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The Instruction of Judeo-Spanish in Europe.

This article recounts the development of Sefardic studies in Europe, focusing on the introduction of Judeo-Spanish language and literature courses at universities during the last quarter of the twentieth century. In 1984, Professor Sephiha became the first chaired professor of Judeo-Spanish in the world. During his career at the University of Paris (1967-1991), Professor Sephiha supervised more than 300 thesis papers dealing with Judeo-Spanish linguistics and literature. Aside from his own efforts, Judeo-Spanish courses have been introduced at other universities in France as well as in Germany, Spain, Belgium, Scandinavia, and the former Soviet block countries. As an example of university courses in Judeo-Spanish, Professor Sephiha outlines and analyzes his own course offered at the University of Paris.

For the last thirty years, and in particular those prior to 1992--the Quintennial of the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492--interest has been growing in Judeo-Spanish, the still-living vestige of fifteenth-century Spanish, in Europe and throughout the world.

In October, 1967, Mr. Rene-Samuel Sirat was working in the department of Hebrew Studies of the National School of Living Oriental Languages [1] and commissioned me with the instruction of Judeo-Spanish, a post which I held from 1967-68 until 1990-91, nearly a quarter of a century. During this period my chaired professorship in Hispanic Linguistics at the University of Paris VIII was transferred to Paris III-Inalco in 1984-85 and transformed into a chaired professorship of Judeo-Spanish, the first such position in the world. From this time onward I continued to supervise theses and M.A. courses at Paris III, Paris IV, and Paris VIII (more than 300 thesis papers in all).

Moreover, at the University of Paris III, IV, and VIII, within the framework of the instruction of Spanish dialectology, I introduced courses in Judeo-Spanish alongside the usual Castillian, Leonese, Aragonese, Galician, and so on. Today Judeo-Spanish has been incorporated into linguistics courses in Spanish departments at French universities. [2]

A similar development has taken place at universities in Spain, where the Arias Montano Institute of Madrid has edited the journal Sefarad since 1941. The Sefarad is to Spanish Jewry what the journal AI-Andalus is to Spanish Islam.

In Germany and other European countries, it is the department of Romance Languages which devotes some time to the study of Judeo-Spanish, and most notably at the Institute for Romance Philology at the Freie Universitat of Berlin.[3] I have been invited to speak by Romance Language departments at the Universities of Tubingen, Munich, de Treves, d' Aix-la-Chapelle, and Frankfurt as well as Innsbriick in Austria, Freiburg, Geneva and Neuchatel in Switzerland, and in Italy in the Spanish departments of Venice and Padova; but also in Santiago de Chile, Buenos Aires, and Montevideo. Furthermore, there are other universities which are interested in Judeo-Spanish in Italy, in the context of either Iberian or Judaic Studies.

In Belgium, the Martin Buber Institute of the Universite Libre de Bruxelles (the Brussels Free University) has devoted a dozen hours to the Judeo--Spanish language and culture every year since 1972, and the Universite de Gand accepts thesis topics falling within our discipline.

In England as well Hispanic Studies departments are interested in Judeo-Spanish. Very recently, in July of 1999, the Department of Hispanic Studies at Queen Mary and Westfield College organized the Eleventh British Conference on Judeo--Spanish. [4] Researchers from all over the world participated, most notably from Israel and the United States, where Judeo-Spanish is the object of much study and research.

Many other universities in Greece, Poland, the former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, the former Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Rumania, the former Yugoslavia, Denmark, Holland, Sweden, and Norway have announced to me the formation of research centers in our discipline and have asked me for advice and documentation. This is all indicative of the importance attached to the study of Judeo-Spanish.

Until now I have dealt primarily with the language itself. It goes without saying that Judeo-Spanish literature, and the Judeo-Spanish romancero in particular, solicits the attention of specialists in Spanish literature in French as well as foreign universities. I cite as proof the recent Anthologie bilingue de la poestie espagnole [5] and the production of innumerable recordings of Judeo-Spanish songs during the past thirty years.

