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The Hippocratic treatise 'On Anatomy.'

Anatomy is the basis of medical discourse.

(Hipp. Loc. Hom. 2)

INTRODUCTION

On Anatomy (Anat.) is the shortest treatise preserved in the Hippocratic Corpus (HC). It describes the internal configuration of the human trunk. The account is for the most part descriptive, function being largely disregarded and speculation completely eschewed. Though systematic it is unsophisticated: two orifices for ingestion are linked by miscellaneous organs, vessels, and viscera to two orifices for evacuation. There is a clear progression in two parallel sections: first, trachea to lung, lung described, location of heart, heart described, kidneys to bladder, bladder described, bladder to genitals, conclusion; and second, oesophagus to belly, location of diaphragm, location of spleen, location and description of belly (close to liver), belly to intestine/colon, colon to rectum and anus, conclusion. The text offers good basic topographical or regional anatomy (the organs studied as they lie in relationship with one another in the different regions of the body). That the work is concerned with human anatomy is certain from the precise description of lung and liver, with features peculiar to human organs; and is corroborated by frequent references to comparative anatomy, with which familiarity is apparently assumed. Such anatomical knowledge, based on extensive observation of animals (probably sacrificial victims as well as laboratory specimens), may have been corroborated by some human dissection, perhaps of the aborted foetus or exposed infant, in conjunction with opportunistic observation of war wounded and accident victims. While the syntax is bald, telegraphic, and asyndetic, the vocabulary is recondite, and poetic. There is erratic omission of the article and recurrent use of compendious comparisons. These features suggest that Anat. may be an abridgement of a fuller and more flowery account; this hypothesis is supported by several passages where erroneous or unclear information apparently results from excessive compression or imperfect comprehension of a source. The vocabulary is markedly Demokritean and there are strong affinities with Ep. 23, the supposititious letter of Demokritos to Hippocrates on `the nature of man'. As there are similarities also, both in content and in expression, with Oss., a composite work which is related in turn to Epid. 2, case histories of patients in Thrace and adjacent regions, and with the similarly located Epid. 6, the putative earlier version(s) of Anat. may plausibly be attributed to a North Greek strand of scientific and medical endeavour. In this paper a new text is presented, followed by translation, commentary, and discussion incorporating conclusions on origin and date. At the same time, the paper has a wider thrust, concerning the development of ancient anatomical knowledge and scientific terminology. The conclusions have important implications for our understanding of the formation of the HC, both as originally composed and as subsequently constituted.

TRANSLATION

I

1. The trachea, taking its origin from each side of the throat, ends at the top of the lung; it is composed of similar rings [to other creatures'], the circular parts touching one another on the surface.

2. The actual lung, inclined towards the left, fills the chest cavity. The lung has five projecting parts, which they call lobes; it has an ashen colour, is punctuated by dark spots, and is in nature like a honey-comb.

3. In the middle of it the heart is situated: it is rounder than [that of] all creatures. From the heart to the liver a large tube goes down, and with the tube the vessel called the great vessel, by means of which the entire frame is nourished.

4. The liver has a similarity to [that of] all other creatures, but is more blood-suffused than [that of] others. It has two projecting parts, which they call gates; it lies in the right part [of the body]. From the liver a slanting vessel extends to the parts below the kidneys.

5. The kidneys are similar [to other creatures'] and in colour are like [those of] sheep. From them slanting ducts reach to the top edge of the bladder.

6. The bladder is all sinewy and large. At a distance from the bladder come, centrally, the genitals.

7. In these six parts [bodily] nature has been arranged internally in the middle.

II

8. The oesophagus, taking its origin from the tongue, ends at the belly; they call it `mouth' for the putrefying belly.

9. From the backbone, behind the liver, comes the diaphragm. On the false side, I mean the left, the spleen begins, and extends, similar to a footprint.

10. The belly, lying beside the liver, on the left side, is all sinewy. From the belly comes the intestine, which is similar [to other creatures'], long, no less than twelve cubits, in coils entangled in folds. Some call it the colon, and by it the passage of the food occurs.

11. From the colon comes last the rectum, which has fleshy tissue, and which ends at the extremity of the anus.

12. The rest, nature has organized.

COMMENTARY

1. On the trachea see GA 1270, 1275: `The trachea, or windpipe, is a cartilaginous and membranous tube ... continued downward from the lower part of the larynx .... The cartilages ... vary from sixteen to twenty in number. Each is an imperfect ring which occupies the anterior two-thirds or so of the circumference of the trachea .... Two or more of the cartilages often unite, partially or completely'. The author, then, is correct about the rings and about the rings `touching' one another. Nothing, however, is said about the branching of the windpipe into the right and left extrapulmonary bronchi, which lead separately to right and left lung.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: in Greek medicine, the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], whence trachea; cf. Celsus' `arteria aspera') eventually prevailed for the trachea or windpipe. But in the HC the terminology of trachea and bronchial tubes is ambiguous and inconsistent, even within individual treatises and, at times, within individual sections of them (cf. Int. 1 on [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] all connected with the lung). The term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is used not only of the bronchial tubes but generally of the area between throat and lung and, conversely, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may be applied to the bronchial tubes; also the two terms may be found together (as Loc. Hom. 3.5, 10.1, 14.2, 14.7, where [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is trachea and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], or by tacit substitution [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], are bronchial tubes). In the HC, the trachea is rarely simply [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (but see Epid. 7.12 and 25). Most commonly, the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is, like [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], applied to the important hollow bodily tubes, ducts, or vessels through which fluids (not only blood) were believed to course, and is analogous to the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] applied to the solid links in the body, i.e. tendons, sinews, muscles, ligaments, as well as (occasionally) nerves. In some passages [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is ambiguously used, both of trachea and of vessel (Epid. 2.4.1 ~ Oss. 5).

