Printer Friendly

The Internet: a core or value added service?

Edited version of a discussion paper written from the New South Wales perspective and circulated to local council general managers and public library manager in NSW for comment. Thirty three written responses were received with 21 supporting the position that public access to electronic publications available through the internet is a core service rather than a value added service and should be provided as a free service. Four supported it but would like to see some level of cost recovery to counter balance urban-rural inequity; another four provided general comments; and four disagreed, arguing that public access is a value added service because of the cost involved

Public libraries aim to meet the informational, educational and recreational needs of their communities by providing a range of resources and services. The last two decades have seen an explosion in the number of information formats that public libraries can utilise in meeting their community needs. Today's public library not only provides books, but also newspapers, serials, caroms, large print books, audio cassettes, talking books, compact discs, microforms, video cassettes, captioned videos' maps, online information services and other evolving information formats. This paper focuses on electronic publications distributed through the internet.

Should public access to services available through the internet be viewed as a core or valued added service? Many public libraries in New South Wales offer some level of pub]ic access to the internet. However, the range of services being offered varies greatly. Some are providing one pc for public access and not using it for reference, while others are providing multiple workstations and integrating it into their reference services. There is also a fundamental difference in the way public libraries are providing public access to information contained on the internet: that is either as a core or value added service. Some are providing it as a free service, some as a partial cost recovery service and some as a value added service.

Internet communications facilities, such as email, can be compared to telephone or fax services and as such they are not a core service function of a public library. Thus public libraries could consider levying a fee for email services. This paper is primarily concerned with assessing whether internet information facilities, such as the world wide web (the web), are core or value added service.

Electronic publications is the term used in this paper to describe information content available through the internet.

The information age

The information age is characterised by access to increasing amounts of electronic information from anywhere around the world. Lyn Martin's definition of the internet highlights the masses of information becoming available

the internet is a dynamic, adventure filled entity,

containing more information than any of us will

be able to explore in our whole lifetimes.[1]

Singapore's Prime Minister Goh Chok in his 1993 national day message recognised the importance of information as we enter the information age when he said that (quoted by Sabaratnam)

the future belongs to countries whose people

make the most productive use of information,

knowledge and technology. These are now the

key factors for economic success, not natural

resources.[2]

The State Government of NSW has outlined its commitment to delivering efficient, affordable and accessible services which are responsive to community needs in Information management and technology blueprint for NSW. This document highlights the strategic value of information and points out that the `community has already `paid' for government information holdings to be collected and stored'. It acknowledges the importance of management policies which broaden access to government services and information so that the community does not have to pay a second time when they do business with government.

By providing public access to the internet, public libraries will demonstrate the role that they can play in addressing the fear that the internet will create an information rich--information poor society. Bannerman has stated that the internet `has the potential to widen the division of society into information rich and the information poor'.[3] He has put forth the idea that poverty in the contemporary context might result `from being excluded--by lack of connection or failure to embrace the technology--from channels of popular communication.'[4] Barriers to the ability of libraries to fulfil this role include charging to browse for information available through the internet, restrictive use policies, lack of hardware or no networked access. Successive federal governments have acknowledged the role that public libraries can play in this area. Regretably, federal funding to date has been minimal.

The internet is facilitating a publishing revolution. It is arguably the greatest revolution in publishing since the development of the printing press. Not only is the internet a publishing medium, it is also a distribution medium for electronic publications. Publications go direct from the author to the user without the need for book shops or libraries.

The role of the public library

In this information age the role of the public library will increasingly be as an access provider and guide to a world of information. By being access providers public libraries can expand and extend their library collections beyond the physical confines of their buildings. A public library that provides effective access to internet resources has an onsite collection and an offsite collection. The internet is the greatest information tool a public library has at its disposal and its impact on print collections is going to be significant.