But there is also language instruction at the community level:

In France in 1979, the Vidas Largas Association for the preservation and promotion of the Judeo-Spanish language and culture allowed the instruction of Judeo-Spanish to be accessible to community members in Paris, Marseille, and Lyon, even in Belgium under the auspices of the Los Muestros association.

These associations and others publish a bulletin.

Only the Judeo--Spanish courses inaugurated by Rene--Samuel Sirat and the associations Vidas Largas and Los Muestros run year round.

One may speak of a veritable renaissance of Judeo--Spanish culture, a renaissance of which I was the motor, a motor set in motion thanks to the teaching post which Rene Samuel Sirat charged me with. Without him, I would probably not have been able to be of service so quickly.

Wherever I teach, I use the following course syllabus:

Course Syllabus

I. History

Sources: The Jews of Spain: Muslim Spain--Christian Spain.

Spain of three religions (convivencia) Catholic Kings. 1492: The Expulsion.

Bayonne, Bordeaux, Southwestern France--the Netherlands, Amsterdam -- Germany (Altona, Hamburg)

Diaspora of the Spanish Jews-Itineraries--Host Countries--Formation of Judeo Spanish Communities in the Mediterranean Basin (the former Ottoman Empire)--Northern Morocco and, until 1840, the Province of Oran.

II. The Formation of the Judeo--Spanish Ethnic Group

The Formation of the Judeo--Spanish Language--about 1620--based on the varieties of Spanish (i.e. Castilian, Leonese, Aragonese, including Catalonian, etc.) common among the adherents of all three religions and which the Spanish Jews took with them in 1492. From there,

III. The Formation of the Judeo-Spanish Language

When? About 1620 (relying on the documents of the period).

IV. Problems Concerning the Judeo-Spanish Language

Ladino, or Calque Judeo-Spanish, a product of the literal translation (word for word) of biblical and liturgical texts from Hebrew into (medieval) Spanish, which was done in the Talmudey Torah for pedagogical reasons and taken with the exiles in 1492.

Dzhudezmo or vernacular Judeo-Spanish, formed about 1620 (dzhudezmo, espanyol muestro, espanyoliko, dzhudyo, spanyolit in the former Ottoman Empire--haketia in Morocco and tetauni in the province of Oran).

Evolution of Judeo-Spanish Languages (text-based studies)

V. Judeo-Spanish Languages and Literatures

Liturgical and Ethical Literature

Bibles in Ladino--La Biblia de Ferrara (1553)--El Pentateuco de Constantinopla (1547)--The Spain of three religions in the Ladino Bibles--Ladino and commentators.

Medieval Bibles in Romance--Vestiges of the Ladino Bibles in Spanish Christian Bibles.

Bibles in Dzhudezmo (Protestant missionaries)--A Christian Bible in Judeo-Spanish

History of mentalities

Oral Literatures

Konsezhas, kuentos, refranes, romances

Tell me your proverbs and I'll tell you who you are--Judeo-Spanish society depicted by its proverbs and oral literature.

Judeo-Spanish Musicology--Profane (matrimony) and Liturgical (patrimony) cancioneros

Judeo-Spanish Press

History from 1842 until today--Titles (more than 300)

VI. Creation of the Alliance Israelite Universelle

Gallicization of Judeo-Spanish--Galomania Galopante-Formation of Judeo-Franyol.

VII. Migrations of Judeo-Spanish

To America, to Europe

VIII. The Judeo-Spanish speaking Sefardic Jews during World War II

The Shoah

IX. The Judeo-Spanish speaking Sefardim since 1945


Awakening in the world

In France--The Vidas Largas Association for the preservation and promotion of the Judeo-Spanish language and culture--The first chaired professorship in Judeo-Spanish (Sorbonne)

Instruction in other countries

Judeo-Spanish in the United Nations

Contemporary Judeo-Spanish Literature: Clarisse Nicoidski--Lina Albukrek-- Enrique Saporta y Beja, etc.

X. 1992--The Future of Judeo-Spanish

XI. Judeo-Spanish and Universal Patrimony

It goes without saying that I generally stress linguistics, which implies socio-,ethno- and psycholinguistics, without forgetting the study of languages in contact or contactology, all disciplines which are of interest to general linguistics.

