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The Meessiidae (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea) of Korea.

The family Meessiidae is placed in the superfamily Tineoidea, suborder Ditrysia, and order Lepidoptera (Regier et al. 2015). Regier et al. (2013) assessed phylogenetic relationships within Lepidoptera, including 38 tineoids, using 19 sequenced genes. They placed most members of Tineidae in Tineidae 1, and the genus Eudarcia Clemens, 1860 as Tineidae 2 in separate clades. Recently, a molecular phylogeny and revised classification of Tineoidea (Regier et al. 2015) provided 2 additional tineoid families, Dryadaulidae stat. rev. and Meessiidae stat. rev. The 5 allied revised families (Dryadaulidae, Eriocottidae, Psychidae, Tineidae, and Meessiidae) form the superfamily Tineoidea. Korean Tineoidea has been poorly studied until now; in total, 29 species of Tineidae (Byun et al. 2009; Byun et al. 2014; Lee et al. 2016) and 15 species of Psychidae (Roh & Byun 2016, 2017a, 2017b; Roh et al. 2016, 2018) have been recorded. The family Meessiidae consisted of only 2 genera, Eudarcia Clemens, 1860 and Bathroxena Meyrick, 1919 (Regier et al. 2015). Regier et al. (2015) diagnosed the family Meessiidae based on the following adult characters: small moths (wingspans 3-12 mm); forewing relatively slender and tapering, venation of hindwing reduced, male genitalia symmetrical, and the long oviscapt of female genitalia with posterior apophyses nearly 3 times longer than the anterior apophyses (Regier et al. 2015; Bidzilya et al. 2016).

The genus Eudarcia was based on the type species Eudarcia simulatricella Clemens, 1860 (Gaedike 2011, 2015). In total, 72 species of Eudarcia have been reported worldwide, and most of these (61 species) are distributed throughout the Palaearctic region (Bidzilya et al. 2016). In Asia, 6 species have been reported currently (Sakai & Saigusa 1999; Xiao & Li 2009; Sakai 2013). Females of Eudarcia (8 species) are brachypterous, with degenerate forewings and more or less reduced hindwings (Bidzilya et al. 2016). Members of the Eudarcia are known for the case-making habits of larvae. Larvae build their cases by putting together small sand particles, and they feed on crustose lichens (Gaedike & Zerafa 2010; Regier et al. 2015). The larvae are extremely specialized consumers of lichens, and first instars feed on unicellular algae (Zagulajev 1979; Henderickx 1995; Robinson 2009; Gaedike 2015; Bidzilya et al. 2016). In addition, this genus inhabits open biotopes, and their larvae live within cases on vertical lichen-covered surfaces of single large stones, rocks, and artificial constructions. In this study, 3 species (Eudarcia gwangneungensis sp. nov., E. longiphalla sp. nov., and E. cornea sp. nov.) are described with 1 unrecorded species, Eudarcia orbiculidomus (Sakai & Saigusa, 1999), for the Korean fauna. In this study, the family Meessiidae is reported for the first time in Korea. All available information is presented, including the collection locations, microhabitats, and illustration of adults and their genitalia. DNA barcodes also are provided for precise identification of species.

Materials and Methods

The material examined in this study is preserved in the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea; the Entomological Collection of the Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea; and the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju, Korea. The specimens were dissected and examined after mounting on glass slides. The genitalia and wing venation were examined in 60% euparal solution or dried condition, respectively. Photographs of adults and genitalia were taken using a DFC 495 digital camera (Leica, Wetzlar, Germany) attached to a Leica M205A stereomicroscope (Leica, Wetzlar, Germany).

Terminology and morphological characters of the adult, wing venation, and genitalia follow Sakai and Saigusa (1999), Kristensen (2003), Regier et al. (2015), and Bidzilya et al. (2016) (Figs. 1-4).

