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The Macedonian poetry in the 19th and 20th century.

Activists in the Macedonian national Revival Movement

Dimitar Miladinov is the first cultural advocate and zealot of the spiritual processes in the Macedonian 19th century Renaissance. The work of this stirrer in the fields of education, culture, nation, and creation is followed and continued with great success by his disciples: Partenie Zografski, Konstantin Miladinov, Rajko Zinzifov, Grigor Prlicev, Kuzman Sapkarev, Marko Cepenkov, and others. With his creative accomplishments they will gave a great contribution to the development of the national-cultural and historical processes of the Macedonian people. As a matter of fact, in their individual creative accomplishments they will resurrect the idea about the spiritual wealth of our people and its consistent national aspirations for freedom and independent social, spiritual, and national development. In the years of national ascension, Partenie Zografski will become the first Bishop of Mace donian origin, while Konstantin Miladinov, Rajko Zinzifov, Grigor Prlicev, Kuzman Sapkarev, and Marko Cepenkov will literally grow into leaders of the awakening of the centuries-long oppressed Macedonian creative and national spirit and identity.

In the letter sent to the residents of Kukus (kept by Rajko Zinzifov), Dimitrije Miladinov the teacher is openly expressing his joy because soon the churches will be giving services in the Mace donian language. In this important document he is revealing the bitter truth about the Greek expansionism and barbarianism in concluding that "the Greek archpriests have burnt the parchment Slavic books everywhere thus mutilating "the Slavic clergy".

Throughout their lives the brothers Dimitar and Konstantin Miladinov had firmly stuck to their basic determinations regarding the clergy and the education. In reference to their life and steady on-going Odyssey, Rajko Zinzifov will note as follows: if they had agreed with the proposal of the Catholics, they might have been saved from execution. However, the brothers did not change their views and beliefs, neither in relation to their nationality, nor as regards the national confession and they preferred to die ...



As a person with great talent and high education, with profound initiatives and national ideas, direct and firm in the enlightening inventiveness and determinations, Dimitar Miladinov is the leader and the most outstanding fighter for our enlightenment and development of the cultural tradition and national thought. He is suggestive and convincing in elucidating the problems with a clear message and thought. So, Grigor Prlicev will write the following about him: "His word was flowing out of his mind like honey. Holy fire was burning from his eyes". In his address to the editor of the Bulgarian newspaper in Constantinople Alexander Egzarh, our spiritual herald openly wrote about his discomfort in expressing his Slavic feelings in the Greek language. In his confession he bitterly describes the big misunderstandings and the obstacles to the spiritual progression of the Macedonian people.

The founder of the modern Macedonian literature Koco Racin, in the study "The Development and the Significance of a New Literature of Ours", writes that the members of the Macedonian national revival movement are writers "deeply committed to the national ideals, firmly grounded on their real, vigilant, and only friends from the most progressive segment of their people" ... So, the Miladinov brothers were the first among the members of the Macedonian national revival movement who express the importance of the use of the Macedonian language in the enlightenment of the people. In his plea from 1856 Konstantin Miladonov also writes about the goal of his schooling in Russia, especially about his desire to expand his knowledge about the Slavic philology. He repeats the same desires and intentions three years later, in his letter to Georgi Rakovski, in which he calls the language spoken in Struga our dialect. In this letter, he calls himself and the other students-Macedonians with their real names, and he also informs him that he has collected "many Macedonian songs".

According to Blaze Koneski, the activity of the members of the Macedonian national revival movement "is characterized by the active relationship towards the questions of the national development and the vivid feelings for the people who were under very unfavorable conditions". Their leading idea throughout life is the strong desire for the enlightenment of the people and their liberation from foreign influences. However, in the approach and in the practical application of their ideals they are particularly distinguished for their understanding of the specific treats of the literary language. In this sense Konstantin is tracing the best road by using the vernacular in his creative work. On the other hand, Rajko Zinzifov is obsessed by ideas about Slavophilism and he is aspiring to the Bulgarian-Macedonian language variant, while Grigor Prlicev tried, on the grounds of the old Slavic language, to develop a "literary language that might be common for all the Slavs".

The general impression is that the works of the members of the Macedonian national revival movement are dominated by the poetic expression. Rare are the works like "Autobiography" by Prlicev and "Prosedba" by Zinzifov, which are memoirs and biographies of a reporter-travel notes character. The characteristics regarding their works are directly connected with verbal lyricism (Konstantin Miladinov) and borrowing motives from the epic (Grigor Prlicev).