If my course is given in the context of Jewish Studies, the historical aspects are left to a historian.

The program outlined above provides chapter headings for the study of Judeo-Spanish in its modalities (calque and vernacular) and its varieties. It is here that the problematics of Judeo-Spanish, and of any Jewish language, make themselves felt. For each problem, I present texts and analyze them.

The said problematics extend to the realm of literature: 1) Biblical and liturgical texts in calque Judeo-Spanish or Ladino; 2) liturgical and profane texts in vernacular Judeo-Spanish or dzhudezmo, which, with the creation of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, experienced a rapid gallicization, giving birth to what I call "Judeo-Fragnol."

I insist particularly on the fact that Ladino was common to the Jews of Morocco and the Middle East, but also to those Spanish speakers of the Netherlands and Southwestern France through the famous Bible de Ferrare of 1553. At that time they did not speak Judeo-Spanish, but being Sefardim in the etymological sense of the term (sefarad=Spain in Hebrew and sefardi=Spanish), they still retained a portion of the Iberian culture from which they had come.

By being repeated at school, Ladino also acquired a liturgical function, which is clearly reflected in the Passover narrative sung by Judeo-Spanish speaking Jews in Ladino.

One example is sufficient to illustrate our point: Genesis 1:5

Hebrew: Wa-yehi 'ereb wa-yehi boqer yom ehhad

Pleiade: Il y eut un soir, il y eut un matin: premier jour

Literal French. et fut soir et fut matin jour un

English: and was evening and was morning day one

Calque Judeo-Spanish (ladino):

1) Pentateuque de Constantinople de1547 B.1

i fue tarde i fue maniana di.a uno

2) Bible de Ferrare de 1553 B. 1 et B.57

i fue tarde i fue manana dia uno

3) Bible de Asa [6] de 1740 5+B.25, passim:

i fue tadre i fue maniana di.a uno

with the metathesis of tarde, producing tadre in djudezmo. [7]

4) Santa Biblia [8] in Modern Spanish (1960):

y fue la tarde y la manana un dia

This follows the Hebrew phrasing, but introduces the definite article 'la', does not repeat the verb 'fue', and transforms 'dia uno' into 'un dia', which will later be rendered 'dia primero' as in:

5) Biblia de Jerusalen, [9] 1967:

y atardecio y amanecio el dia primero

In this case synthetic verb forms are the innovation as well as the ordinal adjective. Others substitute 'haber' for 'ser', as in:

6) Sagrada Biblia, [10] 1975 B. 18

y hubo tarde y manana, dia primero

The article preceding 'dia' disappears.

The Ladino version has been maintained to the present day, but the Protestant missionaries produced a Bible in djudezmo with Hebrew characters B.5, where one reads:

i fue la tadre i la manyana un di.a

This is the same version, although in non-vocalized Hebrew characters, as the Santa Biblia of 1960, whose editors were just as Protestant and were inspired by the 1569 version of Casiodoro de Reina, also known as the Biblia del Oso.

The following scheme corresponds to the translation into Ladino (Caique Judeo Spanish):

LI [greater than] LV/LT [greater than] L2 (LVILT =/=L2)

Whereby L1, Hebrew or Aramaic, is translated word for word into the vernacular, translating both LV/LT (the varieties of Spanish which gave rise to Djudezmo around 1620) B.2.

LV/LT was gradually subjected to L1 to produce L2, a language which is different from any non-literal translation:

L1 [greater than] L2, where LV/LT and L2 are identical (LV/LT=L2).

In this traditional "ladinar" (such is the name given this procedure), a specific Spanish word, always the same, corresponds to a word in Hebrew or Aramaic. Thus the word Shalom (B.25, T.I, pp. 048-062), which means 'peace', 'plenty', or 'state of health,' is always translated as 'paz', which in turn gives rise to semantic as well numerical B.1, generic B.1, and above all syntactic (B.9; B.14; B.21) distortions, since the most salient feature of calque Judeo-Spanish is its Hebrew syntax.