Genomic DNA was extracted from the legs of dried specimens, preserved in 100% alcohol, using a Genomic Cell/Tissue Spin Mini Kit (Qiagen, Inc., Hilden, Germany), according to the manufacturer's protocol. Nine specimens were sequenced, and the DNA barcode was amplified using the primer pair LepF1, LepR1 (Hebert et al. 2004), and MLepF1, MLepR1 (Hajibabaei et al. 2006). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions for amplification followed the manufacturer's protocol (Platinum Taq, Invitrogen, Carlsbad City, California, USA). The amplicons were purified using the QIAquick[R] PCR purification kit (QIAGEN, Inc., Hilden, Germany) and directly sequenced at the Genotech Corporation (Daejeon, Korea) and Macrogen (Seoul, Korea). Contigs were assembled using CodonCode aligner version 2.0.6 (CodonCode Co., Centerville City, Massachussetts, USA). Successful sequences were uploaded to BOLD systems (Project code: KNAEM) (Table 1).

Results

Family Meessiidae Capuse, 1966

Meessiinae Capuse, 1966: 106. Type genus Meessia Hoffmann, 1898.

Genus Eudarcia Clemens, 1860

Eudarcia Clemens, 1860: 10. Type species: Eudarcia simulatricella Clemens, 1860.

Demobrotis Meyrick, 1893: 555. Type species: Demobrotis anaglypta Meyrick, 1893.

Meessia Hofmann, 1898: 227. Type species: Tinea vinculella Her-rich-Schaffer, 1854.

Leptochersa Meyrick, 1919: 272. Type species: Leptochersa diarthra Meyrick, 1919.

Protodarcia Forbes, 1931: 389. Type species: Protodarcia bicolo-rella Forbes, 1931.

Obesoceras Petersen, 1957: 352. Type species: Tinea granulatella Herrich-Schaffer, 1854.

Neomeessia Petersen, 1968: 58. Type species: Neomeessia gracilis Petersen, 1968.

Brachys Zagulajev, 1979: 314. Type species: Meessia brachyptera Passerin d'Entreves, 1974.

Nigris Zagulajev, 1979: 317. Type species: Tinea leopoldella Costa, 1832.

Gallis Zagulajev, 1979: 336. Type species: Meessia alberti Amsel, 1957.

Colchiromis Zagulajev, 1979: 361. Type species: Obesoceras croaticum Petersen, 1962.

Abchagleris Zagulajev, 1979: 366. Type species: Obesoceras abchasicum Zagulajev, 1979.

Haugresis Zagulajev, 1979: 366. Type species: Obesoceras aureliani Capuse, 1967.

Zagulyaevella Kocak, 1981: 23. A synonym for Brachys Zagulajev, 1979.

Pseudobesoceras Gaedike, 1985: 177. Type species: Tinea holtzi Rebel, 1902.

Key to the adults of Eudarcia in Korea

1. Dark brown transverse stripes present on the forewing (Figs. 5-7) 2

--Forewing without dark brown transverse stripes (Fig. 8); forked veins absent in the forewing (Fig. 24); uncus of male genitalia very bilobed (Fig. 16); ductus seminalis of female genitalia well developed (Fig. 20) E. cornea Roh & Byun sp. nov.

2. Phallus of male genitalia without cornuti (Fig. 12); venation of forewing: Rs1 and Rs2 fused; Rs3 and Rs4 forked at base of 2/5 Rs3 (Fig. 22); antrum weakly developed in the female genitalia (Fig. 18) E. gwangneungensis Roh & Byun sp. nov.

--Male genitalia with cornuti in the phallus (Figs. 10, 14); venation of forewing: Rs1 and Rs2 forked at 1/4 of the base; Rs3 and Rs4 forked at anterior margin of distal corner of discal cell (Figs. 21, 23); antrum of female genitalia well developed (Figs. 17, 19) 3

3. Male genitalia (Figs. 13, 14): valva furcate with digitiform and apical part of ampulla right-angled; uncus partly elongated and hooked; saccus blunt shaped; ductus bursae longer than corpus bursae in the female genitalia (Fig. 19) E. longiphalla Roh & Byun sp. nov.