It is possible that within the space of ten years the number of reference books held in public libraries will be under half what they are today. In making decisions on whether to purchase an item or provide access, librarians need to balance likely demand for a publication against processing and storage costs for a printed version and access costs for the electronic version. Increasingly, many publications are only appearing in electronic from.

Many of the information rich sites on the internet will not remain free, while others are already only available on a subscription basis. For example, SearchBank[TM] provides access to a range of databases providing full text journal articles. Examples of databases include the Health reference center, Business index, Books in print, General reference center and Investext. Libraries will evaluate these information services and provide access to those that best suit the needs of their clients. It is likely that they will provide access to these sites in much the same way as they currently purchase information in book form to meet the needs of clients.

Never before have external sources of information been so easily and readily available from remote sites. How well public libraries provide access to information rather than the size of their collections and number of items circulated will become the key measure of a library's performance in the future. Public libraries are evolving from just in case collections to just in time services.

Legislation and professional association statements

In determining whether providing public access to electronic publications through the internet is a core or a value added service it is valid to examine the existing legislative framework that public libraries operate under, as well as the professional association statements which provide the values and the philosophical basis for public library services.

The legislation under which public libraries operate in New South Wales are

* Library Act 1939 as amended

* Guidelines relating to section 10, Library Act 1939 as amended

* Library [Regulation 1995

* Local Government Act 1993

The main statements by professional associations include

* Australian Library and Information Association (Alia) policy statements

?? Freedom to read (see appendix 1)

?? Free library services to all (see appendix 2)

* Library Council of New South Wales

?? The freedom of collection and access for local government libraries (see appendix 3)

* Australian Council of Libraries and Information Services (Aclis)

?? Guidelines for public library funding (see appendix 4)

* Unesco

?? Unesco Public library manifesto 1994: a living force (see appendix 5)

The legislation

The NSW Library Act 1939 as amended defines a book as follows

`Book' includes periodical, newspaper and any

other printed matter and also includes map,

music, manuscript, picture, photographic plate

and film and any other matter or thing whereby

words, sounds or images are recorded or reproduced.

Issue

Do electronic publications available via the internet fit into this definition of a `book'?

The key to determining whether electronic publications are covered by the definition of a `book' is the phrase: any other matter or thing whereby words, sounds or images are recorded or reproduced. There is little doubt that the internet is a medium whereby words, sounds or images are recorded or reproduced. Therefore, electronic publications available via the internet fit into the definition of `book' as defined in the Library Act 1939 as amended.

Recommendation

That future amendments to the Library Act explicitly identify electronic publications available through distribution mediums like the internet in the definition of a `book'.

The Library Act 1939 as amended addresses what materials must be provided freely on library premises by a local authority under s. 10 (1)

Any person (whether or not a member of the

library) is entitled free of charge to access to any

book of the library and to any information

forming part of the information service of the

library (other than information excepted from free

access by guidelines issued by the council) for

use on the library premises.

Issue

If a public library provides access to electronic publications available through the internet, are they part of the book(s) of the library or do they form part of the information service of the library?

The Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library Act 1939 as amended make it clear that the intention of this provision is to ensure that no charge is made for the use of books or access to the information services of the library by any person on the library premises. As noted earlier, electronic publications available through the internet are covered by the definition of `book' as defined in the Library Act 1939 as amended. Section 10 clearly identifies the use of books on the library premises as a core service. Therefore, a public library that provides access to electronic publications available through the internet must make access available at no charge if it is to comply with the requirements of the Library Act 1939 as amended.

In determining whether providing public access to electronic publications available through the internet forms part of the information service of the library it is necessary to assess

* what the intention of the library is in providing public access to the internet?

* what the users are using the internet for?

It would form part of the information service of the library if

* the intention is to provide users with access to information and a greater number of resources

* the library staff are using the internet to satisfy user requests for information

* users are using it to locate information and being provided with assistance from the library staff

It is fair to assume that electronic publications available through the internet do form part of the information service of the library.