This analysis is but an illustration of the vast field of research offered by the instruction of Judeo-Spanish.

We shall stop here, allowing the succinct bibliography which follows to illustrate the different aspects of our program.

Translated from the original French by Bruce Mitchell

Succint Bibliography of Haim Vidal Sephiha

Given the pioneering character of my research in the domain of(Calque) Judeo-Spanish or Ladino, I am providing a basic bibliography which displays the breadth of the field opened by these investigations.

For an exhaustive bibliography until 1996, see "Liste des publications de Haim Vidal Sephiha," in Hommage a Haim-Vidal Sephiha (Bern: Peter Lang, 1996), pp. 21-63.

1) Le ladino (judeo-espagnol) calque); Deuteronome, versions de Constantinople (1547) et de Ferrare (1553). Edition, Etude linguistique et lexique (Paris: Editions Hispaniques, Sorbonne, 1973), 617 pages, These de IIIeme Cycle submitted 13 May 1970.

2) "Problematique du judeo-espagnol," Bulletin de la Societe de Linguistique de Paris, Vol. 60, No. 1(1974), pp. 159-189.

3) "Evolution du ladino (judeo-espagnol calque) du XIIIeme siecle a nos jours," Revue des Etudes Juives Vol. 134, No. 3-4 (1975), pp. 198-201.

4) "Diachronie du ladino judeo-espagnol calque)," XIV Congresso Internazionale di Linguistica e Filologia Romanza (Napoli, 15-20 Aprile 1974), Atti (John Benjamins B.V., 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 555-564,.

5) "Une bible judeo-espagnole chretienne," in Hoimmage & Andre Neher (Paris: Librairie Maisonneuve, 1975), pp. 357-370.

6) "Ladino (judeo-espagnol calque) et commentateurs," Revue de l'Histoire des Religions (4th quarter 1975), pp. 117-128.

7) "Theorie du ladino: Additifs," in Melanges offerts Charles Vincent Aubrun, ed. H. V.Sephiha, Vol. 2 (Paris: Editions Hispaniques, Sorbonne, 1975), pp. 255-284.

8) "Sacre litterarite et litteralite en judeo-espagnol," in Colloques de la societe Ernest Renan (Orsay, 1977), pp. 13-19.

9) Archaismes lexicaux en ladino judeo-espagnol calque)," Cahiers de linguistique hispanique medievale, No. 2 (March 1977), pp. 253-261.

10) "L'intensite en judeo-espagnol," in Iberica I, edited by H. V. Sephiha, (Paris: Editions Hispaniques, Sorbonne, 1977), pp. 285-294.

11) L'agonie des Judeo-Espagnols, "Minorites" series (Paris: Entente 1977, 1979 and 1991).

12) "Ladino (judeo-espagnol calque) et pluridisciplinarite," Actes du XVe Congres International de Linguistique et Philologie Romanes (Rio de Janeiro, July 1977).

13) "L'Espagne des trois religions dans les Bibles en ladino (judeo-espagnol calque)," communication made to the Societe de Linguistique de Paris, Nov. 19, 1977, quoted in the Bulletin de la Societe de Linguistique de Paris, Vol. 73, No. 1 (1978), pp. xxxiv-xxxvii.

14) "Creations lexicales en ladino (judeo-espagnol calque)" in Estudios ofrecidos a Emilio Alarcos Llorach, Vol. 2 (Oviedo: Universidad de Oviedo, 1978), pp. 241-255.

15) "Ladinismes dans La Fazienda de Ultra Mar, une Biblia Medieval Romanceada du XIIeme siecle," in Actes du deuxieme Congres International d'Etude des Cultures da la Mediterranee occidentale, Vol. 2 (Malta, 1976), S.N.E.D. (Algiers, 1978), pp. 220-226.

16) "Ladino (judeo-espagnol calque) et Biblias Medievales Roman-ceadas," in Melanges la Memoire de Joucla-Ruau Andre Vol. 2 (Universite de Provence, 1978), pp. 1119-1131.