--Male genitalia (Figs. 9, 10): valva not furcated and apical part of ampulla blunt shaped; uncus part deeply concave and bilobed; saccus elongated downward and very slender; ductus bursae of female genitalia shorter than corpus bursae (Fig. 17) E. orbiculidomus (Sakai & Saigusa)

Eudarcia orbiculidomus (Sakai & Saigusa, 1999) (Figs. 5, 9, 10, 17, 21, 25)

Obesoceras orbiculidomus Sakai & Saigusa, 1999: 405-412. Type locality: Japan.

Eudarcia orbiculidomus: Gaedike, 2000: 365; Xiao & Li, 2009: 308; Sakai, 2013: 124.

Adult (Figs. 5, 21). Wingspan 7.6 to 8.1 mm. Coloration and vestiture: Vertex of head roughly covered with light yellow hairs. Thoracic notum covered with yellowish scales. Upper side of forewing: ground color light yellow; blackish brown spots present widely. Hindwing covered with grey scales; post-marginal part present with long yellowish white hairs. Structure: head and compound eyes slightly small; ocelli absent. Maxillary palpus covered with light yellow scales, labial palpus drooping and covered with grayish scales. Antennae slightly thick and filiform, longer than 4/5 of the fore-wing. Forewing: slightly narrow, length/width (L/W) ratio 4.2, costa straight, termen very shortly arched to posterior margin, discal cell 0.66 times as long as forewing; venation (Fig. 21): 7 separate and 2 forked veins originating at the discal cell; accessory and intercalary cell absent; Sc arising near 2/4 of the costa; Rs1 and Rs2 stalked and originating at half of the discal cell; Rs3 and Rs4 separate, Rs4 reaching to the apex; base of M weakly developed; [M.sub.1] and [M.sub.2] fused, [M.sub.1+2] and [M.sub.3] parallel; [CuA.sub.1] and [CuA.sub.2] originating at posterior margins of the discal cell, either separate and parallel; CuP slightly weak; basal part of 1A + 2A with loop. Hindwing: very narrow, L/W ratio 4.9, and costa straight; Sc + R straight to 1/2 of costa; Rs terminating at apex; base of M weakly developed; [M.sub.1] and [M.sub.2] fused, [M.sub.1+2] and [M.sub.3] originating at distal corner of posterior part of the discal cell; CuP absent; [CuA.sub.1] and [CuA.sub.2] stalked, 1A + 2A very weak; 3A present. Legs: epiphysis present; covered with light yellowish hairs. Abdomen: coremata of female present; corethrogyne of female absent.

Male genitalia (Figs. 9, 10). Tegumen, vinculum, and uncus fused, uncus part deeply concave and bilobed; dorsal part of uncus present with some setae; gnathos fused with middle of dorsum part (tegument and uncus); vinculum slightly narrow; saccus 0.5 times as long as height of ring and highly slender; valva relatively broad and apex rounded, dorsal margin arched, ventral margin straight and parallel to dorsal margin (lateral view); transtilla narrow at costa of valva and well developed; phallus fairly thick and cylindrical, phallus longer than 1.2 times the height of the ring.

Female genitalia (Fig. 17). Papillae anales slightly narrow with some short satae; apophyses posteriores very slender, apophyses posteriores 2.02 times longer than apophyses anteriores; apophyses anteriores relatively thick; antrum well developed; ductus bursae narrow and relatively short; corpus bursae slightly long.

Larval case (Fig. 25). Length 5.0 mm. Larvae build their cases using small crustose lichen particles, forming wide oval-shaped cases.

MATERIAL EXAMINED

Two males and 4 females KOREA: Jeju Is., Chuja Is., 33.946011[degrees]N, 126.330552[degrees]E, collected 15-VII-2015, B.K. Byun, S.J. Roh, D.S. Kim, 2 male genitalia mounted on 80% glycerol solution, 1 female genitalia mounted on 60% euparal solution (genitalia no. KNAESJ00033), venation of wing slide no. KNAEVSJ9, DNA barcode Process ID KNAEM001-18 (BOLD systems BIN. BOLD:ADJ8878) (SEL/HNU); 2 males and 1 female KOREA: Chungcheongnam-do, Seosan-si, 36.711847[degrees]N, 126.547016[degrees]E, collected 1-V-2015 (larva), emerged 15 to 25-VI-2015, S.J. Roh, B.S. Jeon, D.S. Kim, 1 male mounted on 60% euparal solution (male genitalia no. KNAESJ00032) (SEL/HNU); 3 females KOREA: Gangwon-do, Yeongwol-gun, 37.195550[degrees]N, 128.455027[degrees]E, collected 6-VI-2015 (larva), emerged 8-VI-2015, S.J Roh, J.H. Jeon, T.H. Yoo (SEL/HNU).