The Library Act 1939 as amended addresses what reference services must be provided free to library members under s. 10(1)

Any person who is a member of the library is

entitled to be provided free of charge with basic

reference services (being any service classified by

guidelines issued by the council as a basic

reference service), including assistance in locating

information and sources of information.

Issue

Is a public library entitled to view assisting clients to locate information available through the internet as a value added service ?

Guideline 5 of the Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library Act 1939 as amended makes it clear that it is the intention of this provision to ensure that public libraries make provision for free basic reference or information services. Under this provision any member of the library is entitled to be provided free of charge with assistance in locating information and sources of information using any resources that form part of information service of a library. It has already been established that electronic publications available through the internet form part of the information service of the library. Therefore, assistance in locating information available through the internet is a core service, to be provided free of charge. Guideline 5 of the Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library Act 1939 as amended includes the following basic reference/information services which are to be provided free of charge

* provision of independent access to reference materials for persons who see such information on the premises of the library including assistance in identifying and locating library materials (by any appropriate means) within the library or from other sources

* provision of assistance by library staff in identifying, retrieving, and making available, relevant information (by any appropriate means) in response to requests for information by library clients

Guideline 5 of the Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library Act 1939 as amended identifies indepth reference/information searches at the request of an individual library user as a possible value added service in the following provision.

Issue Can a public library use the internet to provide a value added indepth reference/information service?

As electronic publications available through the internet form part of the information service of a public library it is allowable under this provision to use the internet to provide a value added indepth reference/information service. The criteria for determining whether a reference or information search is indepth is listed in guideline 5 of the Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library Act 1939 as amended.

The professional association statements

The Library Council of New South Wales Freedom of collection and access for local government libraries states

A local government library has a role as an

unbiased source of recorded knowledge and ideas.

It must accept responsibility for providing free

access to materials and information presenting, as

far as possible, all points of view on current and

historical issues, including controversial issues.

This provision endorses that a public library must accept responsibility for providing free access to information. If public libraries focus on the technology rather then the information being delivered through new publishing mediums, like the internet, then there is a real danger of public libraries abandoning responsibility to provide free access to information.

The Australian Library and Information Association (Alia) Statement on free library services to all states that `satisfaction of a person is information needs must be independent of an ability to pay'. With more and more information appearing in electronic form it is going to be impossible for libraries to satisfy a person's information needs without using electronic publications available through the internet.

The Alia Statement on freedom, to read also emphasises the right of all Australians to have access to information in the following statement

A librarian should uphold the right of all

Australians to have access to library services and

materials and should not discriminate against

users on the grounds of age, sex, race, religion,

national origin, disability, economic condition,

individual lifestyle or political or social views.

This statement particularly emphasises the right of all Australians to have access to information without being discriminated against on the grounds of economic condition. If a public library charges users to browse and read electronic publications available through the internet then there is little doubt that it is discriminating against users on the grounds of economic condition.

The Australian Council of Libraries and Information Services (Aclis) statement, Guidelines for public library funding states

Aclis recognises the need for all people to have

this access to information to satisfy their

personal needs and believes that public libraries

have an obligation to provide basic public library

services free of charge... the base level of service

includes entrance to the library; provision of

access to the collection and assistance with its use

This statement highlights that public libraries have an obligation to provide free of charge access to the collection and assistance with its use. As noted earlier, electronic publications available through the internet are covered by the definition of `book' as defined in the Library Act 1939 as amended and the Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library Act 19-39 as amended clearly identifies the use of books on the library premises as part of the collection/information service of the library.

The Unesco Public library manifesto 1994 states

Constructive participation and the development of

democracy depend on satisfactory education as

well as on free and unlimited access to

knowledge, thought, culture and information ...

the services of the public library are provided on

the basis of equality of access for all, regardless

of age, race, sex, religion, nationality, language

or social status ... collections and services have

to include all types of appropriate media and

modem technologies as well as traditional

materials ... collections and services should not

be subject to any form of ideological, political or

religious censorship, nor commercial pressures.