17) "L'intensite heterosynonymique," Recueil des Resumes du Onzimeme Congres de la Societas Linguistica Europaea (September 1978).

18) "Ladino (judeo-espagnol calque) et Bibles espagnoles contemporaines," in Travaux XXII, C.I.E.R.E.C. (St.-Etienne: Universite de saint-Etienne, 1978), pp. 113-123.

19) "Tandis que Ia langue agonise, les dictionnaires judeo-espagnols se multiplient," Revue des Etudes Juives, Vol. 137, No. 1-2 (1978), pp. 205-215.

20) "Le ladino (judeo-espagnol calque) ou l'emprunt a tous les niveaux," in Cahiers de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain, L'emprunt linguistique (Colloque international, Lille III, 13-15 Oct. 1978), Vol. 6, No. 1-2 (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1980), pp. 93-106.

21) "Ladino (judeo-espagnol calque) et semantique," in Iberica II, (Paris: Editions Hispaniques, Sorbonne, 1979), pp. 115-126.

22) "Diagnostic du judaisme francais: Une sepharadite aigue," Combat pour la Diaspora, Juifs d'Orient et de Mediterranee No. 3, (2nd quarter 1980), pp. 55-63.

23) "Le judeo-fragnol, dernier-ne du djudezmo," quoted in Bulletin de la Societe de Linguistique de Paris, Vol. 71, No. 1 (Paris, 1976), pp. xxxi-xxxvi.

24) Edition of Le judeo-espagnol de M. Sala (Mouton, 1976), Bulletin de la Societe de Linguistique de Paris, Vol. 73, No. 2 (1978), pp. 279-283.

25) "La presse judeo-espangnole," quoted in Revue des Etudes Juives, Vol. 137, No. 3-4 (1978), pp. 473-476.

26) LeLadino (judeo-espagnol calque): Structure et evolution d'une langue liturgique, These d'Etat submitted in November 1979, reduced to two volumes in Vidas Largas's 1982 Paris edition: Vol. I, Theorie du ladino, 236 pages; Vol. II. Textes et Commentaires, 480 pages.

27) "El ladino verdadero ojudeoespanol calco, lengua liturgica,"Jornadas de Estudios Sefardies (CAceres 24-26 March 1980), in Actas (1981), pp. 15-29.

28) "Hispanite du judeo-espagnol," Colloque Sefardisme et fidelite a l 'Espagne (Bibliotheque espagnole de Paris, 2-4, 1980), Actes in Les nouveaux Cahiers, No. 62 (1980), pp. 6-10.

29) "El judeoespanol marginalizado de Turquia (judeofranol)," Actas del I Congreso Internacional sobre La Espana Olvidada: Los Judios (Zamora, June 1981).

30) "Christianismes en judeo-espagnol (calque et venaculaire)," The International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 30 (1981), pp. 73-88.

31) "Le judeo-espagnol: Un siecle de gallomanie," Recueil des resumes du Colloque international de socio-linguistique de Monipellier (December 1981), pp. 165-180.

32) "Noms de metiers en judeo-espagnol: Corpus pour une etude ulterieure," in Cahiers balkaniques No. 2 (Paris 1981), pp. 171-198.

33) "Noms de metiers en judeo-espagnol vernaculaire: L'apport turc," Societe Asiatique (Paris, 14 May 1982).

34) "Le formant des manies en judeo-espagnol ( -dero)," in Contrastes, Actes du Colloque Linguistique contrastive et traduction , 12-12-1981 (Paris, 1982).

35) "Neologie en Judeo-espagnol: Les euphemismes," Iberica III (Paris, December 1981), pp. 113-123.

36) "Portrait de la societe judeo-espagnole ou Dis-moi tes proverbes, je te dirai qui tues," in Actes du Colloque de Paremiologie (Lille, 6-8 March 1981), published with the title Richesse du proverbe, Vol. II, Typologie et fonctions, studies collected by F. Suard and Cl. Buridant, Universite de Lille III, coil. "Travaux et recherches," (Lille, 1984), pp. 199-209.

37) "Estado actual del judeoespanol en el mundo," Actas de las Jornadas de estudio sobre el judeo espanol (April 1983), Universidad de Granada.