DISTRIBUTION

Korea (new record), Japan, China.

Eudarcia gwangneungensis Roh & Byun, sp. nov. (Figs. 6, 11, 12, 18, 22, 26-29)

DIAGNOSIS

Eudarcia gwangneungensis sp. nov. is externally similar to E. dentata Gaedike, 2000 and E. prolongata Xiao & Li, 2009, but a wide light grey ground color of its forewings can be distinguished. The male genitalia of E. gwangneungensis are very similar to those of E. prolongata and E. dentate but the valva is very wide and the ampulla is relatively thick. Moreover, the male genitalia differ by very short saccus, cornuti is absent from the phallus, and transtilla is more slender and similar in shape to a sewing needle. Further, this species can be readily differentiated based on female genitalia; ductus bursae lacks spines and antrum is weakly developed.

DESCRIPTION

Adult (Figs. 6, 22). Wingspan 6.1 to 6.7 mm. Coloration and vestiture: vertex of head roughly covered with short, dark yellow hairs. Thoracic notum covered with dark brown scales. Forewing: ground color light grey and covered with dark brown scales, termen part present with short, light grey hairs. Hindwing covered with brown scales; post-marginal part present with long brownish hairs. Structure: head and compound eyes relatively small; ocelli absent. Mouthparts well developed: galea hooked with longer than 2/3 of labial palpus; maxillary palpus and labial palpus covered with light yellow scales; maxillary palpus 5 segmented; labial palpus 3 segmented. Antennae longer than 4/5 of the forewing with light brown scales, filiform, and with 42 flagellomeres. Forewing: slightly narrow, L/W ratio 3.6, costa straight, termen short and arched to posterior margin, discal cell 0.65 times as long as forewing; 7 separate veins and 1 forked vein originating at the discal cell (Fig. 22); accessory and intercalary cell absent; Sc reaching to 2/5 of the costa; Rs1 and Rs2 fused; Rs3 and Rs4 originating at the anterior margin of distal corner of discal cell and forked at the base of 2/5 Rs3; Rs4 reaching near apex; base of M poorly developed; [M.sub.1] and [M.sub.2] fused, [M.sub.1+2] and [M.sub.3] parallel; [CuA.sub.1] and [CuA.sub.2] originating at posterior margin of the distal corner of the discal cell; CuP weak; basal part of 1A + 2A looped. Hindwing considerably narrow: L/W ratio 4.3; costa straight; Sc + R straight to 1/2 costa; Rs terminating at apex; base of M weakly developed; [M.sub.1] and [M.sub.2] fused, [M.sub.1+2] and [M.sub.3] stalked; CuP absent; [CuA.sub.1] and [CuA.sub.2] stalked, 1A + 2A slightly weak; 3A present. Legs: epiphysis present; covered with dark brown hairs. Abdomen: covered with brown scales, coremata of female present and corethrogyne absent.

Male genitalia (Figs. 11, 12). Tegumen, vinculum, and uncus fused, uncus part triangular and considerably elongated; vinculum broadly V-shaped, slightly narrow; saccus very short, 0.34 times as long as the height of the ring; valva slightly broad and ampulla (apex of valva) rounded, harp very short and hooked (lateral view); transtilla considerably slender, straight at costa of valva and well developed; phallus short and thick, cylindrical, longer than 1.75 times the height of the ring.

Female genitalia (Fig. 18). Ovipositor fairly long and narrow; papillae anales slightly narrow; ostium bursae located on anterior margin of sternum VIII, U-shaped; apophyses posteriores very slender, apophyses posteriores 3.3 times longer than apophyses anteriores, apophyses anteriores slightly thick and short; antrum short and weakly developed; ductus bursae narrow, slightly short; corpus bursae narrow and long, well sclerotized.