This statement acknowledges that to have an informed democracy, citizens need to have free and unlimited access to knowledge, thought, culture and information. It also acknowledges the social justice role that public libraries adopt in providing service on the basis of equality of access for all. Collections and services must include modem technologies and commercial pressures should not be brought to bear on the provision of these new services.

Commercial services

Some public libraries charge a fee for public access to electronic publications available through the internet on the grounds that it is a commercial service under the Library Act 1939 as amended. The Library Act 1939 as amended states that a local library is not to provide any service classified as a commercial service which is unfairly competitive with the private sector. This is provided for under s 10 (1)

A local library is not to provide any service

(whether or not it charges for the service) that

under guidelines issued by the council is

classified as a commercial service which is

unfairly competitive with the private sector.

Guideline 5 of the Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library Act 1939 as amended states

A commercial service which is unfairly

competitive with the private sector is a service which:

a) does not fall into those services required to be

provided free of charge under the terms of the Act

or its guidelines (eg free access to certain

materials; free basic reference services)

Issue

Are electronic publications available through the internet required to be provided free of charge?

Under the Library Act 1939 as amended if access to electronic publications available through the internet is provided by a public library it is required to be provided free of charge. Therefore, providing public access to the internet is not a commercial service which is unfairly competitive with the private sector.

Value adding the internet

The internet does, however, provide opportunities for public libraries to develop and provide value added services to their communities. Examples include

* Non information internet services, such as email

* Providing community training, including strategic alliances with other training providers, such as Tafe

* Providing focused seminars for targeted groups, such as family historians and health care workers

* Providing an indepth reference/ information service eg packaging information in response to a user request

* Home page hosting service on the library server

* Home page design and maintenance for local groups and organisations. Generating community advertising revenue by allowing local businesses to advertise/sponsor the council home page

Summary

Under the existing NSW legislative framework the provision of public access to electronic publications available through the internet is a core service of a public library for the following reasons

* electronic publications available through the internet fit into the definition of a book as defined in the Library Act 1939 as amended

* where access is provided to electronic publications they form part of the books and information service of the library Linder provisions in the Library Act 1939 as amended and Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library Act 1939 as amended

* where access is provided to electronic publications, users are entitled to assistance free of charge to locate information under provisions in the LibrarY Act 1939 (is amended and Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library Act 1939 as amended

Providing indepth reference/information searches can, at the discretion of the local authority, be provided as value added service. 'The criteria for determining whether a reference or information search is indepth is defined in the Guidelines relating to Section 10, Library (Amendment) Act 1992.

The professional association statements also endorse the provision of providing public access to electronic publications as a core service.

For example

* the Library Council of New South Wales Freedom of collection and access for local government libraries states that a local government library must accept responsibility for providing free access to materials and information

* the Australian Library and Information Association (Alia) Statement on free library services to all states that satisfaction of a person's information needs must be independent of an ability to pay

* the Australian Library and Information Association (Alia) Statement on freedom to read emphasises that libraries should uphold the right of all Australians to have access to information without being discriminated against on the grounds of economic condition

* the Australian Council of Libraries and Information Services (Aclis) Guidelines for public library funding states that public libraries have an obligation to provide free of charge access to the collection and assistance with its use

* the Unesco Public library manifesto 1994 states that public library collections and services must include modem technologies and commercial pressures should not be brought to bear on the provision of these new services

As some public libraries are not providing free access to electronic publications available through the internet it is recommended that future amendments to the Library Act explicitly identify electronic publications available via distribution mediums like the internet in the definition of a `book'.

Some public libraries charge a fee for public access to electronic publications available through the internet on the grounds that it is a commercial service under the Library Act 1939 as amended. However, public access to electronic publications available through the internet is exempt from this provision for the following reason

* if access to electronic publications available through the internet is provided by a public library it is required to be provided free of charge under the Library Act 1939 as amended

* If public libraries are to meet their responsibilities to provide users with free access to information they need to evolve acquisitions policies to include purchasing time for users to browse electronic publications available through publishing mediums, like the internet.