In a later distinction, generally agreed to have been formalized by Praxagoras, the arteries were believed to convey [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the veins blood through the body. Thus, in accord with Rufus' explanation (Anat. 65, 183 DR) that the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] carry blood and the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] blood to some extent but rather [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `air', Pollux (2.5) defines [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as paths for air analogous to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], for blood. The connection between [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as trachea and as artery is probably that both were regarded (rightly in the case of the former) as conveying air. The derivation is uncertain. Possibilities canvassed are from [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `lift', presumably because the lungs seemed `suspended' by the trachea, and the heart by the aorta (which, however, itself must be from [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `suspend'); or from [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `fit', presumably because the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] seemed to `fit' parts of the body together (and for this notion, cf. Oss. 1. the intestines [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); as did the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `joints'.(3)

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: this term is not used elsewhere in the HC, but is common in late medical writers.(4) It is glossed (s.v. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) by Hsch. As a techical locative term, it does not differ in sense from the common term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (cf. Rufus [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Onom. 62, 141 DR) or occasional term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], this being the interior of the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (but both of these are used for other narrow parts also, such as the neck of the bladder or of the womb). Pollux differentiates between [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], start of oesophagus and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], of trachea (2.4.207).

Unsurprisingly, the adjective [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `each (of two)' is especially common in bodily description (legs, kidneys Carn. 5); but the usage here, of each [side of the] throat is unexpected. However, from [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Gland. 7 (cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Gland 4), it seems that the throat was regarded as essentially bipartite, possibly because of its connection, in breathing, with the two nasal passages ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is occasionally used in the plural, as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Mochl. 39.)

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the technical expression [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with reference to trachea has the same significance as the more general term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the parallel description of oesophagus in 8 below, i.e. `starting-point', `inception'. Like the related terms [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `excrescence', `protuberance' (for which [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a common manuscript variant) and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], it is common in anatomical contexts, especially in Artic., Fract. and Mochl.; also Oss. (e.g. Artic. 45, Fract. 12, Mochl. 1; Oss. passim). The terms are typically but not exclusively medical or biological. The circumlocution [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], with abstract noun plus [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] standing for verb with same root as the noun, recurs in 8 below, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] = verb [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 9. This is by stylistic preference, the verb being available as alternative: as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Loc. Hom. 3.6 and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Oss. 4.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the substantival form `top point', `extremity', `edge' is used again below, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: this use is uncommon in Attic Greek, but is a regular alternative in the HC, particularly for bodily extremities, as in plural [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Acut. 30; and repeatedly in Artic. The adjectival form is here used once ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 5).

The singular form [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is dominant in the HC (and the rare plural is both preceded and followed by the singular, Gland. 14). From the expression `the top of the lung', and the use throughout of the singular, it is evident that the author regarded the lung as a single joined organ, as indeed did Aristotle (HA 1.16.495b; PA 669b). The original form [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] gave way to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] presumably because of a supposed connection with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: from the heroic age the lung was known to be vital to life (Hom. Il. 4.528 etc.).(5)

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: this verb, repeated three times in this short piece (1, trachea ending at lung; 8, oesophagus at belly; 11, rectum at anus) is regularly used of the location of bodily parts in the anatomical treatises. For the use of the preposition [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] below, 5.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the sense of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is evident, but the expression, forerunner of the modern term `cricoid' cartilage, is unusual in Greek. Pollux (1.94, on rings for ships' hawsers) regards [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as poetic for [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Elsewhere in the HC, the noun occurs only in Mochl. 41, where it denotes a `loop' attached to a piece of apparatus ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the excerpted text, Fract. 30). The compound verb [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs Oss. 18 in the phrase [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (glossed Erotian E 38 [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). Celsus' expression `constat ex circulis quibusdam' (4.1.3) shares the metaphor. For the compound verb, of bodily composition, see Fract. 9

(foot and hand composed of many small bones); and see [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] below (4, position of liver and 5, position of ureters; also [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (10, belly in relation to liver).

The concatenation of terms [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (connected respectively with rings of trachea, 1; with liver, 4; with kidneys, 5; with spleen, 9; with intestine, 10) is arresting;(6) and we may add [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (connected with the kidneys, 5): throughout, the author is concerned with comparisons, expressed in consistent terminology. In scientific writing, technical terms are liable to be repeated; indeed, variation can be misleading and obscure the sense. Suda (s.v. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) glosses: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Other late commentators (Philoponus, Eustathius), perhaps using the same source, reiterate this information on the Abderite sense of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), and there is good evidence that [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and related words were favoured by Demokritos; see further below. Whatever the authentic Hellenic character of the `other words' allusively mentioned in the Suda, it seems unduly harsh to imply that the semantic extension of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Ionic for Attic [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) `form' is not admissible Greek. It seems rather to have been a matter of stylistic preference; cf. E. El. 772 (in hendiadys with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) also HF 130, Supp. 94. The sense `shape' is dominant: see Arist. Metaph. 985b16, identification with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], also Hdt. 5.58, of letters, and Artic. 62, of boots; but coexists with more abstract usage, as in Septim. passim. Hsch. glosses [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `compare', precisely in line with the sense of the related words here.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: neither [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `circular' nor [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `level', `plane' occurs elsewhere in the HC. The former term, which Hsch. glosses as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], is used by Empedokles (DK 31 B 27.4 = Plu. Mor. 926d; cited also Stob.).(7) The term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is common in many of the pre-Socratics, including Philolaus, Pythagoras, Anaximander, as well as Demokritos, typically in mathematical contexts (as Demokritos DK 68 B 155 = Plu. Mor. 1079e). The vocabulary of this phrase is somewhat alien to the HC, with technical terms of general scientific writing rather than of medicine. Rufus, arguing for the primacy of medical terminology by analogy with learning methods in other skills, cites geometry, where the pupil first learns [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `point, line, and plane' (Onom. 5 = 133-4 DR).

The manuscript reading [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is retained by early editors (glossed [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], i.e. `attached'). Without [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] this would be acceptable Greek; but as the text stands it is impossibly awkward. The nominative singular feminine of the participle was doubtless scribal error, following [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and failing to anticipate the change to the genitive absolute construction.