Larval case (Figs. 26-29). Length 3.9 to 4.1 mm. Larvae build their cases by using small particles of crustose lichens and grains of sand attached on the rock, forming wide oval-shaped cases.

TYPE MATERIAL

HOLOTYPE: 1 male KOREA: Gyeonggi-do, Pocheon-si, Gwangneung-forest, 37.752619[degrees]N, 127.585850[degrees]E, collected (larva) 20-III-2017, S.J. Roh, Y.M. Shin, emerged (Adult) V-2017, genitalia mounted on 60% euparal solution (genitalia no. KNAESJ00037) (KNAE).

PARATYPES: 1 male and 8 females KOREA: Gyeonggi-do, Pocheonsi, Gwangneung-forest, 37.752619[degrees]N, 127.585850[degrees]E, collected (larva) 20-III-2017, S.J. Roh, Y.M. Shin, emerged (Adult) V-2017, 1 male whole body mounted on 60% euparal solution (slide no. SJWS001, and genitalia no. KNAESJ00038), 5 female genitalia mounted on 60% euparal solution (genitalia no. KNAESJ00011 KNAESJ00013, KNAESJ00018, KNAESJ00034, and KNAESJ00035), venation of wing slide no. KNAE-VSJ5, DNA barcode Process ID KNAEM003-18 (BOLD systems BIN. BOLD:ADL7237) (KNAE).

DISTRIBUTION

Korea.

ETYMOLOGY

The specific name is derived from the type locality (Gwangneung forest) of the new species.

Eudarcia longiphalla Roh & Byun, sp. nov. (Figs. 7, 13, 14, 19, 23)

DIAGNOSIS

Eudarcia longiphalla sp. nov. is externally similar to E. gwang-neungensis sp. nov., but it can be distinguished by termen margin of forewing without light yellow hairs. The male genitalia are similar to E. prolongata Xiao & Li, 2009, but differ from male genitalia in the shorter elongated uncus, and fairly wide uncus and tegumen part. Furthermore, the male genitalia differ from E. dentate Gaedike, 2000 and E. prolongata. The gnathos is very short and fused with middle of uncus and tegumen part; phallus is relatively slender and long. In addition, this species can be identified readily based on female genitalia; antrum well developed; ductus bursae without spines and very long, relatively small, and very sclerotized.

DESCRIPTION

Adult (Figs. 7, 23). Wingspan 10.2 to 10.8 mm. Coloration and vestiture: vertex of head roughly covered with short, light yellow hairs. Thoracic notum covered with shiny, dark brown scales. Forewing: ground color light grey and covered with dark brown scales, short brown hairs present on the termen, post-marginal corner of termen present with light grey hairs. Hindwing covered with light brown scales, post-marginal part present with brown hairs. Structure: head and compound eyes slightly small; ocelli absent. Mouthparts well developed, maxillary palpus and labial palpus covered with light brown scales. Antennae filiform, covered with light brown scales, longer than 4/5 of the forewing. Forewing: slightly narrow, L/W ratio 3.64, costa straight, termen straight or arched to posterior margin, discal cell 0.64 times as long as forewing; 7 separate and 2 forked veins originating at the discal cell (Fig. 23); accessory and intercalary cell absent; Sc reaching to 2/5 of the costa; Rs1 and Rs2 forked at 1/4 of the base; Rs3 and Rs4 forked at anterior margin of distal corner of discal cell; base of M weakly developed; [M.sub.1] and [M.sub.2] fused, [M.sub.1+2] and [M.sub.3] parallel; [CuA.sub.1] and [CuA.sub.2] originating at posterior margin of distal corner of discal cell; CuP slightly weak; basal part of 1A + 2A looped. Hindwing slightly narrow: L/W ratio 4.16; costa straight; Sc + R straight to 4/5 of the costa; Rs terminating at the apex; base of M weakly developed; [M.sub.1] and [M.sub.2] fused, [M.sub.1+2] and [M.sub.3] forked; CuP absent; [CuA.sub.1] and [CuA.sub.2] forked, 1A + 2A weak; 3A present but considerably weak. Legs: epiphysis present; covered with light brown hairs. Abdomen: covered with brown scales; corethrogyne absent.