The internet does, however, provide opportunities for public libraries to develop and provide value added services to their communities. Examples include non information internet services, such as email; providing community training; providing an indepth reference/information service; providing focused seminars for targeted groups; home page hosting service on the library server; home page design and maintenance for local groups and organisations; and generating community advertising revenue by allowing local businesses to advertise/sponsor the council home page.

Appendix 1 Australian Library and Information Association Statement on freedom to read

The Australian Library and Information Association, believing that freedom can be protected in a democratic society only if its citizens have access to information and ideas through books and other sources of information, affirms the following principles as basic and distinctive of the obligations and responsibilities of the librarian

1 A primary purpose of a library service is to provide information through books and other media on all matters which are appropriate to the library concerned.

2 A librarian must protect the essential confidential relationship which exists between a library user and the library.

3 The functions of the librarian include: to promote the use of materials in the librarian's care; to ensure that the resources of the library are adequate to its purpose; to obtain additional information from outside sources to meet the needs of readers; to cater for interest in all relevant, facets of knowledge, literature and contemporary issues, including those of a controversial nature; but neither to promote or suppress particular ideas and beliefs.

4 A librarian, while recognising that powers of censorship exist and are legally vested in state and federal governments, should resist attempts by individuals or organised groups within the community to determine what library materials are to be, or are not to be, available to the users of the library.

5 A librarian should not exercise censorship in the selection of materials by rejecting on moral, political, racial or religious grounds alone material which is otherwise relevant to the purpose of the library and meets the standards, such as historical importance, intellectual integrity, effectiveness of expression or accuracy of information which are required by the library concerned. Material should not be rejected on the grounds that its content is controversial or likely to offend some sections of the library's community.

6 A librarian should uphold the right of all Australians to have access to library services and materials and should not discriminate against users on the grounds of age, sex, race, religion, national origin, disability, economic condition, individual lifestyle or political or social views.

7 A librarian must obey the laws relating to books and libraries, but if the laws or their administration conflict with the principles put forward in this statement, the librarian should be free to move for the amendment of these laws.

Adopted 1971 Amended 1979, 1985

Appendix 2 Australian Library and Information Association Statement onfree library services to all

1 The Australian Library and Information Association asserts that each member of the Australian community has an equal right of access to public library and information services regardless of age, race, gender, religion, nationality, language, social or economic status.

2 Such freedom of access is essential to the democratic process and to the social well being of the Australian community. That satisfaction of a person's information needs must be independent of an ability to pay.

3 Libraries and information services established to serve the general public should, therefore, provide core services to all members of the library's clientele without direct charge to the individual.

Adopted 1979 Amended 1982, 1989, 1994

Appendix 3 The Library Council of New South Wales Freedom of collection and access for local government libraries

Collections

1 A local government library has a role as an unbiased source of recorded knowledge and ideas. It must accept responsibility for providing free access to materials and information presenting, as far as possible, all points of view on current and historical issues, including controversial issues.

2 Libraries should endeavour to provide comprehensive and balanced collections as far as budget, space and availability of materials allow.

3 Book and nonbook materials that have not been subject to federal and state prohibition should not be excluded from a public library on moral, political, racial, religious, sexist, language, or other sensitive grounds alone. Nor should books be included oil these grounds alone, whatever pressure may be brought to bear by individuals or groups.

4 Adult collections should not be limited because of the possibility that materials may fall into the hands of children. Monitoring the reading of children is the responsibility of their parents or guardians.

5 The arrangement of the collection should facilitate access. Restricting access to certain titles or classes of materials, eg. by holding them in special collections available on request, can be an indirect form of censorship. No materials should be held in closed access except for the express purpose of protecting them from injury or theft.

Library use

6 Everyone has the right to use a public library whatever their age, sex, race, religion, national origin, disability, economic condition, individual lifestyle, or political or social views.

