The International Patrol.
In Vienna, the first district (which was also called the "inner city") was placed under quadripartite control, with the chairmanship changing every month. The fundamental thinking behind this four-power control was that the most important governmental authorities and administrative bodies were located in the inner city. If the inner city were controlled by only one of the Allied powers, that particular power could have exerted pressure on the Austrian government and public authorities.
In 1948, a reporter for The New Yorker wrote, "Vienna must be the most patrolled city on earth. Besides the city's police force and the routine military police maintained by each of the four occupying powers, there are several more or less secret police outfits, such as Russia Ministvo Vnutrennykh Del, or MVD, and the American Army's Criminal Investigations Division, or CID. The most unusual of Vienna's police forces is the International Patrol. It was organized by the former American provost marshal in Vienna, [Colonel William] B. Yarborough." (1)
When duties began on 5 August 1945, the patrols consisted of three soldiers--one military police officer from each of the three Allied powers of the United States, Great Britain, and Russia. On 27 September 1945, French military police officers joined as fourth men. At first, the patrols used American jeeps as patrol vehicles but they proved too small for the four-man patrols; so larger command cars were then used. In later years, American and Russian sedans were used as patrol vehicles. The U.S. contingent was from Company C, 796th Military Police Battalion, and the British force consisted of members of the 105th Provost Company. Attempts to identify the Russian and French units met with no response from their respective embassies. The patrol members wore the uniforms of their own nations. In addition, each member wore a distinctive metal badge on his arm, midway between his shoulder and elbow. American, Russian, and French members wore their insignia on their left sleeves; British members wore theirs on their right sleeves.
Between 1300 and 0100 daily, five patrols were operating--one each in the American, British, Russian, and French sectors and a standby at the International Patrol Headquarters. Between 0100 and 0700, only three patrols were operating--one for the American and French sectors, one for the British and Russian sectors, and a standby. The patrols were constantly on the alert for traffic violations involving Allied vehicles and incidents involving personnel from any two different powers. Patrol members on the 1300-1900 shift ate their evening meals in the 796th Military Police Battalion mess. (2)
One narrative regarding the functions of the International Patrol comes from the British Royal Military Police:
There is a great temptation for each of us to feel that the problems of our own particular stations are, at least at times, unique in the field of provost experience; but when it is considered that the Royal Military Police in Vienna work day in and day out with the Americans, the French, and the Russians and that there is no hour of the day or night when you cannot find a [Royal Military Police] lance corporal sitting next to a Russian military policeman on patrol somewhere in the city, there is perhaps some justification. We conduct our business in four languages and have to get to know a fifth quadripartite, that peculiar hybrid in which Inter-Allied Command in Vienna, the Four Powers, decisions expressed in the form of protocol. (3)
A member of the 796th Military Police Battalion relates this story:
I was patrolling a street in the 10th Bezirk (Russian Zone), when suddenly the Russian member of the patrol noticed a vehicle ahead of us and told me to force the truck to the curb. Twice, I tried to force the vehicle to stop; but both times, the driver ignored the warnings and proceeded. Finally, the Russian member sitting next to me drew his pistol and fired at the truck, which continued on its course. After using his supply of ammunition, the Russian member borrowed the French member's pistol. Only after the Frenchman's ammunition had been exhausted did the truck halt. The driver was taken into custody, and the vehicle was driven to the Russian Kommandatura. The remarkable fact about this incident was that, although both pistols were fired, neither the driver nor the vehicle were seriously harmed. (4)
Another incident involving the Russian contingent was related by Ernest Holden of the Royal Military Police. He was on patrol when a Russian military policeman arrested a Russian man on the streets of Vienna. He wanted to take the man to the Russian Kommandatura; but the American driver refused, insisting that they take him to the International Patrol Headquarters. The Russian military police soldier drew his pistol, held it to the American driver's head, and told him to go to the Russian Kommandatura. Holden, in turn, drew his pistol, held it to the Russian's head, and told the American to do what standing orders said--go to the International Patrol Headquarters. So that's what they did, and the stand-off was resolved. Neither Holden nor the American Soldiers ever heard what happened to the Russian member of that patrol, but they never saw him on patrol again.
Corporal Edwin L. Luck, a patrolman from Amsterdam, New York, relates the following incident:
I received a message to proceed to the Astoria Hotel, a British hotel in the 1st Bezirk. When the other members of the patrol and I arrived, we learned that somebody had been dropping empty wine bottles from a window of the hotel onto the sidewalk on Karntnerstrasse, endangering the pedestrians. It was around midnight and extremely dark. At intervals, bottles continued to fall from an upper-story window but it was difficult to determine which window they were coming from. The British member of the patrol asked the assistance of the members, and a search of all the rooms was begun. After approximately an hour, two intoxicated men were found in a room on the top floor. When they were questioned, it was learned that they had been drinking and, after finishing a bottle, disposed of it by the easiest means--tossing it out of the window. The remarkable fact about this incident is not the amount of wine drunk by the men, but how none of the people passing below the window had been injured. (5)
Another excerpt from the 105th Journal states:
Lance Corporal Levi came close to death whilst on patrol. The patrol had stopped to check a Russian soldier who, taking exception as to how he was being spoken to, opened fire on the patrol, killing one patrolman and severely injuring another, the driver taking off. The gunman then approached [Lance Corporal] Levi (who could not drive), telling him to drive him to America. Levi drove instead to the International Patrol Headquarters; and seeing American [military police], the Russian exclaimed, "I'm in America," and surrendered. (6)
During the making of a film, The Third Man, which was set in Allied-occupied Vienna after World War II and starred Orson Wells and Trevor Howard, Howard was arrested by a British member of the patrol for impersonating an officer. The assistant director Guy Hamilton and the continuity assistant Angela Allen teamed up to describe what it was like to film in the Vienna sewers and to explain how a drunk Trevor Howard was arrested for impersonating a British officer while still in costume as the sober Major Calloway.
Due to an international agreement, the International Patrol ceased to exist on 14 September 1955, when all Allied armies left Austria.
Acknowledgement: I am deeply indebted to former Lance Corporal Brian Chammings, Royal Military Police, and Mr. Phil Holden, whose father was a British member of the patrol, for the documents and photographs they provided in researching this story. It was Holden's father, Ernest Holden, who detained actor Trevor Howard for impersonating an officer during the filming of the movie The Third Man.
(1) Cameron et al., "A Reporter in Vienna," The New Yorker, 6 March 2948, p. 61, <http://www.newyorker.com /magazine/1948/03/06/cameron-lewis-laborde-gorodnistov>, accessed on 2 June 2015.
(2) "786th Military Police Battalion," <http:// usarmygermany.com/Sont_2.htm?http&&&usarmygermany .com/Units/USFA%20Units/USFA_796th%20MP%20Bn ,htm>, accessed on 8 June 2015.
(3) Major George Denis Pillitz, "Inter-Allied Command in Vienna," 105th Journal, Spring 2014.
(4) "796th Military Police Battalion: Vienna Command," <http:// usarmygermany.com/Sont_2.htm?http&&&usarmygermany .com/Units/USFA%20Units/USFA_796th%20MP%20Bn.htm>, accessed on 12 June 2015.
(6) 105th Journal, Winter 2010, pp. 6-7.
Carol Reed, director, The Third Man, British Lion Films, 2 September 1949.
By Master Sergeant Patrick V. Garland (Retired)
Master Sergeant Garland retired from the U.S. Army in 1974. During his military career, he served in military police units and criminal investigation detachments and laboratories. At the time of his retirement, Master Sergeant Garland was serving as a ballistics evidence specialist at the European Laboratory. He remained in this career field until retiring from civilian law enforcement in 1995. Photos Wanted
Military Police is always looking for good-quality, action photographs (no "grip and grins," please) to use on the outside covers. If you have photographs of Soldiers who are in the proper, current uniform and are participating in training events or operations or photographs of current, branch-related equipment that is being used during training or operations, please send them to us at <usarmy.leonardwood.mscoe.mbx.mdotmppb @mail.mil>.
Ensure that photographs depict proper safety and security procedures, and do not send copyrighted photographs. All photographs must be high-resolution; most photographs obtained from the Internet, made smaller for e-mailing, or saved from an electronic file such as a Microsoft[R] PowerPoint or Word document cannot be used for print. In addition, include a caption that describes the photograph and identifies the subject(s) and photographer (if known). Please see our photograph guide at <http://www .wood. army.mil/mpbulletin/documents/PhotoGuide.pdf> for more detailed information.
MILITARY POLICE BRIGADE LEVEL AND ABOVE COMMANDS COMMANDER CSM/SGM CWO Mark Inch Timothy Fitzgerald Mark Inch Crystal Wallace John Welch Mark Spindler Richard Woodring Leroy Shamburger Mark Inch Timothy Fitzgerald Burton Francisco Jerome Wren Michael Hoban NA Phillip Churn Craig Owens Mary Hostetler Duane Miller Angelia Flournoy Eddie Jacobsen Winsome Laos Bryan Patridge David Tookmanian Erica Nelson Steven Raines Alexander Conyers Jeffrey Maddox Zane Jones James Breckinridge David Chase Jon Matthews Alex Reina Joseph Klostermann Peter Cross Joseph Menard Jr. Ross Guieb Bradley Cross Phillip Burton Jon Sawyer Malcom McMullen John Schiffli Richard Giles Abbe Mulholland Keith Nadig Andrew Lombardo Roger Hedgepeth Tara Wheadon Edgar Collins Ignatius Dolata Jr. Arthur Williams David Albaugh Thomas Denzler Clyde Wallace Celia Gallo David Heath Edwin Garris MILITARY POLICE BATTALION LEVEL COMMANDS Kevin Hanrahan Peter Harrington Anderson Wagner Gerald Mapp Chad Aldridge Billy Higgason Lawrence Stewart Mathew Walters Phillip Curran Larry Dewey Gordon Lawitzke Paul Bailey Christine Whitmer James Sanguins Joel Fitz Marcus Matthews Marcus Jackson Phillip Lenz Bryan Schoenhofer Jason Turner Kevin Pickrel Michelle Goyette Russell Erickson Chad Goyette Brian Flom Jeremy Willingham Daniel O'Brien Brian Carlson Lee Sodic Marc Hale Freddy Trejo Alexander Murray Kevin Rogers Michael Fowler Mark Duris Craig Maceri Scott Smilinich Steven Jackan Alpheus Haswell Robert Watras Darrell Masterson Mary Staab Aarion Franklin John Gobel Fowler L. Goodowens II Kenneth Niles Robert Wall Luis De La Cruz Jose Perez Haymet Llovet Francisco Ramos Norberto Flores II Roger Flores Dawn Bolyard James Summers John Dunn Gregory Derosier David Knudson William Allen Daniel Williams Jennifer Steed Victor Watson Erik Anderson Callie Leaver Larry Crowder Vacant Robert Paoletti Andraus Williams Paul Deal Boyd Dunbar Isaac Martinez Richard Yohn Timothy Starke Michael Rowan John Whitmire Nathan Deese Lance Shaffer Jonathan Stone Kenneth Dilg Ed Williams James Blake James Sartori Michael Treadwell Theodore Skibyak James Lake Robert Engle Timothy Winks Ben Adams James Rogelio Joseph Mitchell Charles Seifert Vacant Christine Borognoni Paul Shaw Richard Vanbuskirk Kyle Jenkins David Heflin Joseph Rigby Karen Connick Keith Magee Alexander Shaw Juan Mitchell Vance Kuhner Brett Goldstein Kelly Jones William Henderson William Rodgers Michael Robledo Steven Gavin Howard Anderson Vacant Michael Poll Victor Bakkila Ann Vega Manuel Ruiz Cheryl Clement Sheiita Taylor Eric Hunsberger Richard Cruickshank Susan Kusan Jason Litz Timothy Macdonald James Stillman Mauro Orcesi Caroline Horton Mark Hennessey Robert Arnold Jr. Lisa Piette-Edwards Jonathan Doyle Jeffrey Cereghino Jon Myers Clayton Sneed John Fivian Janet Harris Richard Millette Mark Bell Laura Steele Milton Hardy Kevin Smith Troy Gentry Christopher Wills Thomas Gray Rebecca Hazelett James Lea Matthew Gragg Michael Weatherholt Leevaine Williams Jr. John Vicars Karst Brandsma Darren Boruff James Eisenhart Robert Eichler Omar Lomas James Tyler Kenneth Powell Vacant Robert Mayo Stacy Garrity Rodney Ervin Jason Marquiss Scott Anderson Emma Thyen Shawn McLeod Mark Howard Todd Marchand Kenneth Richards Richard Weider Jeffrey Bergman Teresa Duncan Kirt Boston Bryan Lynch Mark McNeil Eric Vogt Lonnie Branum Jr. Scott Flint Sylvester Wegwu Cole Pierce Martin Eaves Dewey Haines David Astorga Lane Clooper Michael Thompson Keith Ford Gerald De Hoyos MILITARY POLICE BRIGADE LEVEL AND ABOVE COMMANDS COMMANDER UNIT LOCATION Mark Inch OPMG Alexandria, VA Mark Inch HQ USACIDC Quantico, VA Mark Spindler USAMPS Ft Leonard Wood, MO Mark Inch Army Alexandria, VA Corrections Cmd Burton Francisco 46th MP Cmd Lansing, Ml Michael Hoban USARC PM Ft Bragg, NC Phillip Churn 200th MP Cmd Ft Meade, MD Duane Miller 8th MP Bde Schofield Barracks, HI Eddie Jacobsen 11th MP Bde Los Alamitos, CA Bryan Patridge 14th MP Bde Ft Leonard Wood, MO Erica Nelson 15th MP Bde Ft Leavenworth, KS Alexander Conyers 16th MP Bde Ft Bragg, NC Zane Jones 18th MP Bde Sembach AB, Germany David Chase 42d MP Bde Ft Lewis, WA Alex Reina 43d MP Bde Warwick, Rl Peter Cross 49th MP Bde Fairfield, CA Ross Guieb 89th MP Bde Ft Hood, TX Phillip Burton 177th MP Bde Taylor, Ml Malcom McMullen 290th MP Bde Nashville, TN Richard Giles 300th MP Bde Inkster, Ml Keith Nadig 333d MP Bde Farmingdale, NY Roger Hedgepeth 3d MP Gp (C/D) Hunter Army Airfield, GA Ignatius Dolata Jr. 6th MP Gp (C/D) Joint Base Lewis- McChord, WA Thomas Denzler 701st MPGp (C/D) Quantico, VA David Heath Joint Detention Gp Guantanamo Bay, Cuba MILITARY POLICE BATTALION LEVEL COMMANDS Kevin Hanrahan 5th MP Bn (C/D) Kleber Kaserne, Germany Gerald Mapp 10th MP Bn (C/D) Ft Bragg, NC Lawrence Stewart 11th MP Bn (C/D) Ft Hood, TX Larry Dewey 19th MP Bn (C/D) Wheeler Army Airfield, HI Christine Whitmer 22d MP Bn (C/D) Joint Base Lewis- McChord, WA Marcus Matthews 33d MP Bn Bloomington, IL Phillip Lenz 40th MP Bn (C/D) Ft Leavenworth, KS Jason Turner 51st MP Bn Florence, SC Michelle Goyette 91st MP Bn Ft Drum, NY Chad Goyette 92d MP Bn Ft Leonard Wood, MO Jeremy Willingham 93d MP Bn Ft Bliss, TX Brian Carlson 94th MP Bn Yongsan, Korea Marc Hale 96th MP Bn (C/D) San Diego, CA Alexander Murray 97th MP Bn Ft Riley, KS Michael Fowler 102d MP Bn (C/D) Auburn, NY Craig Maceri 104th MP Bn Kingston, NY Steven Jackan 105th MP Bn (C/D) Asheville, NC Robert Watras 112th MP Bn Canton, MS Mary Staab 115th MP Bn Salisbury, MD John Gobel 117th MP Bn Athens, TN 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