Male genitalia (Figs. 13, 14). Tegumen, vinculum, and uncus fused with slightly wide triangular shape; uncus very short, elongated, hooked; vinculum V-shaped; saccus elongated downward, slightly thick, 0.86 times as long as the height of the ring; valva wide; ampulla (apex of valva) rounded and apical part hooked; harp relatively short and blunt (lateral view); transtilla slender, slightly short and well developed; phallus long and slender, cylindrical, longer than 2.66 times the height of the ring, cornuti present with 2 spines.

Female genitalia (Fig. 19). Ovipositor very long and narrow; papillae anales narrow, some short satae at apex; ostium bursae located at anterior margin of sternum VIII, slightly narrowed bell-shaped; apophyses posteriores very thin, 2.7 times longer than apophyses anteriores; basal part of apophyses anteriores thick and slightly short; antrum wide and well developed; ductus bursae narrow and very long; corpus bursae narrow and well sclerotized.

Larval case. Unknown.

TYPE MATERIAL

HOLOTYPE 1 male KOREA: Chungcheongbuk-do, Mungyeong-si, Mt. Sobaeksan, 37.825569[degrees]N, 128.379191[degrees]E, collected 17-VII-2001, legend unknown, male genitalia mounted on 60% euparal solution (genitalia no. KNAESJ00036), venation of wing slide no. KNAEVSJ6 (NAS).

PARATYPES 4 females KOREA: Gangwon-do, Donghae-si, Mt. Dutasan, 37.274175[degrees]N, 129.904444[degrees]E, collected 16-VII-2001, J.Y. Choi, G.M. Kwon, H.W. Byun, female genitalia mounted on 60% euparal solution (genitalia no. KNAESJ00012, KNAESJ00030, KNAESJ00031), venation of wing slide no. KNAEVSJ7 (NAS); 1 female KOREA: Chungcheongnam-do, Dangjin-gun, myeoncheon-eup, 36.817777[degrees]N, 126.666225[degrees]E, collected 11-VI-2016, S.J. Roh, B.S. Jeon, T.H. Yoo, female genitalia mounted on 60% euparal solution (genitalia no. KNAESJ00009), DNA barcode Process ID KNAEM002-18 (BOLD systems BIN. BOLD:ADL7238) (SEL/HNU).

DISTRIBUTION

Korea.

ETYMOLOGY

The specific name is derived from the Latin word longi (meaning "long") and the Greek word phallus, referring to the male genitalia characters.

Eudarcia cornea Roh & Byun, sp. nov. (Figs. 8, 15, 16, 20, 24)

DIAGNOSIS

Eudarcia cornea sp. nov. is externally similar to E. gwangneungensis sp. nov. and E. longiphalla sp. nov., but it can be distinguished by wide dark brown scales on forewings. The male genitalia are similar to those of E. orbiculidomus Sakai & Saigusa, 1999, but the uncus is markedly elongated, and valva is very wide and spinose. Furthermore, the male genitalia differ from E. dentata Gaedike, 2000, and E. simili-dentata Xiao & Li, 2009, by cornuti elongated to 2 spines on the apex of the phallus; vinculum broadly V-shaped. In addition, female E. cornea can be differentiated based on the wide eighth abdominal segment, elongated antrum, relatively thick ductus bursae, and well-developed ductus seminalis.