Role of librarians

7 Librarians should not exercise censorship in the selection of materials by rejecting, solely on the grounds mentioned in (3), material which is otherwise relevant and which meets the standards of the library concerned.

The continuous review of library materials is necessary as a means of maintaining a current and useful collection. This procedure should not be used as a means of removing materials presumed to be controversial or disapproved of by sections of the community.

Appendix 4 Australian Council of Libraries and Information Services (Aclis) Guidelines for public library funding

The public library provides resources and services designed to meet the information, education, cultural and recreational needs of the community. As agreed by the library community at the Australian Libraries Summit in 1998, the primary responsibility of the public library should be to serve as the first point of access for information for the general public and for the public's access to the national system of library and information services.

Aclis recognises the need for all people to have this access to information to satisfy their personal needs and believes that public libraries have an obligation to provide basic public library services free of charge.

Aclis accepts the distinction made between basic and value added services, and defines `value added' services as those which, through some action (or activity) on the part of the service providers, provide the user with an additional level or degree of benefit to that which is already available to them free of charge as the base level of service. The additional benefits will usually be in the form of either increased convenience or time saved for the user, or in the provision of a product which the user may retain for personal use. In all cases, the service providers' labour or capital, or some combination of the two, will have been added in order to provide the new level of benefit.

It is clear that what is classed as basic and what is classed as value added will vary from service to service. Aclis maintains that for an individual and literate society to survive, a certain `base' level of access to information must be available free of charge to all members of that society. Libraries should be funded from tax and rate revenue for the purpose of obtaining, organising and making readily available, information which may be in a variety of formats. The base level of service includes entrance to the library; provision of access to the collection and assistance with its use; and the loan of any item from the lending collection.

Aclis believes that individual service providers must ultimately determine what they will provide as a basic (ie, without charge) level of service, and what constitutes a value added service. In determining this, they should be guided by the distinction between what services they should be providing as a public good, or as a matter of social justice, to all people--because use of the service will result in long term benefit to the entire community--and those services which are not essential to provide the same level of benefit to the community, but which will afford individuals greater ease of access, convenience, or private benefit and which are therefore chargeable as a commodity.

Appendix 5 Unesco Public library manifesto 1994: a living force

Freedom, prosperity and the development of society and of individuals are fundamental human values. They will only be attained through the ability of well informed citizens to exercise their democratic rights and to play an active role in society. Constructive participation and the development of democracy depend on satisfactory education as well as on free and unlimited access to knowledge, thought, culture and information.

The public library, the local gateway to knowledge, provides a basic condition for lifelong learning, independent decision making and cultural development of the individual and social groups. This Manifesto proclaims Unesco's belief in the public library as a living force for education, culture and information, and as an essential agent for the fostering of peace and spiritual welfare through the minds of men and women. Unesco therefore encourages national and local governments to support and actively engage in the development of public libraries.

The public library

The public library is the local centre of information, making all kinds of knowledge and information readily available to its users. The services of the public library are provided on the basis of equality of access for all, regardless of age, race, sex, religion, nationality, language or social status. Specific services and materials must be provided for those users who cannot, for whatever reason, use the regular services and materials, for example, linguistic minorities, people with disabilities or people in hospital or prison. All age groups must find material relevant to their needs. Collections and services have to include all types of appropriate media and modem technologies as well as traditional materials. High quality and relevance to local needs and conditions are fundamental. Material must reflect current trends arid the evolution of society, as well as the memory of human endeavour and imagination. Collections and services should not be subject to any form of ideological, political or religious censorship, nor commercial pressures.