38) "La agonia del judeoespanol," proceedings of a conference held Jan. 19, 1982 at the U.N. in Geneva, in Maguen (Escudo), Revista de la asociacion israelita de Venezuela, Oct.-Dec. 1982, pp. 14-19.

39) Chants judeo-espagnols: De Tetouan a Oran, le tresor conserve et chante par Henriette Azen, unos romances de mi madre, texts edited and translated by H. V. Sephiha, disk edited by Vidas Largas (Paris, 1982).

40) We give here the address of the Association Vidas Largas: Association for the Maintenance and Promotion of the Judeo-Spanish Language and Culture, publisher of numerous books, brochures, and discs: 37, rue Esquirol, 75013 Paris.

41) "Veer, catar et mirar en judeo-espagnol" in Iberica V (Paris: Editions Hispaniques, Sorbonne, 1986), pp. 269-277.

42) "L 'hispaniseur verbal: ear en judeo-espagnol," in Travaux X, Aspects des civilisations iberiques, C.I.E.R.E.C. (Saint-Etienne: Universite de Saint-Etienne, 1974), pp. 85-93.

43) "Introduction a l'etude de l'intensif," in Langages, No. 18 (Paris: Larousse, 1970), pp. 104-119.

44) "Le judeo-espagnol du Maroc," in Juifs du Maroc, Identite et Dialogue, Actes of the Colloque International sur La communaute juive marocaine: vie culturelle, histoire sociale et evolution, Paris, 18-21 December 1978 (Paris: La Pensee Sauvage, 1980), pp. 85-97.

45) "Le judeo-espagnol du Maroc ou Haketiya," Combat pour la Diaspora, No. 6 (Paris, 2nd quarter 1981), pp. 77-80.

46) Le judeo-espagnol, "Langues en peril" collection, directed by H. V. Sephiha, (Paris: Entente, 1986), 242 pages.

47) "La diaspora sefardi y el judeoespanol," in Actas of the Colloque de Salamanca (December 1987), Espana, Al-Andalus, Sefarad: Sintesis y nuevas perspectivas, (Salamanca, 1988), pp. 169-189. Conference held in Judeo-Spanish.

48) "Le dernier ne du judeo-espagnol : Le judeo-fragnol," in Marges, No. 2, Actes de la Table Ronde du Cripault, Perpignan, January 1986, Nature et signification du discours marginalisant (Universite de Perpignan, 1988), pp. 203-220.

49) "Ladinismes dans la Fazienda de Ultra Mar du XIIeme siecle: le SI interrogatif du ladino," in Politique et religion dans le judaisme ancien et medieval, Colloquium of December 1987, Centre d'Etudes juives de l'Universite de Paris IV: Sorbonne, (Paris: Desclee, 1989), pp. 319-325.

50) "L'image du juif dans l'univers concentrationnaire nazi," in Les Juifs dans le regard de l'autre, Colloque de Toulouse (12-15 April 1985), Actes, (Vent Terral: Presses Universitaires du Mirail, July 1988).

51) Edgar Morin, Veronique Gappe-Nahoum et H. V. Sephiha, Vidal et les siens (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1989).

52) Judeo-espagnol et contactologie, Dossier, photocopied course material from the Martin Buber Institute of Jewish Studies (Brussels: Universite de Bruxelles, 1989/1990), 28 pages.

53) "L'humour dans les proverbes judeo-espagnols," Humoresques, No. 1, special issue on Jewish humor (October 1990), pp. 37-47.

54) Judeo-espagnol - Horizon 1992-Dossier, photocopied course material from the Martin Buber Institute of Jewish Studies (Brussels: Universite de Bruxelles, 1990-1991), 31 pages.

55) "La 'suerte' del sonido africado hebreo tsade en el judeoespanol de oriente," Miscelanea de estudios arabes y hebraicos, Vol. 37-38, No. 2 (Universidad de Granada, 1991), pp. 133-140.