The eminent writers from the Macedonian national revival movement are writing their works under the direct influence of the verbal literature and outstanding names from other literatures. So, Prlicev is under the direct influence of Homer, and Zinzifov of Nekrasov and Shevchenko. However, according to the indications made by Hristo Georgievski, there also appear some stylistic controversies: In his poetry, Konstantin Miladinov has kept the beauty and functionality of the intimate and descriptive-social verbal lyrics. Prilicev's translations of the "Ulysses" and his verses from Greek seem anachronous and rather pale. Zinzifov's experiment in introducing a kind of a medium language, that is to say an artificial synthesis, made his verses slow and expressively verbal. A balance of the poetical results is also missing. The tragic experiences of Prlicev and Zinzifov indicate the complex situation of the time in which they created and uncover the difficult struggle for introducing the vernacular and the great resistance to the creation of the literary language.

There is a general conclusion in our science of literature that the members of the Macedonian national revival movement introduced autonomy in literature and a recognizable national identity. Their poetic accomplishments represent a basis and a foundation for the later directions in the development of the Macedonian literature. Konstantin Miladinov, through the beauties of the vernacular, has established clear thematic and artistic relations; he elevated the national spirit to a high level. In his poems, he openly and precisely indicates the characteristics of the Macedonian climate. This was particularly accomplished on a high and creative way in the cult poem "Taga za jug" ("Sorrow for the South", trans.) in which the poetic inventiveness and the national versification values are interwoven. With this poem, Konstantin Miladinov turned the first sod in the Macedonian artistic poetry. As a matter of fact, the long-lasting battle for the emancipation of the language and of the original Macedonian creative work started with his poems, especially with the Collection.

The "Collection" of the Miladinov brothers is our Bible, because thanks to this work the achievements of our national genius come to a particular expression in the national frameworks and at large. The appearance of this work is considered a triumph for the progressive Macedonian revolutionary and intellectual forces. The "great illumination of the language and the essence of the Macedonians" came to the expression with it.

Konstantin Miladinov writes his first verses in cold Moscow. According to Haralampie Polenakovic, his "work around the folk songs" has significantly contributed to his creative activity.

Konstantin Miladinov is a poet of a pure and direct sensation. His verses are musical and fused with the poet's internal drama. He introduced lyrical emotionality and sensation; he overcame the insufficiently reanimated non-symmetric decasyllable expression and laid the basic points towards creativity and high poetical goal. He published most of his poems in Bratski trud, Blgarski kniznici and Dunavski lebed.

There is not a brisk border between the folk singing and the individual feeling for lyrical expression in Miladinov's poems. In "Taga za jug" the poet affirms the originality of the poetical voice and the subject; he deeply experiences the light and the heat of the atmosphere in his native region. He affirms the principles of "love for justice and truth" with sincere feelings, which overgrow into his "life and poetic attitude". Via the lyrical high spirits and beautifully prompted verses he describes the drama of solitude and nostalgia for the sunny native landscapes. So, for Konstantin Miladinov the poem is an act of survival; it is the true picture of the young spiritual restlessness. Actually, the poet is making confession through the poems. Thus, he is skillfully defending himself from human temptations and troubles in life in distant and cold Moscow. His message is thrilling and touching. It is shaped in strong emotions and soaked with the excitement of direct reality and the beauty of the folk lyrics.



Rajko Zinzifov was also educated and active in Russia. He is one of the first biographers of Miladinov. He is the author of thirty six poems in which he stresses the romantic individual rebellion in the relationship towards the Slavic brotherly alliance and the past of his people. Dimitar Miladinov's views will have a specific influence on his determinations.

His utopian language represents a great obstacle to expressing clearly and concisely the poetical thoughts of love for the Fatherland, its beauty, but also human injustices.

His best work "Krvava kosulja" ("Bloodstained Shirt", trans.) was created under the direct influence of the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko. As a matter of fact, the work of this great author was his challenge and thus he embarked on translating it in Macedonian.