Missions of the public library

The following key missions which relate to information, literacy, education and culture should be at the core of public library services

1 Creating and strengthening reading habits in children from an early age

2 Supporting both individual and self conducted education as well as formal education at all levels

3 Providing opportunities for personal, creative development

4 Stimulating the imagination and creativity of children and young people

5 Promoting awareness of cultural heritage, appreciation of the arts, scientific achievements and innovations

6 Providing access to cultural expressions of all performing arts

7 Fostering intercultural dialogue and favouring cultural diversity

8 Supporting the oral tradition

9 Ensuring access for citizens to all sorts of community information

10 Providing adequate information services to local enterprises, associations and interest groups

11 Facilitating the development of information and computer literacy skills

12 Supporting and participating in literacy activities and programs for all age groups, and initiating such activities if necessary

Funding, legislation and networks

* The public library shall in principle be free of charge. The public library is the responsibility of local and national authorities. It must be supported by specific legislation and financed by national and local governments. It has to be an essential component of any long-term strategy for culture, information provision, literacy and education.

* To ensure nationwide library coordination and cooperation, legislation and strategic plans must also define and promote a national library network based on agreed standards of service.

* The public library network must be designed in relation to national, regional, research and special libraries as well as libraries in schools, colleges and universities.

Operation and management

* A clear policy must be formulated defining objectives, priorities and services in relation to the local community needs. The public library has to be organised effectively and professional standards of operation must be maintained

* Cooperation with relevant partners-for example, user groups and other professionals at local, regional, national as well as international level--has to be ensured

* Services have to be physically accessible to all members of the community. This requires well situated library buildings, good reading and study facilities, as well as relevant technologies and sufficient opening hours convenient to the users. It equally implies outreach services for those unable to visit the library

* The library services must be adapted to the different needs of communities in rural and urban areas

* The librarian is an active intermediary between users and resources. Professional and continuing education of the librarian is indispensable to ensure adequate services

* Outreach and user education programs have to be provided to help users benefit from all the resources

Implementing the manifesto

Decision makers at national and local levels and the library community at large, around the world, are hereby urged to implement the principles expressed in this manifesto.

Reprinted from the Library Association record, 97 (9) September 1995

References

[1] Martin, L Internet reference services quarter4, 1(1) June 1996

[2] Sabaratnam, J Planning the library of the future--the Singapore experience 62nd IFLA general conference proceedings 25-31August 1996 p1 http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/ifla/IV/ifla62/62 sabj.htm

[3] Bannerman, C A well informed society: travelling the information superhighway Australian academic and research libraries Dec 1996 p251

[4] ibid p250

Paul Scully is a consultant with the Public Libraries Branch of the State Library of NSW. In this position he has been working closely with public libraries on how they can use the internet. Paul is a key member of the project management team that is overseeing the roll out of NSW.net. His professional interests include the internet, public libraries and collection development issues in the information age. Address: State Library of NSW Macquarie Street Sydney NSW 2000 tel(02)92731414 fax(02)92731255 email library@ilanet.slnsw.gov.au
COPYRIGHT 1998 Auslib Press Party Ltd.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1998, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:public's right to Internet at libraries
Author:Scully, Paul
Publication:Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services
Date:Mar 1, 1998
Words:6099
Previous Article:Tomorrow's public library: the American view.
Next Article:The cutting edge 33.
Topics:


Related Articles
Balancing buildings, books, bytes, and bucks: steps to secure the public library future in the Internet age.
Creating library services with wow! Staying slightly ahead of the curve.
The implementation and outcomes of the North Coast Internet Pilot Project.
Purchase of Internet blocking software by public libraries is unconstitutional: a briefing paper.
apleD australasian public library electronic Digest vol.1 no. 1.
REDISCOVER THE PUBLIC LIBRARIAN: YOUR VALUE AND WORTH.
THE KNOWLEDGE NETWORK: PUBLIC LIBRARIES LINKING COMMUNITIES IN REGIONAL NEW SOUTH WALES.
URBAN PUBLIC LIBRARIES: HELPING BRISBANE TO BECOME A SMART CITY.
A DIGITAL REFERENCE LIBRARY EMERGES AT STANTON LIBRARY.
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR LIBRARY COLLECTIONS IN A DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters