcarver, who indicated that "being disabled is part of God's diversity in creation, therefore Christians all over the world should welcome people with disabilities as part of God's creation." (4) Christianity in Southern and Central Africa, and in practically all Christian traditions, has revealed a negative attitude toward PWDs. This is a result of Africa's cultural ethos, which ascribes little value to PWDs. People think that disability is a punishment for sins, a concept prevalent among the African people. Senzokuhle D. Setume and Baamphatlha Dinama note that disability in most parts of the world is surrounded by stigma and prejudice, expressed in the public's negative language and attitude toward PWDs. This has influenced the low self-esteem in which this group of people holds itself. (5) Vengesai Chimininge has indicated that the people who are deaf or blind, who use a wheelchair, or who have learning disabilities have been perceived as intolerable and nuisances in many societies in the world, although this perception is changing gradually.

This negative attitude has been enhanced by religious beliefs and practices, particularly in the Judeo-Christian tradition, which are imbued with a sense of rejection and pity. Writing in the context of the Karanga in Zimbabwe, Vengesai has indicated that the Karanga still discriminate against people with speech disorders, which are thought to be caused by witchcraft and evil spirits, as well as the negative behaviour of parents. (6) Obed N. Kealotswe has also referred to the general negative attitude among the Karanga in Botswana. PWDs are pushed to the fringes of society by tradition, as well as, ironically, by Christianity with its Jewish cultural foundations. (7) This negative perception of PWDs is found among all social groups in Botswana. The discrimination against people with disabilities is so strong that generally they are brought to church only as objects for healing, not for normal worship. Usually, they are kept out of sight --enclosed at home--or viewed as objects of charity.

This negative attitude toward PWDs is not confined to Botswana. It is prevalent across Africa generally and Southern and Central Africa in particular. During the International Theological Institute organized by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC), held at St Mary's Seminary, Kampala, Uganda, during the celebration of the 50th anniversary of AACC, I interviewed more than 25 young theologians from many African countries (including Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland, Malawi, Angola, Namibia, and South Africa) to gauge the attitude of different societies toward PWDs. The findings were astonishing: there was a general agreement that PWDs are rejected and stigmatized. The causes of disabilities were seen as ranging from God's punishment for sinning, witchcraft, demons, and anger of ancestors, to the breaking of family and societal taboos and adultery. In other societies, such as in Kenya, people go so far as to treat PWDs as things and not human beings. (8)

Ralphine Razaka, writing in the context of Madagascar, has noted that in traditional belief systems, having a PWD in a family was shameful. It was seen as a curse, and in order to escape such a curse the family had to perform a blood sacrifice, which sometimes involved killing the PWD. Malagasy communities generally tend to treat PWDs with utter contempt and consider their presence in the community as disgraceful. (9)

In recent years, a number of countries in Central and Southern Africa have experienced the killing of albinos for traditional medicine, which is a disgrace for Africa. Joy Sebenzile Matsebula has stated that people have built up myths that try to explain the conditions of PWDs. One such myth, for example, is that albinos do not die; thus, they do not need to be buried, since they just disappear in the forests and mountains. (10)

The ambivalence of the Judeo-Christian tradition and its impact on persons with disabilities

One of the greatest gifts that the Judeo-Christian tradition has brought to the world is the Bible, both the Old and New Testament. As the word of God, the Bible has been a source of blessings and life for many. And yet for some, particularly PWDs, it has been a source of stigma, segregation, exclusion, rejection, discrimination, and dehumanization. Generally speaking, the Judeo-Christian tradition is ambivalent toward PWDs. On the one hand, texts in both the Old and New Testament attest to the fact that PWDs have not been treated with justice, fairness, and love. Some of the texts in the Hebrew Bible must have had devastating effects on PWDs. One of these states:
For no one who has a blemish shall draw near, one who is blind or lame,
or one who has a mutilated face or a limb too long, or one who has a
broken foot or a broken hand, or a hunchback, or a dwarf, or a man with
a blemish in his eyes or an itching disease or scabs or crushed
testicles. No descendant of Aaron the priest who has a blemish shall
come near to offer the Lord's offerings by fire; since he has a
blemish, he shall not come near to offer the food of his God. (Lev.
21:18-21)


We find other passages in the Old Testament just as critical of PWDs. They include people with mutilated faces, with limbs too long, and with foot or hand injuries. Such passages are obviously not user-friendly in ministering to PWDs. They not only deny them human dignity and honour, but place them in a class of their own, sometimes far below what it is to be human.