56) Judeo-espagnol: Horizon 1992 II-Dossier, photocopied course material from the Martin Buber Institute of Jewish Studies (Brussels: Universite de Bruxelles, 1991-1992), 32 pages.

57) "Caracterizacion de la lengua de la Biblia de Ferrara (1553) destinada a los conversos que volvian al judaismo," Coloquio sobre La Biblia De Ferrara, Nov. 1991, Actas, que accompanaran la edicion facsimil de dicha Biblia (Seville, 1992), 25 pp.

58) Contes judeo-espagnols: Du miel au fiel, translated and introduction by H. V. Sephiha (Paris: Bibliophane, 1992).

59) Richard Ayoun and H. V. Sephiha, Sefarades d'hier et d'aujourd' 'hut,70 portraits (Paris: Liana Levy, 1992).

60) "Vestiges linguistiques et liturgiques d'al-Andalus parmi les Judeo-Espagnols du Moyen-orient," in La civilisation d'al-Andalus dans le temps et dans I'espace, Colloque de l'Universite de Mohammedia (16-18 April 1992), Actes. Universite Hassan II, Mohammedia (1993), pp. 235-244.

61) "Iberophonie des Juifs iberiques et des Marranes," in 1492-1992: Des rives de l'Ebre et du Tage a celles de I'Adour: L'exode des Juifs d'Espagne a Bayonne (Bayonne, 7-9 April 1992), Actes, Faculte pluridisciplinaire de Bayonne! Anglet/Biarritz (1993), pp. 167-176.

62) "Existe-t-il un judeo-catalan calque? Oui!" in 1) "Cinq siecles de vie juive Gerone," Actes du Colloque (20-21 novembre 1988) (Paris: Editions Hispaniques, Sorbonne, 1992), pp. 137-146; 2) expanded article in Actes de Le peuple catalan juif au Moyen Age (1.7 to 10.8 1992) under the direction of Dr.Gerard Karsenti.

63) Reprint of n [degrees] 55: Biblia De Ferrara (1553), Caracterizacion del ladino de la Biblia de Ferrara, 450th anniversary, Martin Buber Institute, 1992-1993, 26 pp.

64) "Les emprunts linguistiques dans le Refranero judeo-espagnol: Etude preliminaire," in Hommage Abdon Yaranga Valderrama, I 'Indien Quechua de Paris, Cahiers de Recherche "Langues et cultures opprimees et minorisees" (Saint-Denis, 1993), pp. 387-407.

65) "Nuevo silaberyo espanyol--Konstantinopla (1922)," newly edited with commentary by Haim Vidal Sephiha, Institut Martin Buber de Bruxelles et Association Vidas Largas de Paris (Paris, 1994).

66) "Proverbes judeo-espagnols: la partie pour le tout. Une memoire selective," in Paremia n[degrees] 2, Coloquto Internactonal "Oralidad y Escritura: Literatura paremiologica y Refranero" (University of Orleans, 19-29 November 1993) (Madrid, 1993), pp.231-237.

67) "Concordance de Bibles en ladino (judeo-espagnol calque )," in Le Texte: un objet d'etude interdisciplinaire: Melanges offerts a Veronique Huynh-Armanet, Centre de Recherches de l'Universite de Paris VIII, Analyse textuelle et Nouvelles Technologies, n [degrees] 2 (1993), pp. 26 1-267.

68) "Vidas Largas: Le Bilan de l'annee 1993," in Migrance 3 (Paris, 1994), pp. 23-24.

69) Preface, texts and translation of Kansyonero Tetounais: Chants judeo-espagnols de ma mere by Henriette Azen, musical selections edited by Francoise and Gerard Azen (Paris, 1994).

70) "Les dix tribus d'Israel et les indiens d'Amerique: Menasseh ben Israel, Esperanca de Israel 1650," in Iberica, new series no. 3, Metissages en Amerique Latine (Paris, 1994), pp. 123-130.

71) "La mort dans les proverbes judeo-espagnols: Variations stir un theme par trop connu," in Miscellania Romania, 4.94 (Brussels, 1994), pp. 4-15.