DESCRIPTION

Adult (Figs. 8, 24). Wingspan 6.3 to 7.1 mm. Coloration and vestiture: vertex of head roughly clothed with pale yellow hairs. Thoracic notum covered with dark brown scales. Forewing: ground color creamy white, widely covered with dark brown scales; short creamy-white hairs present on the termen. Hindwing covered with light brown scales and brown hairs present on the post-marginal part. Structure: head and compound eyes slightly large; ocelli absent. Mouthparts well developed, maxillary palpus and labial palpus covered with light brown scales, but black scales cover on 1 to 2 segments of maxillary palpus. Antennae filiform, covered with light brown scales. Forewing: slightly narrow, L/W ratio 4.38, costa straight, termen arched in the apex to posterior margin, discal cell 0.66 times as long as the forewings; 7 separate and forked veins absent in the discal cell (Fig. 24); accessory and intercalary cell absent; Sc reaching to 2/5 of the costa; Rs3 and Rs4 stalked at anterior margin of distal corner of discal cell; Rs4 reaching apex; base of M weak; [M.sub.1] and [M.sub.2] fused; [CuA.sub.1] and [CuA.sub.2] originating at posterior margin of distal corner of discal cell; basal part of 1A + 2A looped. Hindwing short and narrow: L/W ratio 3.37; costa straight; Sc + R reaching to 3/5 of the costa; Rs terminating at 4/5 of the costa; base of M weak; [M.sub.1] and [M.sub.2] fused, [M.sub.1+2] reaching apex, [M.sub.1+2] and [M.sub.3] forked; CuP absent; [CuA.sub.1] and [CuA.sub.2] parallel, 1A + 2A slightly developed; 3A present, but weak. Legs covered with light brown hairs. Abdomen: covered with brown scales, corethrogyne absent.

Male genitalia (Figs. 15, 16). Tegumen, vinculum, and uncus fused, slightly narrow; uncus short, elongated into 2 parts; vinculum broadly V-shaped; saccus short and narrowed downward, 0.79 times as long as the height of the ring; valva very wide, club-shaped (lateral view), costa of valva rounded in the apical part, spinose; transtilla short and hooked; phallus long and slender, longer than 2.32 times the height of the ring; cornuti elongated into 2 spines on the apex of the phallus.

Female genitalia (Fig. 20). Ovipositor slightly long and narrow; papillae anales narrow, some short satae at the apical part; eighth abdominal segment wide; ostium bursa bell-shaped; apophyses posteriores thin and long, 3.6 times longer than apophyses anteriores, thick in the basal part; antrum elongated; ductus bursae slightly thick and short; corpus bursae wide and well sclerotized.

Larval case. Unknown.

TYPE MATERIAL

HOLOTYPE 1 male KOREA: Incheon, Ongjin-gun, Baengnyeong Is., 37.941388[degrees]N, 124.662247[degrees]E, collected 7-VII-2015, S.Y. Park, Y.M. Shin, J.W. Nam, male genitalia mounted on 80% glycerol solution (genitalia no. KNAESJ00027), DNA barcode Process ID KNAEM009-18 (BOLD systems BIN. BOLD:ADL7356) (KNAE).

PARATYPES 2 males and 3 females KOREA: Incheon, Ongjin-gun, Baengnyeong Is., 37.941388[degrees]N, 124.662247[degrees]E, collected 7-VII-2015, S.Y. Park, Y.M. Shin, J.W. Nam, 1 male genitalia mounted on 60% euparal solution (genitalia no. KANES000J28), 2 females genitalia mounted on 60% euparal solution (genitalia no. KNAESJ00026, KNAESJ00029), venation of wing slide no. KNAEVSJ8, 2 males and 3 females DNA barcode Process ID KNAEM004-18, KNAEM005-18, KNAEM006-18, KNAEM007-18, KNAEM008-18 (BOLD systems BIN. BOLD:ADL7356) (KNAE).

DISTRIBUTION

Korea.

ETYMOLOGY

The specific name is derived from the Latin word corneus (meaning "horn"), referring to the uncus part of male genitalia characters.

Acknowledgments

We thank B.S. Jeon, T.H. Yoo, D.S. Kim (Systematic Entomology Lab, Hannam University, Daejon, South Korea), and Y.M. Shin (Division of Forest Biodiversity, Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, South Korea) for their assistance in collecting specimens. We would also like to thank G.S. Lee (Department of Plant Protection, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju, South Korea) and R. Gaedike (Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Muncheberg, Germany), for their valuable comments and information. Special thanks to S.B. Choi and Y.S. Cho, for their assistance in extraction of COI gene (Division of Forest Biodiversity, Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, South Korea). This study was carried out with the support of the R&D Program for Forest Science Technology (Project No: 2017042A00-1823-CA01) and Korea National Arboretum (Project No. KNA1-1-20, 16-1).

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Seung Jin Roh (1), and Bong-Kyu Byun (2,*)

(1) Division of Forest Biodiversity, Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, 11186, South Korea; E-mail: promotionroh@korea.kr (S. J. R.)

(2) Department of Biological Science and Biotechnology, Hannam University, Daejeon, 34054, South Korea; E-mail: bkbyun@hnu.kr (B. K. B.)

(*) Corresponding author; E-mail: bkbyun@hnu.kr

Caption: Figs. 1-4. Terminology of morphological characters: (1) male (Kristensen 2003, and Regier et al. 2015); (2) male genitalia, dorso-ventral part (Kristensen 2003, Regier et al. 2015, and Bidzilya et al. 2016); (3) ditto, lateral part (Sakai and Saigusa 1999, and Regier et al. 2015); (4) female (Kristensen 2003).

Caption: Figs. 5-8. Adults: (5) Eudarcia orbiculidomus Sakai & Saigusa, male; (6) E. gwangneungensis sp. nov., female, paratype; (7) E. longiphalla sp. nov., female, paratype; (8) E. cornea sp. nov., female, paratype.

Caption: Figs. 9-16. Male genitalia: (9) Eudarcia orbiculidomus Sakai & Saigusa (genitalia no. KNAESJ00032), lateral view; (10) ditto, dorso-ventral view; (11) E. gwangneungensis sp. nov., holotype (genitalia no. KNAESJ00037), lateral view; (12) ditto, dorso-ventral view; (13) E. longiphalla sp. nov., holotype (genitalia no. KNAESJ00036), lateral view; (14) ditto, dorso-ventral view; (15) E. cornea sp. nov., paratype (genitalia no. KANES000J28), lateral view; (16) ditto, dorso-ventral view.

Caption: Figs. 17-20. Female genitalia: (17) Eudarcia orbiculidomus Sakai & Saigusa (genitalia no. KNAESJ00033); (18) E. gwangneungensis sp. nov., paratype (genitalia no.

KNAESJ00035); (19) E. longiphalla sp. nov., paratype (genitalia no. KNAESJ00036); (20) E. cornea sp. nov., paratype (genitalia no. KANES000J29).

Caption: Figs. 21-24. Wing venation: (21) Eudarcia orbiculidomus Sakai & Saigusa (slide no. KNAEVSJ9); (22) E. gwangneungensis sp. nov., paratype (slide no. KNAEVSJ5); (23) E. longiphalla sp. nov., Holotype (slide no. KNAEVSJ6); (24) E. cornea sp. nov., paratype (slide no. KNAEVSJ8).

Caption: Figs. 25-29. Microhabitat and larval cases with pupal exuviae: (25) Eudarcia orbiculidomus Sakai & Saigusa, larval case with pupal exuviae; (26) E. gwangneungensis sp. nov., ditto; (27) Microhabitat of E. gwangneungensis sp. nov. (Korea, Gyeonggi-do, Pocheon-si, Gwangneung-forest, 20 Mar 2017); (28) ditto, close up; (29) ditto, scene of collection.
Table 1. DNA barcodes were uploaded to BOLD systems in this study

Scientific name         Country   Sample ID     BIN number    Basepair
                                                              length

Edarcia orbiculidomus   Korea     KNAEM001-18   BOLD:ADJ8878   427
E. gwangneungensis      Korea     KNAEM003-18   BOLD:ADL7237   658
E. longiphalla          Korea     KNAEM002-18   BOLD:ADL7238   658
E.cornea                Korea     KNAEM004-18   BOLD:ADL7356   658
E.cornea                Korea     KNAEM005-18   "              658
E.cornea                Korea     KNAEM006-18   "              658
E.cornea                Korea     KNAEM007-18   "              658
E.cornea                Korea     KNAEM008-18   "              658
E.cornea                Korea     KNAEM009-18   "              658


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Author:Roh, Seung Jin; Byun, Bong-Kyu
Publication:Florida Entomologist
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Geographic Code:9SOUT
Date:Mar 1, 2019
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