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The Joint Electronic Warfare Center.

Joint! Multiservice! Multinational! Counter-drugs! Prototype development! These buzzwords are awash in today's popular press in connection with the Department of Defense (DOD). They all certainly apply to the Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC), a joint field operating agency at Kelly AFB, San Antonio, TX.

WHAT THE "J" MEANS

The "J" in JEWC stands for "joint" -- and the JEWC is joint in philosophy, in practice and in fact. According to The Joint Staff Officer's Guide 1991, "joint matters" are defined as "the integrated employment of land, sea and air forces" to include national military strategy, strategic and contingency planning and command and control of combat operations under a unified command. The nation's warfighting direction from the national command authority, comprised of the President and the secretary of defense, is executed through the chairman of the joint chiefs of staff by the 10 unified and specified commands, each of which is headed by a commander-in-chief (CINC). These commands are the Atlantic Command (LANTCOM), European Command (EUCOM), Pacific Command (PACOM), Central Command (CENTCOM), Southern Command (SOUTHCOM), Special Operations Command (SOCOM), Space Command (SPACECOM), Transportation Command (TRANSCOM), Strategic Command (STRATCOM) and Forces Command (FORSCOM). These CINCs exercise their "combatant command" authority normally through their service component commanders.

The JEWC's primary customer is the operational joint world -- the joint force, the joint task force and the force component commanders' staffs and subordinate forces. Examples of these joint aggregations are the staffs of CENTCOM under Gen Joseph P. Hoar, USMC; of Joint Task Force Southwest Asia under Lt Gen Michael Nelson, USAF; and of the Naval Forces Central Command under VADM Douglas J. Katz, USN.

The JEWC's mission is to provide support to the operational forces, the military services, the joint staff, the Office of the Secretary of Defense and other government agencies via electronic warfare (EW) and command and control warfare ([C.sup.2]W) related combat studies and analysis, staff augmentation, training and simulation and engineering development and testing.

Although the center is a field agency of the joint staff working directly for the director of operations (J3), its charter allows direct liaison with any level of the military force. Satisfied and successful customers who have recently availed themselves of JEWC analytical products include the 10th Mountain Division prior to its deployment to Somalia, the space and electronic warfare commander aboard the USS John F. Kennedy in the Mediterranean, various airlift units flying in and out of Sarajevo and Joint Task Force 4 in the Caribbean as it executes its counter-drug mission.

STRUCTURE

The JEWC is organizationally composed of four directorates -- computer applications, operations, studies and analysis and systems engineering -- and the office of plans and resources (Figure 1). The boundaries between these elements quickly blur as customer needs are met; in fact, it is more the exception than the rule that any JEWC product is exclusively produced by one directorate.

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The JEWC's resources include personnel, information, computers and communications connectivity. The personnel come from not only this nation's military services and the federal civil service (Figure 2), but also from industry, the National Security Agency and the military services of Australia, Great Britain and Canada. The JEWC puts a high premium on recent operational experience, whether or not EW or [C.sup.2]W related. For example, most of the recently reporting military personnel have Desert Shield/Storm experience.

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The bulk of the technical and engineering expertise, as well as most of the corporate knowledge, are resident in the center's accomplished civilian cadre.

The information requirements of the JEWC are extensive. The data poured into the JEWC cauldron on a daily basis include current intelligence, equipment capabilities and procedures, terrain mapping data, current and emerging technology and numerous time lines and schedules. Thousands of people throughout the DOD and industry support the JEWC, including those in such organizations as the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Air Force Electronic Warfare Center and the Defense Mapping Agency.

A state-of-the-art computer system links the information input to the center's assembled brain trust and creates an EW and [C.sup.2]W analysis and display environment. At the heart of the onsite mission capability is a Convex C240 high-speed, multiprocessing computer. It drives an extensive secure computer network linking workstations around the JEWC with each other and with external data sources. The C240 supports the center's computationally intensive and highly complex mission analyses and the timely use of finegrained terrain data.

In just a few years, the mission turnaround times have been reduced from weeks to minutes and the final product has evolved from hand delivery of hard-copy predictive analyses and overlays to digital analysis and electronic dissemination using high-speed processing and advanced communications networks. The JEWC is working toward hardware independence in a Unix environment using the Visual Programming Environment as the development tool of choice.

WHAT THE JEWC PROVIDES

Currency, accuracy, timeliness and user-friendliness are the hallmarks of the products and services provided to the center's worldwide customer base.

Combat analysis: Support to field and fleet commanders during crisis or contingency operations is provided under the project name of Proud Flame. From its inception in 1980, the JEWC has been involved in the EW planning, operations and after-action reporting of every major national military action, including Operation Eldorado Canyon in Libya in 1986, Operation Praying Mantis in the Persian Gulf in 1988, Operation Just Cause in Panama in 1989 and Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990/91. Currently, the JEWC is providing EW and related [C.sup.2]W support for the humanitarian efforts in Somalia and Yugoslavia and Operation Southern Watch in Iraq.

Engineering services: The center's systems engineering directorate (SE) performs three vital roles: developing EW technology, supporting the DOD's total acquisition program and performing operational testing. Systems engineering was an OSD-directed addition to the JEWC charter in the mid-1980s to bridge the gap between ongoing laboratory technological advancements and the requirements of the operational forces.

SE introduces cutting-edge technology to the field and fleet through rapid prototyping of state-of-the-art equipment. Annually SE solicits from the operational forces engineering project nominations. These nominations are then injected into a JEWC "rack and stack" process, the result of which is four to six projects to be executed over the following 12-18 months. One recent prototype project example is the geo-positioning aviators' radio system, which uses the Global Positioning System to determine the position of a downed aviator and passes the information along with a radio identification and an operator-coded message to a search and rescue element. A battlefield IFF system for tanks, which is a point-to-point laser communication system using off-the-shelf technology and which requires no dedicated effort from the gunner or the potential target, represents another example. The DOD's recently expoused acquisition philosophy of prototyping has been occurring at the JEWC for years.

The test division supports EW and communications testing throughout the DOD. The division's hallmarks are consummate technical and operational expertise, no service bias, a minimum of bureaucracy, low relative cost, timeliness and flexible response. Recent test programs supported include JTIDS, the ES-3A and Piranha.

Publications: The JEWC's doctrine branch, in coordination with the joint staff, develops manuals on joint EW doctrine and tactics, techniques and procedures. These manuals aid in the application of EW during the field operations of the combatant CINCs. Additionally, the JEWC publishes the annual DOD EW Plan for the undersecretary of defense for acquisition, the services and the joint staff. This congressionally mandated plan describes more than $5 billion worth of research, development and acquisition to show the link between the president's budget and the anticipated threat. It also acts as a catalyst to stimulate interoperability and commonality among the services. Parts of the plan are published under a separate JEWC cover, most notably the threat chapter, which delineates the Third World technological advancements.

JEWC information publications include the Joint Threat Simulator Handbook, the Joint EW and [C.sup.3] Course Catalog and the Joint EW Handbook.

EW reprogramming: The JEWC reprogramming branch ensures joint coordination of the individual services' reprogramming processes. In the fall of 1992, the center sponsored and executed a joint exercise named Proud Byte, during which each service's individual reprogramming procedures were tested end-to-end.

Studies and analysis: The communications analysis division provides analysis of friendly and hostile command, control and communication ([C.sup.3]) systems and their capabilities and vulnerabilities to countermeasures and exploitation. Using all-source intelligence, CINC-tailored support teams prepare [C.sup.2]W decision aids for the combatant commanders based on each command's threat priorities.

The radar/weapons system analysis division (SAE) provides analysis of selected US noncommunications equipment in relation to existing and postulated threats. SAE evaluates both friendly and hostile EW systems, tactics and effectiveness (Figure 3).

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The JEWC also is the DOD's focal point for technical analysis and operational evaluation in support of the DOD's counter-drug detection and monitoring mission. Its people provide analysis of the current continental United States and Caribbean radar coverage and assess emerging technology for use in the nation's counter-drug effort and US border protection.

Training: The training branch provides formal instruction on EW and [C.sup.2]W exercise planning and lessons gleaned from recent conflicts. Activities requesting this support include the joint EW and [C.sup.2]W staff officer courses at the Armed Forces Staff College and various service schools such as the Marine Corps Command and Staff College, the 18th Airborne Corps EW course and the electronic combat course at Mather AFB, CA.

The JEWC supports every phase of selected joint field exercises, from the initial planning conference through exercise execution to after-exercise reporting. The center is currently supporting the following exercises: Tandem Thrust for PACOM, Ocean Venture for LANTCOM, Dynamic Guard for EUCOM, Fuertas Defensas/Cabanas for SOUTHCOM and Ulchi Focus Lens for CFC Korea. It also was supporting Internal Look for CENTCOM prior to its cancellation.

The JEWC-developed Joint Electronic Combat/Electronic Warfare Simulation (JECEWSI, pronounced like "jacuzzi") is a vehicle that quantifies the effects of EW systems for use in wargames and simulations worldwide. The JEWC continues to work closely with the Warrior Preparation Center in Germany, the Combined Forces Command in Korea, the Joint Warfare Center at Hurlburt Field in Florida and the Pacific Command in Hawaii to inject realistic EW play into force-level simulations. JECEWSI was extensively described in JED's November 1992 issue, p. 61.

With the primary impetus being the lessons learned from Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, but also from observing a notable lack of focus on EW and [C.sup.2]W development as the services downsize, the JEWC has initiated several projects to improve EW and [C.sup.2]W support to the joint combatant commanders:

* Internally, the JEWC is currently instituting a new means of delivering its product to the operational forces' CINC-tailored support teams. Working from a base in the operations directorate, but using the assets of the entire JEWC, five teams are aligned primarily with the geographical CINCs: the EUCOM team, the PACOM team, the CENTCOM team, the LANT/SOUTHCOM team and the SOCOM team. Each team is charged to support its CINC with "one-stop shopping" for the JEWC's entire spectrum of products and services. The same center personnel that support the CINC routinely with analysis and training will show up as augmentees during crisis or conflict.

* As a result of an action item defined at the March 1992 CINCs' J3 Conference in San Antonio, the joint staff directed the JEWC to develop a vehicle that would allow a force commander to optimize the coordinated use of his force EW expertise and equipment. As a result, the Joint Commander's EW Staff (JCEWS) is now being tested in field and command post exercises. The JCEWS is a committee chaired by the force EW officer with representation from the force intelligence (J2) and [C.sup.3] (J6) staff elements, as well as the force components (Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force) and possible coalition forces. With its knowledge of both the friendly and threat EW and [C.sup.2]W posture and vulnerability, the JCEWS assists the force J3 in meeting his EW responsibilities, specifically for target nominations, air tasking order input and EW frequency deconfliction.

* In January of this year, the JEWC sponsored a Tactical Electronic Order of Battle (TEOB) Conference to discuss and evaluate all aspects of TEOB production, management and dissemination from the perspective of the user. Most of the units from all the services who were routine users of the EOB produced during Desert Shield and Desert Storm were represented, as were the producers and data managers. The result of this conference was a much better understanding by all attendees of the entire process and the problems at each stage and, soon to be published by the JEWC, a recommended production and management architecture for the consideration of the CINCs and the joint staff.

FLOURISHING IN A JOINT WORLD

The corporate JEWC team supports the field and fleet commanders with product accuracy, timeliness and excellence. In today's unpredictable international political and military environments, the JEWC distinguishes itself as a critical source of state-of-the-art analysis of programs, systems and operations in the EW discipline. Working directly for the joint staff and with the combatant commanders, the JEWC has significantly contributed to the success that this nation's military forces have achieved on the battlefield.

The JEWC will continue to be a strong advocate for the continued movement toward a highly effective and survivable joint military force on tomorrow's battlefield.

Calling All Pioneers

The AOC has begun development of the first of five possible video documentaries detailing the history of electronic warfare. Episode I of The Invisible War will explore the development of radar and radar countermeasures during World War II. It will be the story of the pioneers as told by the pioneers. Interviews will be taped at AOC headquarters on June 11 and August 13, 1993. Those able to participate with appropriate contributions for this effort are encouraged to schedule an interview with the headquarters. Personal expenses must be borne by the participant. Subsequent episodes would document Korea and the Cold War Years, EW in Vietnam, The Persian Gulf and The Future of EW.

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Author:Gordon, Ed
Publication:Journal of Electronic Defense
Date:May 1, 1993
Words:2391
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