On the other hand, the Old Testament also has sublime passages on how society should treat PWDs. A number of significant people with disabilities in Hebrew society played a very important role in its formation, not only as the people of God but also as a covenant people, God's own possession among all peoples, a kingdom of priests and a holy nation (Ex. 19:5-6). Among the most significant of these, we find Sarah, Abraham's wife, who was unable to conceive until old age (Gen. 16:1); Jacob, whose thigh was put out of joint as he wrestled with an angel (Gen. 32:24-28); and Moses, who had a speech impediment (Ex. 3:10). The Holiness Code provides laws and codes of conduct that protected the rights of PWDs. It forbade people from cursing the deaf or putting a stumbling block before the blind (Lev. 19:14). Though such passages are few, they do nonetheless point to the fact that there was no outright rejection of PWDs. There was some element of inclusion and participation of PWDs in the life of ancient Israelites, the best example being that of Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan, who, although lame in both feet, at King David's behest lived in Jerusalem and ate always at the king's table (2 Sam. 9:3-13).

The New Testament carries indications that sometimes Jesus connected disabilities with sin. One example is a paralytic in Capernaum who, before he was physically healed, had his sins forgiven by Jesus the Christ (Mark 2:5-11). In many of the healing miracles of Jesus--particularly of those who had intellectual disabilities, or speech impediments, or were hard of hearing--the disabilities were ascribed to the malicious work of demons who entered the human. John's gospel describes the mighty works of healing of Jesus as semeia, a sign of the kingdom of God breaking into the world. The Synoptic gospels describe the miracles as the battleground between the powers of evil and the breaking of the kingdom of God to establish a new world order, as it were a new creation, in which God would reign supreme.

There are times when Jesus Christ does not ascribe disabilities to sin, but as part of God's creation. For example, when Jesus' disciples wondered whether the visual impairment of the man who was born blind was caused by his sins or those of his parents, Jesus answered that it was not caused by either, but so that God's name may be glorified. Although there are theological difficulties in understanding this line of thought, what is clear from Jesus' reply is that it is a fallacy to think that all disabilities are caused by sin or a punishment from God. It is commonplace knowledge that disabilities are caused by a myriad of factors that have nothing to do with the anger of God, or breaking God's laws. This being the case, disabilities should be considered as a natural phenomenon, like all other cosmological phenomena stemming from the same source. This seems to explain why Christ's approach to all situations was to sympathize with the entire cosmos standing in need of salvation.

The mission of the church toward people with disabilities

The church, as the kingdom of God in the making, has tremendous responsibilities with regard to PWDs. As the family of God, the church is responsible for all people who have been called into the koinonia toward realization of their full humanity as God intended it to be before the fall. Since it came into being, the church has been the visible presence of God on earth; as the body of Christ, it carries into its very being the scars of the divine Saviour, which he incurred in the redemption of humankind. The church cannot afford to stand aloof while other institutions try hard to alleviate the situation of PWDs. In its ministry to PWDs, the church has used different models to address this challenge. This paper suggests that the church should re-examine its various models of ministry and discard those that are not helpful and promote those that are life-affirming when it comes to PWDs. In order to ensure effective ministry to PWDs, there is a need for a paradigm shift in four crucial areas, as discussed below.

Removal of cultural barriers that create a negative attitude

Reuben Kigame has defined cultural barriers as "beliefs, attitudes and practices of the society which, having become the norm, contribute to the limitation of the normal life of PWDs. When such beliefs, attitudes and practices define the way people in any given community relate to PWDs, this could be summed up as part of a people's culture." (11) As noted in the first section of this paper, a number of cultural barriers in the African missionary field keep PWDs on the fringes of society. These barriers are essentially discriminatory, degrading, dehumanizing, and not life-affirming. Many beliefs and practices in African Traditional Religions promote negative attitudes toward PWDs, which exclude them from full participation in the activities of their communities. They are considered a burden to the community. Beliefs that disabilities are a curse or that they are caused by an angry and avenging God or retribution from the ancestors for failing to remember them through libations and prayers generate fear and a sense of self-blame for PWDs. Unfortunately, this is reinforced by a number of biblical texts.