72) "Modalidades del Judeoespanol: Ladino y Dzhudezmo ('g'udez-mo)," in La Herencia de 1492, una aproximacon critica : Beitrage zum Erbe von 1492: Actas de las Jornadas Hispanicas de Soest 1992, Thomas Doring und Bernhard Schmidt, eds. (Moers: Deutscher Spanischlehrerverband, 1995).

73) "Existe-t-il un judeo-catalan calque? Oui!--Constance lexicale," in Estudis de linguistica I filologia oferts a Antoni M Badia I Margarit, Biblioteca Abat Oliba, Departament de Flologia Catalana (Universitat de Barcelona) (Publicacions de 1'Abadia de Montserrat, 1995/1996), vol. II, pp. 339-349.

74) Judeo-espagnol: Recherches recentes] II--le Solitreo ecriture clandestine, photocopied course material from the Martin Buber Institute (Brussels: University of Brussels, 1995/1996), 30 pages.

75) Humour Judeo-Espagnol, photocopied course material from the Martin Buber Institute (Brussels: University of Brussels, 1996-1997), 31 pages.

76) Hommage a Clarisse Nicoidski, photocopied course material from the Martin Buber Institute (Brussels: University of Brussels, 1997-1998), 32 pages.

77) With Nathan Weinstock, Yiddish et Judeo-Espagnol, Un heritage europeen (Brussels: Bureau Europeen des Langues Moins Repandues, 1998), 42 pages.

78) With Nathan Weinstock, English version.

Haim Vidal Sephiha is Professor Emeritus in Judeo-Spanish at the Sorbonne Nouvelle (University of Paris), Associate Professor at the Free University of Brussels' Martin Buber Institute, and President of the Vidas Largas Association, among other professional posts. Among his principal publications are: L 'agonie des Judeo-Espagnols (1977), Le Ladino, judeo-espagnol calque: structure et evolution d'une langue liturgique (1982) and Le judeo-espagnol (1986).

(1.) The Ecole Nationale des Lan gues Orientales Vivantes (National School of Living Oriental Languages) became Inalco, i.e. Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (the National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilisations), after the events of 1968.

(2.) See Bernard Pottier and Bernard Darbord, La langue espagnole--Elements de Grammaire (Paris: Edition Nathan, 1998), in particular pp. 31, 33, and 38.

(3.) The director, Professor Winifried Busse, is the general manager of Neue Romania, which often consccrates Sonderhefte to Judeo-Spanish (Judenspanisch, Vol. I, No. 12 [1991]; Vol. II, No. 19 (1997]; Vol. III, No. 21 [1998]).

(4.) See Annette Benaim, ed., The Proceedings of the Tent/i conference on Judeo--Spanish Studies, 29 June--I July, 1997 (London: Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College,1999).

(5.) Anthologie bilingue de la poesie espagnole (Paris: Bibiotheque de La pleciade; Gallimard, 1995), pp. 1058--1061. In the Romancero Ramon Menendez Pidal discovered with relish pieces which had definitively disappeared from the peninsula and affirmed that the Sefardim consitituted a conservatory of Spanish culture from the fifteenth century.

(6.) Bible d' Asa, textes hebreux et ladinos (judeo-espagnol calque) (Constantinople, 1739-1740). This Bible follows the model of the Pentateuque de Constantinople (1547), with linguistic innovations in the vernacular language (cf. "Diachronie du ladino," bibliographic entry 28).

(7.) See H.-V. Sephiha, "Metatheses en judeo-espagnol, Zeitschrift fur romanische Philologie, Vol. 107 (1991), pp. 167-172.

(8.) See La Santa Biblia--Antiguo y nuevo Testamento -antigua version de Casiodoro de Reina (1569) revisada y cotejada por Cipriano de Valera (1602) y cotejada posteriormente con diversas traducciones, y con los textos hebreo y griego (Sociedad biblica americana, 1960).

(9.) Biblia de Jerusalen (Brussels: Desclee de Brouwer, 1967).

(10.) See Eloino Nacar Fuster y Alberta Colunga Cueto, Sagrada Biblia--Version directa de las lenguas originales (Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1980).
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