Grigor Prlicev is the brightest point and the most important representative of the Macedonian national revival movement. High literature criteria will be always applied in the evaluation of his capital works "Serdarot" ("The Sirdar," trans.) and "Skender-beg" ("Skender-bey", trans.). Actually, our second Homer is a unique literature figure not only in the 19th century but up-to-date. He is a real pattern for the developed literatures, too. He remained faithful to his national ideals until the end of his life, consistently following the example of Dimitrija Miladinov.

After the execution of the Miladinov brothers, he tried to breakup with his mistakes, especially with the Greek influence. The idea for a common Slavic language will prevail with him. However, by becoming distant from the Greek influence, he will silence the poet in himself and he will "sing like an owl rather than like a nightingale". He will give up the privileges offered to him after his success in a competition in Athens when he won the first prize for his poem "Serdarot" in 1860, when he received the laurel wreath. Prlicev's affiliation to the high ideals is directed to legendary persons. His ideals are Skender-bey and Kuzman Kapidan. While singing of their daring exploits and heroic deeds, the poet is linking the national ideals with a strong artistic impulse. He takes Homer's poetics as the starting point singing with inspiration for the heroes and their daring exploits. The epic harmony occupies the central place in shaping high aesthetic messages. The poet believes in the strength of the artistic word, developing his own artistic entity with strong and unique messages. He particularly emphasizes the relations between the historical processes and the tragic experiences of his people. For the accomplishment of the artistic messages, he takes over the values from the rich folk creativity that is in correlation with his poetics. So, the stressed presence of mourners in "Serdarot" is exciting and important for the composition of the work itself. In relation to the formation of the daring exploits and the tragic essence of his heroes, the "Skenderbeg" epic has a vivid reflexivity, too. All this has been based on a historical foundation, and the activity is taking place in a recognizable place. The hero, originating from the people's plains, is artistically and epically devised in the ultimate creative form. The poet makes the literature message universal, and he emphasizes to an expressively burning point the immaculate heroic spirit of the hero. So, in "Serdarot" Grigor Prlicev synthesizes the contradictions of the internal and the external world, and he emphasizes and separates the epic action.

The poets of the Macedonian national revival movement elaborate kindred subjects and motives in their works. Their ideological principles are also identical. Konstantin Miladinov and Zinzifov are merged in their nostalgia, while Grigor Prlicev is merged in the lyrical-epic genre.

The Ilinden period

After the brilliant literary accomplishments of the members of the Macedonian national revival movement a vacuum follows until the stormy and revolutionary events of the Ilinden (St. Elias' Day, Anniversary of the uprising of the Macedonians on 2nd August 1903) period. In this crucial time for the Macedonian historic survival, our literature does not have an outstanding literary representative. As a matter of fact, there are some creative outbursts that are under the direct influence of the folk poetry, but they are not typical and lack literary autonomy. The writers are fighting on the front and creating on the battle fields, thus becoming unhesitating and real witnesses of the bloody events and heroic deeds. This is particularly expressed in the works of Lazar Poptrajkov ("Lokvata i Vinjari"), ("The Puddle and the Vintner" trans.), of Atanas Razdelov (in his poems about Macedonia), and of Arsenie Jovkov (in his poems "Prokletina", "Jasnogrejci", and "Lule Burgas", as well as in his voluminous work, the novel in verses "Ilinden"), who are describing with sincere emotions and laud the sufferings of the Macedonian people and the daring exploits of the Macedonian heroes. Thanks to their naive modest, but from the historical point of view very important works, today we have literary testimonies about Goce Delcev, Pitu Guli, Jane Sandanski, Damjan Gruev, and many other heroes, who are largely accepted by the popular masses. Marko Cepenkov also belongs to this group of authors as the most famous collector of folk wit creations. Namely, he is creating in the pre-Ilinden, the Ilinden, and the post-Ilinden period by giving his literary contribution to the individual artistic work.

In this chapter of the Macedonian history and literature the work of Nikola Kirov Majski is definitely occupying an important and nonsurpassed place, especially the historical-memoirs "Epopeja na Krusevo" ("The Epos of Krusevo") and "Manifestot na Krusevskata Republika" ("The Manifest of the Krusevo Republic").

The works of the representatives of the Ilinden period, although without greater artistic value, represent an unsurpassed chapter in the developing processes of the Macedonian literature. Actually, they are the connective tissue between the high thematic and aesthetic values accomplished by the members of the Macedonian national revival movement and the top creative accomplishments of the writers between the two world wars incorporated in the works of Koco Racin, Venko Markovski, Nikola Jonkov Vapcarov, Mite Bogoevski, and Kole Nedelkovski.

The Macedonian Literary Society in Sofia

The formation of the Macedonian Literary Society in Sofia in 1938 represents an important chapter in our literature. Its members are outstanding writers, like: Nikola Jonkov Vapcarov, Angel Zarov (Mihail Smatrakalev), Anton Popov, Gjorgji Abadziev, Todor Janev, Kiril Nikolov, Asen Surdov-Vedrov, Anton Velikov-Belomorski, Ivan Kereziev, and Vasil Aleksandrov. This group of literary public figures was later joined by Venko Markovski and Kole Nedelkovski. Some top intellectuals have also participated in and given contribution to this Society, especially Todor Pavlov who held a lecture on social realism as a guest member. We can note the organized activities of this Society until 1941. According to Gane Todorovski, the Macedonian literary Society is "the only Macedonian illegal writers' association between the two world wars, an extremely illuminating chapter in the development of the new Macedonian literature, a brave and necessary association of the young, progressive, and enterprising people, completely aware of their high mission in the ideological, national-political and cultural enlightenment and qualification of their people bereft of their rights for centuries, fully prepared to imprint their seal, their share, and their vision during the crucial years of the liberation struggle". During their every-day socializations, the young enthusiasts were discussing about the literary, the social, and the national challenges of the time. The report of Nikola Vapcarov, which was read at the constitutional assembly of the Macedonian Literary Society, is of testimonial significance for their activity. The role of Anton Popov's texts is of special importance for the literary processes. As an author with a shrewd spirit and clear critical thought, he is describing at large the poetical creations of Angel Zarov, Koco Racin, Nikola Vapcarov, and Kole Nedelkovski. This unavoidable chapter in our literature is a subject of expanded, supported, and thorough analyses of several Macedonian literary critics and historians of literature, among who we will in particular mention the names of Dimitar Mitrev, Gane Todorovski, Blaze Ristovski, Miodrag Drugovac, Done Panovski, Hristo Georgievski, Vasil Tocinovski, and so on.

Koco Racin--The Man of our time and Future

Racin is the most outstanding figure in the Macedonian literature in the period between the wars. He is the prime mover of freedom and of the free thought; a revolutionary and a poet, not only for his time filled with contradictions, but also for the present day time, for the modern era. He was born to become a popular tribune and the leading star of our poetical thought. The importance of his work is unique, special, and universal. He was writing poems about the worker, never reducing him to a pure date in his poems, but raising him to the level of a creative and portent personality, giving him a large anthropological dimension, elevating the morning to the level of an important daily routine. That was his vision for the present and the future: this simply represented his sincere view about the new, the insurmountable, and the unrepeatable. As Academician Aleksandar Spasov puts it nicely, the "collection of verses Beli Mugri (White Daybreak, trans.) developed on the tradition is now a tradition itself ". It is a tradition on which a new modern poetry in Macedonian is created. With the appearance of "Beli mugri" there came to a meeting between the tradition and the modern sensibility. It was the accomplishment of an act that had, it still has, and it will have for a long time to come, extraordinary resulting consequences for the Macedonian poetical tradition. This is exactly why whenever we go back to the name and work of Racin, we go back to the inexhaustible source of our folk and artistic word accomplished through centuries.

Racin is an epoch, marked with his name and poetry. His work links the Macedonian poetry with the world's mainstreams. He is not just a follower of Hegel, but also a sincere associate and follower of Konstantin Miladinov and Grigor Prlicev. In the ideas and the emancipation of the Macedonian poetical word he defended, and succeeded in doing so, the dignity of life and arts. He united his mastership in writing verses and the ascension of the progressive ideas. And as we know, he transformed slavery into a real university, tragic in direct practice, especially in poetry as the real house of those bereft of their rights.



The verses in "Beli mugri" are imposing as an artistic ideal, as the life of the language and the national genius are. This is why Racin is the man of our time and future. This is why the "name of Koco Racin is the abbreviation for the name of all of us", as Blaze Koneski noted. His work is an unusual challenge and it represents a creative break-up with the Macedonian underdeveloped but interesting literature before that. It represents an exclusive historical event, a synthesis of the national and individual spirit. Thanks to Racin, the Macedonian literature was included in the important mainstreams of the Balkan and European literatures on an equal footing.

Unlike Kole Nedelkovski, Mite Bogoevski, Aco Karamanov and some others, Koco Racin accomplished some demarcations between the real criticism and socio-political comment, between the needs of the time and poetry. He profiled himself as a poet in the contradictions and thus outlived his time.

He copied the spirit of the Macedonians and the Macedonian land. Through its touch with the land, as Academician Georgi Stardelov notes, "poetry gains a mythical dimension in which we most directly feel the land as the mother, the one giving birth, the suffering one."

Racin is the first Macedonian writer who clearly understood the language of the worker and of the intellectual. Thanks to his work, he became a poet--a legend for the Macedonian literature and the Macedonian national reality in general.

General Marks about the Macedonian Literature

At the time of the National Liberation War poetical works appeared in the Macedonian literature that, in a very simple way, I would say in a very popular and ballad-like way, sang of the revolution and the military daring exploits and heroism of the fighters. Their basic characteristic involved the generally accepted principle to express belief in the victory over the infamous fascist enemy. And all these poems were interwoven with a romantic fervor and with an outburst of sadness for the tragic experiences of the people that was stoically getting killed in opposing the aggressor. The poets of that time, basing their poetry on a more general relation, immortalized the aspiration to liberal ideals very authentically, with an expression of belief in the big deed of the Macedonian people.

The associative-ballad poem in those years of desires, ideals, and aspirations appeared as a continuation of the folk poetical thread based on the tradition of the Macedonian folk song. In this regard the patriotic tune with clear ingredients of a very expressive, and we could say stressed singing of the Revolution, occupied a dominating place in the general trends of the literature created on our soil. As a matter of fact, the modest tradition of the 19th century, the pre-Ilinden and the post-Ilinden period, as well as the tradition in the period between the two world wars, was of immeasurable importance for the faster, more expressed, and more emphasized trend of the poetic understanding.

From today's point of view we can clearly say that the artistic singing in this stormy period was based on a very authentic and insurmountable poetical plights created in the past period, which used as their base the emphasized national element with ingredients of a neatly profiled mark of the proletarian poetry present in the more developed European cultural centers. During these years of ascension and national aspirations, of impeccable heroism and endless ideals, the Macedonian poets started the longest road to victory with a clear vision and determination for final victory and free thought and unbreakable national entity.

Having in front of them first of all the poetical achievements of Konstantin Miladinov, Grigor Prlicev, Rajko Zinzifov, Koco Racin, Nikola Jonkov Vapcarov, Venko Markovski, Kole Nedelkovski, Mite Bogoevski and some others, the first creations of Blaze Koneski, Slavko Janevski, Aco Sopov, Gogo Ivanovski, and Lazo Karovski appeared in the whirlpool of the war, and together with the prose writers Jovan Boskovski, Gjorgji Abadziev, and Kole Casule, as well as the play writers Risto Krle, Vasil Iljoski, and Anton Panov they mark the beginning of the modern Macedonian literature. In that period, and later, just after the liberation, at the time of the collectivization and construction of the state, they bore the biggest burden in the codification and in the standardization of the literary Macedonian language.

The presence of romantic tunes, interwoven with elements of popular folklore, is dominating in the poetry created at the beginning of this period. The authors, in establishing their literary ideal on a broad relation, will sing of the revolution with idyllic fervor as an expression of the centuries-long aspirations of the Macedonian people, a fervor that was in many ways, and according to many elements, the main characteristic in the freedom-loving singing of our fatherland for a long period of time.

Nevertheless, in the first years following the war, we can see the transitional steps from romantic ideal and constructing passion; on the one side, immediately after the National Liberation War, the great achievements of the Revolution were sung of, and on the other side the construction successes of the youth and of the entire Macedonian people were sung of with creative enthusiasm. In that period appeared the first creative announcements of Gane Todorovski, Mateja Matevski, Srbo Ivanovski, Genadi Bolinovski, Ante Popovski, and so on, who are in direct accord with the environment and the literature created among us.

Any more detailed analysis of the creative work from the first post-war years will clearly indicate that the poetical achievements do not correspond with higher aesthetic standards seen and commented from the present day aspect. However, the act of creating, the exciting set of motives, no matter that they may not be on the height of the real profile and the stressed aesthetic form, remain authentic, unrepeatable, and acceptable due to their humane message even from a greater time distance. So, we can conclude that the creation of literature at that time is equally an act of aesthetic and construction--it is an act of the great victory of the Macedonian people, of the Macedonian culture and language.

The reviewers and commentators of the modern Macedonian literature nearly always give the priority to poetry in their range of interest. Obviously, the achieved results in the period of more expressed development of this literary kind since liberation up-to-date impose the need for a more comprehensive interpretation, presentation, involvement, and analysis. Until the second half of the 60s, this had to do with predominantly expressed poetical layers. This is the reason why the poetry was more emphatically presented and legitimized in the Macedonian cultural space as well as in broader frameworks. So, the more important poetical achievements and streams, which were caught and accepted directly, and established in union with the rich national tradition, contributed for the poetical word to be realized with greater comprehension, very impressively, and originally.

The presence of new poetical tendencies and values in our region was expressively felt during the sixth and the seventh decade of the last century--the period when the so-called third creative wave appeared. The results offered by the new names are already evident and insurmountable in the mainstreams of the modern Macedonian literature. During those years of particular development of the Macedonian poetry, aside the works of Slavko Janevski, Aco Sopov, Blaze Koneski, Gogo Ivanovski, Lazo Karovski, Gane Todorovski, Mateja Matevski, Srbo Ivanovski, Ante Popovski, the poetical books of Jovan Koteski, Radovan Pavlovski, Petre M. Andreevski, Bogomil Gjuzel, Ljuben Taskovski, Petar T. Boskovski, Mihail Rendzov, Jovan Pavlovski, Vlada Urosevik, Trajan Petrovski, Ivan Capovski, and Cedo Jakimovski flashed with their thematic originality and aesthetic freshness. If we speak of thematic and aesthetic achievements of the poets of the new literary wave, we can certainly conclude that their poetical announcements occupy an important place and it is a fact that their appearance established more rigid criteria in the critical assessments of our literature. Thanks to the openness of the literary periodic, and in any case of the rising interest of the publishers, there are a large number of capital and insurmountable titles from the members of the first generations of Macedonian writers in the library funds today.

Carefully accepting the tradition of the Macedonian poetical word and following the trends of the European ones, and even the world's literary mainstreams with a refined taste, the authors from the new poetical wave introduced in the artistic expression in our spiritual space quite a large number of innovative elements, original motif determinations, insurmountable aesthetic results, and clear views about art. There is no doubt that the poetical books of Svetlana Hristova Jocik, Gordana Mihajlova Bosnjakoska, Todor Calovski, Sande Stojcevski, Vele Smilevski, Pande Mihajlov, Risto Lazarov, Eftim Kletnikov, Olga Arbuljevska, Katica Kjulafkova, Petre Bakevski, Ivan Vasilevski, Vasile Dimeski, Liljana Dirjan, Slave Gjorgjo Dimovski, BrankoCvetkovski, Vera Cejkovska, Milovan Stefanovski, Kire Nedelkovski, and so on, occupy important places in this circle. We could not place their results under a common name, but there is no doubt that with their works they uncover new artistic spaces; they give the verse an emphasized intellectual dimension, at the same time tracing down unusual motives that are communicating in general and universal relations. It seems as though the images in their songs have been extracted from an outside world full of prejudices, unusual travels, unrealized dreams, visions, and dilemmas. Their creative pulsations often lack emphasized lyrical digressions and they nearly always accept the higher artistic goal. As a matter of fact, "contrary to the already affirmed poetical tendencies, which were regularly in union with the immediate reality and national generic ambience", they often prefer the adventure in pursuit of the word and the subject. They have the feeling for a compound pursuit for new expressive tools that are not briskly separated from the tradition, which need an expressively reflexive meaning of the poetical thought.

The poetical messages of the representatives of the fourth generation are expressed with a language that is rich, often with philosophical nuances. Henceforth, there is the impression that most of the authors in their works aspire to making a subject out of the poem, to giving the everyday and eternally present subjects a specific significance, in one word, they tend to include the messages from a different angle, with a special accent on the metaphor and on the new versification structure.

Rade Siljan--Writer and literature critic, President of the Association of Macedonian Writers and laureate of the greatest award for literature "Brakja Miladinovci" ("Miladinovci brothers" trans.)
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Author:Siljan, Rade
Publication:Macedonian Affairs Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXMA
Date:Dec 1, 2008
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