It is the responsibility of the church, particularly in areas where it holds sway, to help traditional communities change their mindset from negative to positive ways of thinking and treating PWDs. This, of course, will require a Copernican revolution, since the thinking of many African traditional societies is still grounded on a "culture of fear" and superstition. This change can be achieved through pastoral care and counselling, particularly of families who have PWDs. It can also be achieved through the process of evangelism, catechesis, preaching, and the like. Various religious groups present in the church, from Sunday schools to parish church councils, need to be mobilized to be vehicles of messages of the church that instill new ways of thinking and treating PWDs in their respective communities. In this venture, the involvement of communities with the active participation of traditional authorities is crucial in order to remove the cultural barriers that prevent PWDs from enjoying the fullness of life as a result of stigma. Richard S. Maposa and Nisbert Taringa have indicated that the church must take cues from the ministry of Jesus that broke cultural barriers by integrating all people to live harmoniously in society. (12)

The need to develop a liberating theology of disability

It is important to point out here that the negative attitude toward PWDs in the African church is thriving on "negative theology of healing" that focuses on biblical texts that negate their humanity, considering them "sick people" and in need of deliverance, spiritual as well as physical. It is incumbent upon the church to change this by developing a new theology that is liberating and life-affirming. Arne Fritzson has problematized disability by arguing that disability issues are complex and depend on the various interpretations of the word "disability." In this context, there is no quick fix to the issues that PWDs grapple with. Fritzson notes that in order to find solutions, we need to seek deeper understanding of the issues involved. Fritzson argues that these issues are harder to solve because they are beyond our understanding:
The experience of life with disabilities challenges our very
understanding of what a human life is, what is healthy and what is
unhealthy, what is a good human life and what is not. For the church to
become fully inclusive and accept people with disabilities, it needs to
grapple with such issues. Otherwise it will not be able to let people
with disabilities to be members of the church on their own conditions.
Instead, PWDs will alwavs be members on the conditions of the 'able
bodied'... We must understand that experiences of disabilities are not
exceptional, that special human beings have but are part of the
collective human experience of what it means to be human in God's
world. In order to do that, the church needs to develop a hermeneutic
that is sensible to these experiences. Only after such a move can the
church become a fully inclusive community for all God's people. (13)


In this regard, Maposa and Taringa have convincingly argued that the African Christian church, just like the universal Christian church, has a critical hermeneutical key that can dismantle the walls that marginalize PWDs and thereby become redemptive. This is because a redemptive theology should demonstrate the fact that all people were created in the image of God. (14) Generally speaking, Maposa and Taringa have observed that the theology of disability can be described as a "disabling theology" in that it focuses on charitable actions as a way of addressing injustices in society. Such a theology has subjected PWDs to dependence on charities, which essentially causes their isolation in society. It keeps them out of the public eye rather than empowering them for full social, economic, and political participation. (15)

Maposa and Taringa have intimated that from a theological perspective, the church in Africa must develop a missiology that integrates the reality of disability into the whole spectrum of church life, a theology that fosters reconciliation and healing in church and society. According to Maposa and Taringa, PWDs need empowerment in all spheres of life so that they can become responsible citizens. (16) In developing a liberating theology, Maposa and Taringa argue that there is a need to revisit the language that has been used to address PWDs. In most cases, the language is negative and disempowering. Therefore, the church must move away from perspectives that use negative language. (17) One of the most crucial areas of communication in the church is sermon delivery. This is the area where we see the greatest use of negative and damaging language around PWDs. There is a need, therefore, for the church to come up with a language for sermon delivery that is constructive and life-affirming.

From objects of pity and charity to subjects of honour and dignity

A chief criticism of the church's attitude toward PWDs refers to the church's traditional view of them as objects of pity and charity, capable only of receiving handouts. This attitude leads to stigma, exclusion, discrimination, dehumanization, segregation, and powerlessness. Quite often PWDs are ignored and denied their human rights, leading to dishonour and lack of human dignity. The practice of charity creates a dependency syndrome and conveys the idea that disability means inability. This perception of disability disempowers PWDs. Joy Matsebula has suggested that it is wrong to consider PWDs as different from others. PWDs are people first, and disability is a secondary, limiting factor in their lives. She therefore argues that PWDs need to exercise their human rights and be treated as equals in society. She has further noted that governments and indeed other institutions need to shift from the welfare, charity, or medical models to human rights and social development models, as the latter have the potential to change the life of PWDs for the better. Writing about the shortcomings of the traditional way of treating PWDs, Matsebula writes:
In the beginning, many institutions for PDWs were built on the model
that disability is a medical and welfare issue and were run by
missionaries. This meant that their basic role was to "look after" and
"provide for" PWDs, thus creating a dependency syndrome. They were
pitted and perceived as a curse to the family. This undoubtedly caused
distress to the lives of family members. (18)


It appears to me that the church, as one of the most important and powerful institutions in the world, can initiate, promote, and enhance this turning around through preaching, evangelism, and catechesis. This is the kairos for doing this, since the momentum of making people conscious of the plight of PWDs is gathering momentum through the activities of the World Council of Churches (WCC). This can be achieved through Bible study groups, workshops, consultations, and conferences on an ecumenical basis across faith divisions.

The need to shift from exclusion to full inclusion and participation in mainstream society

From 16 to 20 October 2018, the Department of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of Botswana organized an international joint conference with a number of other stakeholders, including the Office of the President, the Department of Law, the Disability Supports Unit, and Special Education in the Department of Education. The theme was "Inclusion and Participation of PWDs in Southern and Central Africa in the Social, Economic, Political and Spiritual Life in Society." The main objective of the conference was to bring awareness to people across the board--government departments, lawyers, traditional authorities, educationists, church leaders, intellectuals, theologians and members of the civil society--of the need to include PWDs fully in mainstream society.

The spectrum of the papers presented included religious, theological, medicinal, educational, human rights, ecumenical, technological, gender, and developmental perspectives. The participants lamented the fact that the Southern and Central African regions continue to exclude PWDs in many spheres of life. An urgent call was made that governments, church leaders, and the civil society at large in the region should re-examine their policies with the aim of enhancing the dignity of PWDs. They need to ensure that they, like everyone else, have equal opportunity and access to education, medical services, places of worship, jobs, political activities, and leadership in ecclesiastical structures, as well as full participation in family, communal, national, regional, and continental activities. (19) It was hoped and envisaged during the conference that theologians and church leaders would act as catalysts of change in this process. This was in view of the nature of their training in theological anthropology, which focuses on the authentic nature of human beings created in the image of God regardless of their physical and mental characteristics.

What people with disabilities need most

In my paper titled "What People with Disabilities Need Most," I argue that the success and failure of PWDs depend, to a large extent, on the environmental, social, and economic conditions in which they live. It has been noted that an atmosphere of the presence of God, of love, of acceptance, of dignity, of positive self-identity, and of encouragement can enable them to achieve fullness of life. My study, carried out in the context of pastoral work involving three cases of PWDs, concluded that what these people need most of all is love. People with disabilities need a loving home and a loving community. (20) Lemuel S. Igdanes has pointed out that people need a community that loves them regardless of their infirmities, weaknesses, and disabilities. Love enables them to live full lives and interact significantly with people outside the family. Love encourages them to accept themselves as God's children because love is one of the greatest gifts that God gave humanity. (21)

Apart from this, PWDs need acceptance, that is to say, they need to be accepted with their disabilities. Acceptance ensures that they are not discriminated against. Edward S. Neukrug has indicated that unconditional acceptance of another person consists of the ability to be empathic and open-minded. (22) If this attitude is applied to PWDs, it enables them to feel safe enough to open a window to their inner experiences, allowing others to understand their hurts and pains. (23) In addition, PWDs need dignity. All human beings possess the intrinsic character of dignity on the basis of their humanity, and no one can take it away from them. It is incumbent upon the church to ensure that all people of God, with or without disabilities, experience the dignity that God bestowed upon them from the time of creation. There is a need, therefore, for the church to vigorously address the plight of PWDs and to note that they do not need pity or mercy, but compassionate understanding and opportunities to develop their vocations, possibilities, and abilities. (24) Last, it should be noted that PWDs have a variety of gifts endowed by God that they need to develop to the full. Such gifts can contribute to building up the body of Christ. PWDs, therefore, can work as teachers, pastors, counsellors, evangelists, theologians, academics, medical practitioners, social workers, and community organizers.

Conclusion

This paper has discussed the mission of the church regarding PWDs in Southern and Central Africa. It is premised on the mission statement of Jesus the Christ, whose earthly mission was very comprehensive--including the well-bodied as well as those who had physical and mental challenges. The main argument of this paper is that the church as the body of Christ should have the mission of Jesus the Christ, which was to the whole world, without discriminating among people based on their social, economic, and spiritual status. The mission of the church should be that of being a "catalyst for positive change," of "turning things around," of a "paradigm shift" or a kind of "metanoia" that might lead to eradicating negative attitudes around PWDs so that they too can enjoy fullness of life.

I recognize that this may require a Copernican revolution, particularly when it comes to removing the cultural barriers and negative theologies of creation and healing that have relegated PWDs to the status of second-class citizens, not to be heard or seen even in church! The paper has argued that disabilities should be understood as part of the diversity of God's creation, and that PWDs are not a "special people" but people with needs to be met like everybody else. Instead of treating PWDs as people to be pitied and objects of charity and healing, only good enough for handouts, they need to be part of the mainstream, involved in the entire spectrum of the social fabric of society at all levels, namely social, economic, spiritual, and political. This is what they deserve, and the church needs to be on the front line: it is through the diversity of the church's ministries that this will happen.

James N. Amanze is a professor in systematic theology in the department of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of Botswana. His main interest is in the interaction between the Bible and African culture.

(1) See "Punta del Este Declaration on Human Dignity for Everyone Everywhere: Seventy Years after the Universal Declaration on Human Rights DECEMBER 2018, https://www.iclrs.org/content/blurb/files/Punta%20del%20Este%20DecIaration.pdf.

(2) Mirima Spies, "The Moment the Pope Asked Me to Pray for Him," Ecumenical Disability Advocates Network (May-August 2018), 2.

(1) Ibid.

(4) Ecumenical Disability Advocates Network (May-August 2018), 9.

(5) Senzokuhle D. Setume and Baamphatlha Dinama, "African Traditional Religions and Disabilities," in Disability in Africa: Resource Book for Theology and Religious Studies, ed. Samuel Kabue, James Amanze, and Christina Landman (Nairobi: Acton Publishers, 2016), 12.

(6) Vengesai Chimininge, "Attitudes of Traditional Karanga Society towards People with Speech Disorder," in Disability in Africa: Resource Book for Theology and Religious Studies, ed. Samuel Kabue, James Amanze, and Christina Landman (Nairobi: Acton Publishers, 2016), 29.

(7) Obed N. Kealotswe, "Attitudes towards disability in Botswana: A Critical Appraisal," in Disability in Africa: Resource Book for Theology and Religious Studies, ed. Samuel Kabue, James Amanze, and Christina Landman (Nairobi: Acton Publishers, 2016), 42.

(8) Personal communication with students during the International Theological Institute held at St Mary Seminary, Kampala, Uganda, June 2013.

(9) Ralphine Razaka, "Persons with Disabilities in Madagascar," in Disability, Society and Theology: Voices from Africa, ed. Samuel Kabue et al. (Limuru, Kenya: Zapf Chancery, 2011), 316.

(10) Joy Sebenzile Matsebula, "Persons with Disabilities in South Africa," in Disability, Society and Theology: Voices from Africa, ed. Samuel Kabue et al. (Limuru, Kenya: Zapf Chancery, 2011), 404.

(11) Reuben Kigame, "Cultural Barriers to the Disabled People's Participation in Church Life," in Disability, Society and Theology: I oices from Africa, ed. Samuel Kabue et al. (Limuru, Kenya: Zapf" Chancery, 2011), 122.

(12) Richard S. Maposa and Nisbert Taringa, "Pastoral Responses to People with Disabilities in the African Church," in Disability in Africa: Resource Book for Theology and Religious Studies, ed. Samuel Kabue, James Amanze, and Christina Landman (Nairobi: Acton Publishers, 2016), 312.

(13) Arne Fritzson, "Claiming and Developing a Disability Hermeneutics: Towards a Liberating Theology of Disability," in Disability, Society and Theology: Voices from Africa, ed. Samuel Kabue et al. (Limuru, Kenya: Zapf Chancery, 2011), 28-29.

(14) Maposa and Taringa, "Pastoral Responses," 301.

(15) Ibid.

(16) Ibid, 307.

(17) Ibid., 309.

(18) Matsebula, "Persons with Disabilities," 404-405.

(19) Personal observation and participation in the discussions during the conference, 16-20 October 2018.

(20) James N. Amanze, "What People with Disabilities Need Most: Three Case Studies in my Parish--Gaborone, Botswana," in Disability in Africa: Resource Book for Theology and Religious Studies, ed. Samuel Kabue, James Amanze, and Christina Landman (Nairobi: Acton Publishers, 2016), 160.

(21) Lemuel S. Igdanes, "Belonging and Body of Christ: Place, Gifts and Roles," in Doing Theology from Disability Perspective: A Theological Resource Book on Disability, ed. W. Longchar and Gordon Cowans (Manila: ATESEA, 2007), 220.

(22) Ed Neukrug, The World of the Counselor: An Introduction to the Counseling Profession (Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, 2007), 394.

(23) Igdanes, "Belonging and Body of Christ," 268.

(24) See EDAN's Interim Theological Statement, cited in Igdanes, "Belonging and Body of Christ," 267.

DOI: 10.1111/irom.12267
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Author:Amanze, James N.
Publication:International Review of Mission
Geographic Code:6KENY
Date:Jun 1, 2019
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