2. On the colour, mottling, and texture of the lung, see GA 1285: `The substance of the lung is of a light, porous, spongy texture ... in adult life the colour is a dark slaty-grey, mottled in patches.' (The lung is rose-pink in all young creatures; the characteristic black pigmentation, in animals as in humans, is due to breathing an impure atmosphere.) There can be no doubt that the author here describes human anatomical features: five lobes; in fact two (superior and inferior) in the left lung and three (superior, middle and inferior) in the right. The configuration of lobes in the lung is peculiar to different creatures: in the Equidae the lung is not divided into lobes at all; in cattle the lungs are divided into lobes by deep fissures, the left lung having three and the fight lung four or five lobes; in the pig the left lung is like that of the ox while the fight has an additional apical lobe, itself often in two parts; in the dog each lung has three large lobes, but the right has a small extra lobe and there may be one or more accessory lobes in either lung (BVD, s.v. `lung').

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: this initial expression contrasts with the bald resumption of comment, often without even the article, on other organs (liver, bladder, kidneys) picked up from preceding sentences. But cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (vessel), Oss. 12, bis.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the triple compound is a remarkable formation.(8) Double [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]- compounds are common enough (32 instances, many occurring several times over, in the HC); and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a verb commonly made compound (in the HC as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). But the triple compound with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]- is unparalleled in the medical treatises of the HC, though note [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Ep. 23.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] lit. `tortoise' is used by extension of things of tortoise shell, commonly the lyre; or of tortoise shape, as `arched' parts of the body, typically as here the chest and cf. E. El. 837 of a bull; cf. also Pollux 2.177 [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] explained `arched part of the back'. See also [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (of the chin), Ep. 23. As `arched' is a somewhat inappropriate descriptive term for the chest (even the chest when a deep breath has been taken), the metaphor may rather relate (i) to similarity with a tortoise shell, protecting vital parts of the body; for the idea, though coupled with anatomical misconceptions, cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] de Arte 10; or (ii) to similarity with the lyre, through a realization that the voice comes from, and is somehow amplified by, the chest: cf. the idea that the lung is hollow, with the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] source of the voice, Morb. 4.56. The usage of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `chest' throughout Lo.Hom. (3.6; 10.1, 2; 14.1, 5, 10) shows the same metaphor.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the phrase `inclined (lit. turned) to the left'(9) seems at first sight to give an inaccurate description of the position of the two lungs and to conflict with the author's awareness (evident in what ensues) of the central position of the heart. Ermerins suggests `turned to [is less than] the right and to [is greater than] the left', on the supposition that a phrase has been lost; Cornarius' tentative emendations (see apparatus) would give a similar sense, `turned to both sides'. Triller ingeniously moots [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `adapted to drawing', on the grounds that the purpose of the lungs is inhalation; it is not clear whether he intended [Tau]' to be particle or elided neuter plural article; but neither is possible Greek. (Van der Linden's emendation [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `pierced', for [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `turned', is to be rejected, as it would anticipate [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `honeycombed', if, as is likely, this is to be read below; and description of the position of the lungs is more appropriate here than description of their appearance.) Littre rejects any emendation, on the grounds that in ancient anatomical texts there is room for `les erreurs materielles et les fausses opinions'. But there are two other possibilities. (i) The text is sound and the author not in error. As noted above, the author implies there is only one lung; and viewed in this way the lung may be regarded as `turned to the left': there is a more acute angle on the left side than on the right, due to the position of the heart (see GA 1286), so that (GA 1290) the right lung is `shorter'--though `broader'--than the left. We may then retain the manuscript reading and translate `inclined towards the left', `deflected to the left'. (ii) A phrase describing the position of the heart has been misapplied to the lungs, possibly through telescoping of a source. Cf. the description of the human heart, contrasted with that of other creatures, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Arist. P.A. 665b-66b.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs only here applied to the eminences or elevations of the lung ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) and of the liver ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); it implies a simple form [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], not found either. The word is thus doubly recondite, prefix being added to rare or invented form. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs frequently in the HC as elsewhere with the meaning `top', as of bladder, 5 below; and especially as crown of head, as Loc. Hom. 3; but the only usage of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] similar to this passage, and the affinity is striking, is in the description of vessels in the region of the liver, one said to pass [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `between the tops [of the lobes] and the skin', Oss. 18.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: this is the first of five comments on nomenclature in Anat.: here, projections of lung; cf. projections of liver [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], oesophagus [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and the vessel [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. With this information there is clear awareness of possible variation in terminology ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `some') and perhaps of etymological rationale for terminology (especially if the emendation [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], is adopted, 8). The author is setting out the accepted terminology, which `they' use, with a slightly didactic tone ([Delta][Eta], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]).

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the appearance of the lung is described in three successive participial phrases loosely strung together, the first two relating to colour and the third to `nature', `character' (here perhaps close to `texture').

(i) The first description `ashen' is clear. Although [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a hapax, the word [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `ash' occurs in the gynaecological treatises of the HC.

(ii) The second description is textually uncertain. The word [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `spots' (glossed Hsch. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) is not used elsewhere in the HC and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `punctuated', lit. `pricked out', is metaphorical, though readily understood; it is used of the pricking of pain Morb. 2.59. The adjective [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is not credible Greek; palaeographically, the slightest change mooted (by Triller) is to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] supposed to be equivalent to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. But Triller himself rejects these fanciful forms in favour of Foesius' [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The various conjectures [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Foesius), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (van der Linden), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Littre)--all reasonably close to the non-word [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]--mean, respectively, `dark', `foamy', and `protruding'. Of these the first seems anatomically best and alone is paralleled in the HC, Progn. 24, of darkness before the eyes.(10)

(iii) In the third phrase, the word division [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] has otiose and misplaced [Tau][Epsilon]; and the single word [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `like ash' merely replicates `ashen' just before, Foesius' emendation [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `honey-combed' gives an unusual word, in keeping with the author's elaborate vocabulary. It is attributed to Demokritos, in zoological and embryological writings (DK 68 A 155, citation from Ael. HN 12.20, on the formation of horn). Hsch. glosses [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The most salient characteristic of the lung is generally thought to be its spongy texture; cf. Oss. 13, V.M. 22 and many later medical writers, including Celsus 4.1.3, `spongiosum'.

3. The author is correct that the heart is `in the middle of the lung' (i.e. between the lungs), but the allegation that the human heart is peculiarly round cannot be sustained. The heart is in fact neither round, nor heart-shaped; but rather amorphous, or somewhat pouch-shaped (GA 697 fig. 678). The reference to the two descending parts ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) is probably to the prominent vessels, the aorta and vena cava: see GA 1415, fig. 1230.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: this compound does not occur elsewhere in the HC, though the simple [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is common, often used of a bone `sitting' in place, Fract., Artic.; and there are seventeen other Hippocratic [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] compounds.(11) The sense of the verb here is close to that in Ep. 23, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of eyes (cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], of eyes, Epid. 2.2.24), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of kidneys and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of bladder,(12) and also the notion of the heart as `ruler', [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Cf. also the descriptions of the heart [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Oss. 18; and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Arist. P.A. 665b-66b.(13)

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the Greek expression is slightly illogical; lit., `rounder than all creatures'. Hence Ermerins suggests [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (i.e. `of all animal organs'). But there is a compendious comparison (cf. `hair like the graces', sc. the graces' hair); and in `all creatures', `other' is readily understood, i.e. `rounder than that of any other creature'. Similar comparisons are made below, 4 and 5. For this universal anatomy, cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Carn. 1. The alleged roundness of the human heart may be based simply on a view that roundness is a `good' state; cf. Pl. Ti. 33 b, c, the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is spherical because the sphere is the most perfect of shapes; circular motion is connected with rational activity. Other descriptions of the heart are: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Cord. 1 and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ep. 23; but `somewhat rounded', Arist. H.A. 496.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: two links between heart and liver are indicated. But the terminology is opaque and the brevity and baldness of this text of uncertain date and context renders identification problematical. First, it must be stressed that there is no particular emphasis on the links: the author is simply describing the area between heart and liver. There is no indication that either heart or liver is peculiarly important in bodily function. The two links are: (i) [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and (ii) [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], by which the whole body is nurtured. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is any tube (commonly but by no means exclusively the aorta) or system of tubes (commonly the bronchial tubes); and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may mean `many a' or `big' (cf. Hsch. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] commonly refers to the vena cave; but the term could be simply general and descriptive rather than technical and specific. If [Eta] were to be added, the technical use would be certain, but nothing can be deduced from its omission in this terse work. On [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as a possible aid to identification, see below. Other descriptions (in different authors of different dates) of the aorta are as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and of the vena cava are as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. But the vena cave is sometimes designated [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], perceived to be different from the other [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (by reason of its character, economically described by Triller `cum ratione tunicae, tum ratione motus et pulsus') and Galen uses the term/[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (with or without the addition [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) for the portal vein, which is, after the vena cava, the body's largest.

The identification which best fits the tenor of the treatise, with its careful attention to location and strict paring down to essentials is as follows: (i) = aorta and (ii) = vena cava, with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] synonymous, and the difference between the adjectives only a matter of stylistic variatio. This seems the simplest interpretation, consonant both with the Greek text and the salient anatomical `links' in the thoracic cavity. And cf. the very similar [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Carn. 5. Here too the statement that vessels `come from' the heart may be a matter of simple observation, not necessarily precluding the view that (other) vessels `come from' the head. Aristotle orders his material similarly (transition from heart to vessels, P.A. 667b) but the tenor is very different, as the fundamental importance of the heart is recognized; as also in the sophistic treatise on nutriment, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Alim. 31.(14)

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] the word [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is used four times elsewhere in the treatises of the HC: 1, of premature infants ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]--emendation of codd. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Septim. 1); 2 = 3 of a body after death ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Hebd. 52 = Aph. 8.8, Littre I.402); 4, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Cord 7, as well as in the [Demokritean] letter, Ep. 18, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In all these instances, the word is the body either in the abstract or in its non-living state (before birth or after death).

The term is much used by Demokritos: DK 68 A 152 = Ael. N.H. 6.60 of the embryo; B 37, B 57, B 187, B 223, B 270, B 288 (all Stobaios citations), of corporeal opposed to mental or spiritual being.(15) The statement that the whole frame is nourished or nurtured by the great vessel opens up further problems. The verb may allude to the common conception of blood passing to different parts of the body and distributing nourishment as needed. For this common idea, cf. [vessels] [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Loc.Hom. 3.6; also the vessel [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] which [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Oss. 16. The conception that the vena cava played an important part in this life-giving process might have arisen from the observation that the vena cava collapses on death.

But if the author is here working from an aborted foetus, a particular vessel which linked via umbilical cord to placenta, might seem to `nourish the frame'.(16) Cf. the notion expressed that nutriment is breath in the lung, food in the belly while [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Alim. 30.

4. The author describes the situation and character of the liver, also the number of lobes. Cf. GA 1400, `The liver ... is situated in the upper and right parts of the abdominal cavity ... owing to its great vascularity, wounds of the liver cause considerable haemorrhage....The liver is divided ... into a large right and a much smaller left lobe.' Once again, there is no doubt that human anatomy is being discussed. The liver varies greatly in character in different kinds of animal; the horse liver has three lobes; the ox only one distinct lobe; the sheep is similar; the pig has four main lobes and the dog six or seven lobes (BVD, s.v. `liver'). The slanting vessel is probably to be identified with the portal vein, which conveys blood to the liver from the intestines (GA 854 and 855, fig. 787); it follows the downward course here implied and overlies (is anterior to) the vena cava. Another candidate is the splenic artery, which is `remarkable for the tortuosity of its course' (GA 779), but this goes across the body rather than downwards.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the second half of the sentence qualifies the first half; the liver is similar ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) in general to the livers of all other animals, but different ([Delta][Epsilon]) in relative `bloodiness'.(17) Cf. Aristotle [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] P.A. 673b29; also Herophilos on the liver [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (von Staden, 1989, 182-3). An alternative interpretation is possible: `to all other organs of the body'. Aristotle comments that heart and other organs all have [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and are [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], also that the spleen is [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (P.A. 647a, 670b); but he regards the heart as even more `bloody' than the liver, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (P.A. 637b). In view of the author's stress on comparative anatomy, the former interpretation is preferable. For the bloody character of the liver, cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] V.M. 22; [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Empedokles DK 31 B 150 = Plu. Mot. 683e. The bloody nature of the liver might be perceived without the theory that it was crucial in the distribution of the blood through the body. The associated vein is [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as Oss. 7 and 12. Of fifteen instances of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the HC, four are in Oss. 7 and 12. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is more common, with seventy-three occurrences in the HC; but is applied to wounds, not to vessels.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the projecting parts here called `gates' are more commonly called `lobes' (as in the case of the lung), while the term `gate' is normally applied not (as here) to an eminence, but to a depression or indentation, especially the fissure through which the portal vein enters (see yon Staden, 1989, 229). There are several such indentations, the two main ones being the points of entry of the vena cava inferior and the portal vein (GA 1405, fig. 1221). The term `gate' is dismissed by Rufus as appropriate to augury, not to human anatomy (and the distinguishing features of animal livers were well known from minute examination in the course of augury following animal sacrifice; of all the organs it must have been most generally familiar--see e.g. E. El. 828sqq.); Rufus also states that the term `gates' was applied by `old doctors' to the attachment to the vena cava inferior (Anat. 28, 175 DR). It is possible that the odd terminology is the result of drastic summarization: the excrescences have been given the name gates, instead of lobes, while some description of gates is lost. Differentiation is clearly implied Oss. 10 = Epid. 2.4.1 [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and cf. Pl. Ti. 71cl-2 [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Hsch. has both terms: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

The number of lobes is variously given. Rufus believed there were four or five. Whereas in Oss. 10 a single lobe is envisaged, it is clearly stated in Oss. 1 that there are five ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) and in Oss. 18--as here in Anat.--that there are two (in the expressions [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). The minor excrescences of the caudate lobe and the quadrate lobe (GA 1405, fig. 1221) perhaps confused the issue; but inspection of different species would lead to different conclusions,

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (neut. sg.) is Ermerins' emendation of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (fem. pl.) and makes the liver lie on the right of the body, rather than the `gates' on the right of the liver. The general statement is in accord with the rudimentary anatomical description of the text.(18)

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the adjective, not used elsewhere in the HC, is used by Demokritos (so DK 68 A 37 = Simp. in cael. 294.33, and, allegedly based on Aristotle, 132 = Thphr. C P. 67.2); and is extremely common in a wide range of other authors of all dates. Hsch. glosses by [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].(19) The expression [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is compressed, sc. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The compound verb is used only twice in the HC, here and (in a temporal sense) Epid 4.7, though both [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are very common.(20)

5. The author describes the kidneys, of which (GA 1418) `The cortical substance is reddish-brown in colour.' The ureters are correctly described as slanting, each being (GA 1422) `a thick-walled, narrow, cylindrical tube which ... runs downwards and medially' and `crosses' various parts before (1423) `finally the ureters run obliquely through the wall of the bladder'. The position of the ureters relative to each other varies from 2.5 cm to about 5 cm, according to whether the bladder is contracted or distended (GA 1429); and their position relative to the internal urethral orifice varies correspondingly. The author regards the ureters as reaching the top of the bladder, in accord with his top-to-bottom presentation of anatomy. As their actual position (GA 1425, fig. 1243) is rather reaching the `edge', the translation `top edge' is appropriate.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: as in the case of the liver, it is not immediately clear what is meant by the `similarity' of the kidneys; [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] = (of the liver) [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In view of the apparent stress on comparative anatomy, the most likely explanation is `like the kidneys of other creatures'; cf. the observation of Aristotle (correct only of the unborn infant in utero) that human kidneys are [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] PA. 671b. But other possibilities are: `like each other' (as they obviously are) or `like other organs'; cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Oss. 4. Comments on shape and colour are

pervasive in such descriptions; cf. Rufus, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Anat. 51, 181 DR. Here, the ensuing comparison helps to resolve the question. Whereas in the case of the liver the ensuing phrase qualifies the likeness, in the case of the kidneys it amplifies: the kidneys have a similarity to those of other creatures, and further in colour they are like sheep, i.e. (in another compendious or compressed comparison) the kidneys are like [those of] sheep in colour. Cornarius, Foesius, and van der Linden all took [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], i.e. `renes vero colore inter se similes' (Foesius tr.) and continued by understanding the ensuing comparison with reference to apples, `malorum speciem prae se ferunt' (Foesius tr.). Clearly, their translation is based on the perception that the kidneys are like apples in shape, rather than in colour; but necessitates deletion of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The interpretation of the ambiguous [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as `sheep' not `apples' begins with Triller;(21) it greatly aids the sense and it may now be noted that in the HC the sense `sheep' predominates over the sense `apple' (15 to 12). The noun sometimes refers to animals generally, as Hsch. notes [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Erotian refers the cognate adjective to sheep, [Sigma] 56, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Treatment by mutton fat, Nat. Mul. 32 etc. and by boiled mutton, Morb. 2.69 etc. are described by use of the word. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is epic and exclusively poetic, cf. Parmenides DK 28 B 8.43 = Simp. In Ph. 144.29. It serves as a synonymous alternative to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], also used in a simile, 9 below. The variatio avoids immediate repetition in a single sentence.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: Hsch. and Suda gloss [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Elsewhere the ureters are [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or occasionally [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The preposition, added by van der Linden, is required. In a very similar expression of progress from larynx to bladder, fluid is said to go [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Oss. 1; cf. also Rufus, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

6. The author completes the downward description with a brief account of the bladder and its outlet.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: cf. `vesica nervosa', Celsus 4.1.11. The adjective [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is an epic and Ionic (though not in Herodotos) form for [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `all'?

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the emendation suggested is based on V's reading, unknown to Littre and others, who based emendations on the corrupt recc.(23) It gives the required sense, completing the description of the trunk (cf. Rufus, thorax extends [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]): some reference to the final point outside the body is required, by analogy with 11 below. `Centrally' is in accord with the constant reference to the position of the bodily parts throughout. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is palaeographically close to V; but other candidates, giving similar content, might be [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (cf. the course of vessels [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Oss. 17, and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ep. 23) or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], e.g. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] that') [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ep. 23). Or if a reference to the urinary tract is postulated, we might consider [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], e.g. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Or the adverb [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may be lost (cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Aff. 15). In any case, reference as throughout is primarily, and probably exclusively, to the male body.

7. The author sums up the previous description: the six parts are apparently trachea, lung, heart, liver, kidneys, bladder; and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in 7 seems at first sight to correspond with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in 12. Seven, not six, was a significant number for Pythagoreans and others. In the numerology of anatomical lists, seven is regular; six is quite anomalous. If not fortuitous, it may result from a deliberately paradoxical count, or, more probably, from counting the kidneys as one, instead of as two. The list of seven vital organs ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) was typically tongue, heart, lung, liver, spleen, two kidneys; the bladder included here would normally belong rather in a list of organs transporting food and breath. While this kind of listing is particularly common in post-Posidonian literature,(24) there are pre-Socratic antecedents also; and in the HC see especially Cam. (where heart, lung, liver, spleen, and kidneys form a group, 5-9, as do trachea, oesophagus, belly, and intestines, leading to bladder and rectum, 3).

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the two phrases are in apposition, and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is not intended. Similar prepositional expressions are used in Oss.: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 10, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 12, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 16 and cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], ` 17.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the concepts [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are ubiquitous in philosophical and scientific writing, with subtly changing senses and nuances. One expects the allusive phrases [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 7 and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 12 to be parallel statements, giving parallel conclusions. But there are two differences: the omission of the article in 7, though this may be insignificant in the context of this bald work, where the article is commonly absent; and the change from the passive voice in 7 to the middle in 12. (A small and tempting emendation from [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which must be aorist middle, to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which is ambivalent as imperfect middle or passive, would eliminate the latter problem; the change from aorist passive to imperfect passive would be much less troublesome to consistent sense than the change from passive to middle form.) The sense in 7 seems to be `the body', `the bodily organism', concrete, i.e. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] <[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]>; for which cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], VM 22 and especially two passages [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Cord. 7 and 8. It approaches the somewhat more abstract sense, `bodily nature', evinced for example Hebd. 5 (human); Artic. 13 (human vs. animal); Nat. Mul. 1 (female); and is at some great distance (though there is commonly a microcosm ~ macrocosm analogy) from the wide sense of such passages as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Vict. 1. See further on 12 below.

8. The author here starts again (similar descriptions of `origin' and `end' of oesophagus as of trachea); and goes on to give a rudimentary description of the digestive process, 8-11. The description is anatomically correct. `The oesophagus, or gullet, is a muscular canal ... extending from the pharynx to the stomach. It begins in the neck at the lower border of the cricoid cartilage' (GA 1340 and 1341, fig. 1167). The implied physiology is, however, mistaken: the oesophagus is apparently seen as the start of a parallel process of ingestion and excretion: air (and, presumably, some fluid) via trachea ~ food via oesophagus.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the term occurs also Loc. Hom. 3 and 20; but not elsewhere in the HC.(25) Galen's gloss (19.125 K.) probably relates to Loc. Hom., not, as Foesius supposes, to Anat. The more usual term for oesophagus is the second given here, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], e.g. Cord. 2, Alim. 25, Morb. 4.54. This occurs already in Homer ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `base of neck', Il. 17.47; cf. Il. 3.292 and 19.266, throat of sacrificial victims). Rufus cites both terms [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Onom. 157, 155 DR.(26)

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: Erotian K 35 defines [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Usage with reference both to upper cavity (chest) and to lower cavity (abdomen), these being separated by the diaphragm, is ubiquitous in the HC. The sense of the preposition [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is unclear; it is either `towards' (LSJ 1.3b and c), or `in respect of' (LSJ III.4). The idea that digestion involved putrefaction--food being digested by a putrefying process and nutriment then conveyed to the liver for conversion into blood--was commonly associated with Empedokles ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ...' [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], DK 31 A 77 = Galen de defined., 19.372 K.); Galen regarded it as old-fashioned, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (DK ibid. = in Hipp. Aph. 6.1, 18A.8 K.; cf. also [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... DK 31 B 81 = Plu. Quaest. Nat. 912c; cf. DK 31 B 61 = Simplicius; and see Longrigg, 1993, 74). There are further traces of this notion in the expression [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `unputrified food' occurring in Aff., Vict. 3, Morb. 1. Emendations to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are therefore unnecessary. The idea of putrefaction was important in early Greek attempts to explain change and development of various kinds, including the formation of the world and animal life (Demokritos, DK 68 B 5 = Diod. 1.7.3; cf. Carn. 3, also Pl. Phd. 96b). In medicine, the proper healing of wounds and maturation of illnesses depended on the formation and expulsion of pus or similar matter (e.g. Loc. Hom.).

9. The locations of diaphragm and of spleen are cursorily and somewhat inaccurately indicated. The author does not know, or does not care, about the precise interrelation of these anatomical features, being concerned only with general proximity. `The diaphragm is a dome-shaped, musculofibrous septum which separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity, its convex upper surface forming the floor of the former, and its concave upper surface the roof of the latter.... The muscular fibres may be grouped according to their origins into three parts--sternal, costal, and vertebral' (GA 567). While the diaphragm might be described as `coming from' the backbone, in the sense that the vertebral part is linked with the lumbar vertebrae by two pillars or crura (GA 568), this is scarcely its salient positional feature and it is connected equally with ribs and with sternum. Furthermore, the diaphragm certainly lies above, not behind, the liver. The spleen `is situated principally in the left hypochondriac region of the abdomen ... lies between the fundus of the stomach and the diaphragm' and is `of an oblong flattened form' (GA 1476). With correction and amplification of the text we might state that the diaphragm separates the spleen from the left lung and pleura, and from the ninth, tenth, and eleventh ribs.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is properly the backbone or spine, for which the general [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `back' is commonly used. The former term occurs in Attic. and Mochl. but rarely elsewhere in the HC (apart from Oss.--fin., but not init.--only in Morb. 2 and Mul. 1). Demokritos uses the word in a riddling sentence, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] DK 68 B 151 = Plu. Sympos. 643c; cf. also Diog. Apoll. DK 64 B 6 = Simp. In Ph. 153.13. The account in Anat. seems to be a garbled version of material which is much more clearly presented elsewhere in the HC: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Epid 2.4.1; verbatim also in the account of Oss. 10. The liver was generally described as `below' the diaphragm, as already by Homer, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Il. 11.579; cf. von Staden, 1989, 228). The term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], applied to the lung in Homer (Onians, 1952), later denotes the diaphragm, important in the respiratory function, as well of course as the thinking faculty.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: Aristotle linked the spleen with the liver, and described the location of both with reference to the diaphragm: (liver below the diaphragm on the right, spleen on the left) H.A. 496b15 and (spleen a false liver) P.A. 669628. The two are treated as parallel also by Rufus (spleen and liver below lung, liver on right and spleen [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) Anat. 28, 175 DR; cf. also the description of the spleen, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ep. 23.

This is the only instance where the first person is used in the passage, and it may be contrasted with the third person used in the repeated statements of nomenclature. The most likely explanation is that the author is attempting personal exegesis of his source, `my interpretation is ...'. In doing so, he introduces a misunderstanding, possibly through compression or misunderstanding of his source, which probably referred to the false ribs, or to the spleen as a `false' liver. The word [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `false', lit. `bastard', is regularly applied to the `false' ribs, the five ribs not connected with the sternum, so called in contrast with the seven `true' ribs so connected, defined [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Ruf. Onom. 94, 145 DR. Confusion can arise through the ambiguity of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `rib' or `side'. There is no instance where the meaning `left' is imperatively demanded for [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (and LSJ does not recognize this sense), but the expressions [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], with reference to the direction of vessels, Oss. 14 and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], with reference to the site of pain, Judic. 51 are doubtful, as is the description by Pollux of the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (2.4.207). The spleen itself is described as `false' by Aristotle, i.e. useless, by comparison with the concomitant liver (PA 669b and cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ep. 23; somewhat similarly, the moon was said to give a `bastard' light, compared with the sun, Ph. 1.628).

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: Rufus uses the same analogy, with similar terminology [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Anat. 28, 175 DR. Such similes are common in anatomical contexts: Oss.; Cord. 1, 5, 10.

10. Belly (stomach)-and intestine are described. Although the belly might loosely be said to `lie beside the liver on the left', more properly it lies inclined to the left below both liver and spleen. `The stomach is the most dilated part of the digestive tube, and is situated between the end of the oesophagus and the beginning of the small intestine. It lies in the epigastric, umbilical, and left hypochondriac regions of the abdomen, and occupies a recess bounded by the upper abdominal viscera, and completed in front and on the left side by the anterior abdominal wall and the diaphragm' (GA 1362-3). The adjective `sinewy' is apt: `the wall of the stomach consists of four coats: serous, muscular, areolar and mucous ... and the muscular coat has three layers of muscular fibres' (GA 1367).

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], lit. `good-omened', is used for `left' by a common euphemism; cf., in an anatomical context (embryology), Epid. 6.4.1 and also Empedokles DK 31 A 83 = Athen.3.78; cf. also Rufus, quoted above. The bladder is similarly [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 6 above. The sense of `sinewy' is in both cases probably `elastic', `subject to dilatation'. Rufus uses the same adjective of parts of the belly, Anat. 10, 178 DR and 42, 179 DR. But the word is appropriate also to appearance, as the empty stomach has prominent folds and wrinkles.(27) The adjective [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] has evidently the same sense as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] above, 3. But it occurs elsewhere in the HC only Cord. 8 (heart as a whole, opposed to its component parts). The sbs. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs Alim. 23 (with reference to the whole body, opposed to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `part' of it) and several times in the phrase [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `on glands in general'. This appears in the treatise Glands itself in 1 (the first sentence of the work) and in 7 as well as the version of the title given in ms V; and with reference to a work on glands (possibly the surviving Glands) in Artic. 11 and in Galen 18A.379K. There is an occurrence also in Ep. 18, where it is urged by Demokritos that doctors should assess afflictions not only by inspection but by gauging [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and should treat [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. It has a `scientific' flavour in the Pythagorean equation of number [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `with the totality of the heavens', DK 58 B 27 = Arist. Metaph. 1092626. Hsch. glosses [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `on the whole'.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is applied to the entire lower digestive tract, i.e. both the small intestine (comprising duodenum, jejunum, ileum) and the large intestine (caecum, appendix, colon terminating in rectum and anal canal); only occasionally is such an expression as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] used (as, with reference to an enema, Acut. 19). Like words for `belly', `stomach', with which it is commonly linked ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Cam. 3 and 6; [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Carn. 13; [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Morb. 4.54), it is extended in usage to cover a large visceral region. Rufus regards the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as the `upper belly' and the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as the `lower', Onom. 169-73,156-7 DR.

The `similarity' is left unexplained, but is illumined by two parallel passages (again from Oss. and Epid.) where human and canine intestines are compared: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Oss. 1 (note compendious comparison, as Anat. 3, 4, 5); and with slight variation [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Epid. 6.4.6. It seems that, through compression of his source, the author fails to explain the similarity intended, namely to the viscera of the dog. Cf. BVD, `The large intestine [of the dog] has a course somewhat like that of man.'

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: Foesius' [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is guaranteed by the sense (as all the intestine is included) and the word order (as description, not definition, is here required). The length of the intestine is correctly estimated (twelve cubits being 5-6 metres) and the description is accurate: `The small intestine is a convoluted tube ... about 6.5 metres long' with `a short curved portion' and `a long greatly coiled part'. `The large intestine ... is about 1.5 metres long' (G.4 1370, 1372, 1380).(28)

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: is a hapax in the HC (though [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is found, Morb. 4.40, with reference to `convoluted' vessels), and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] too is a hapax (though [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is quite common, used for instance of intestines, Mul. 2; of humours, Morb. 4; and various other compound forms occur). Hsch. glosses [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The expression of Ep. 23 is close: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Cf. also [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Oss. 18. Celsus' expression is similar: `in sinus vehementer implicitum', 4.1.7. The term `folds' is used in the HC only here and, of the womb, Nat. Pue. (also verb [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of membranes, ibid.). In literary contexts, it is regularly applied to `folds' of the female body, especially the bosom and the womb.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: there are similar comments on divergent terminology Morb. Sacr. 17 ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] a misnomer for diaphragm) and Cam. 4 ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] a misnomer for spinal marrow). That [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], read by V, not [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], is the correct form is guaranteed by an Aristophanic pun on the verb [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (future middle) [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Eq. 455.(29)

11. Colon, rectum and anus are briefly described.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the same verb is found as in 6, 9, 10. The adjective [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is exclusively poetic, though [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is used also in prose. The term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs Oss. 3, 9, 14, 17; also Cam. 4.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: lit. `having abundant flesh'. Van der Linden's emendation [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (commonly adopted) is unnecessary, as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is just as common as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and gives comparable sense (Ibycus, TLG). His addition of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] would give a smoother connection, but is not necessary in this telegraphic style. For the sense, cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Fist. 1.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: for the expression (neuter of adjective, used substantivally, followed by genitive), cf. 1 above. In the HC, the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is used elsewhere only in Haem. Galen glosses [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 19.92 K.

12. A summing up apparently parallel to that of 7 ends the second part of the description. Ermerins' belief that there is a lacuna `nam non absolvitur sed abrumpitur periodus' may be correct; but the abruptness does not of itself necessarily indicate this, as the syntax is somewhat fractured throughout.

[GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: the sense of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in 7 above is `[bodily] nature', a concrete and passive entity which is organized by something external to itself, sc. perhaps universal nature; here the sense of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is `[universal] nature', an abstract and active principle which organizes something, sc. apparently the body. (Cf. Rufus [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Anat. 2, 169 DR; and the view that men are [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ep. 11.) Neither sense is difficult; but the switch from one to the other is generally felt to be awkward; however, there is a similar shift in Ep. 23, discussed further below. If the two passages are parallel, the `other parts' of the body (oesophagus, stomach, diaphragm, spleen, intestine, colon) described 8-11 are parallel to the six parts (trachea, lung, heart, liver, kidneys, bladder) enumerated 1-6. But the phrase may refer to further material, passed over (cf. Arist. Po. 1449a28). Or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may be adverbial, `as to other parts' (not specified). Other possibilities are that a reference to `other creatures' or to `other works' (cf. Carn. fin.) has been lost; or even that [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Anat. 7 and 12 is shorthand for `[sc. my treatise on the] nature [of the body]', with oblique reference to some other work where he has explored other matters and reference in the verb to his own embellished style.

DISCUSSION

I. Background

The origins of Greek anatomy lie in the Homeric epics, which display an extensive knowledge of the effects of battle wounds on different bodily parts. Attempts at systematic description begin with the pre-Socratics, still imbued with the attitudes and forms of early verse writing. Analysis of the body into the different components skin, flesh, bones, and viscera linked by hollow channels or vessels conveying fluids (primarily [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] conveying blood) and by solid threads (termed [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and including cords, sinews, ligaments, nerves, muscles) had a long currency, with little apparent consensus.(30) Outline surveys such as Anat. must have been composed throughout antiquity, and constantly copied, corrected, imitated, and excerpted.

It is always difficult to assess the extent and nature of influence or interaction in such cases of common content of a factual nature, especially where the very existence of direct contact (rather than the use of common sources) must be in doubt. The brevity of the fragment adds to the problem of the universality of its subject matter. Other writers follow the same descriptive sequence from `top' downwards, with the trunk regularly treated as an entity. More specifically, discussion of the organs regularly centres on location, size, and colour. Judgement must rest not only on scrutiny of content but on an inevitably somewhat subjective assessment of similarities in approach, arrangement, and expression. The problem of intertextuality within the HC is acute; and even more so when later authors, such as Celsus and Rufus, are considered,

Indirect evidence for the presence of Anat. in versions of the HC circulating in antiquity (or, rather, in the putative versions which can be reconstructed from the lists of glosses constructed by grammarians and others) is scanty. The list of Erotian (dating from the time of Nero, c A.D. 50, and referring to many earlier authorities, including Bakcheios, Epikles, and Herakleides) includes no words from Anat., but the brevity of the treatise may account for this, Galen glosses no words from Anat. either (unless [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] relates to Amt.; but Loc Hom., from which many other terms are glossed, is a much more likely source). The loss of Galen's comments on Hippocratic anatomy (advertised De Plac Hipp. et Plat. 6.8) is unfortunate, but there is no doubt some truth in his assertion that practical demonstration took the place of written treatises on anatomy.(31)

There is some reason to suppose that Celsus, writing an outline of human anatomy (4.1.1-13) and Rufus of Ephesus, writing an account of anatomical terminology (Onom.), knew the work. But the evidence is not unequivocal. Celsus is concerned with `sedes' of parts of the [body; and especially their relative position. Thus, such terms as `incipiunt', `fertur', and `descendens' are used, 3. And the description is practical, stressing colour, the ureters being `albae', 10; or texture, the lung being `spongiosus', 4. Nomenclature features: `nominant', 3; `Graeci vocant', 10. Celsus (like many others, including the author of Ep. 23) includes the head, 2; before describing the parallel `itinera' of `aspera arteria' to lung and of `stomachus' to `ventriculus', 3. Lung, heart, and diaphragm are briefly mentioned, 4; then liver, gall-bladder, spleen, kidneys, 5. From this outline of the `viscerum ... sedes', Celsus goes on to the digestive process and the different parts from oesophagus and stomach, 6, to bowels, 7. The course of the ureters from kidneys to bladder is outlined, 10, and the bladder itself described, 11. One salient difference of content between Ceisus and the writer of Anat. (but a feature in common with Ep. 23) is that he pays attention to differences in male and female anatomical layout: differences in bladder, 11, are mentioned before a description of womb and reproductive system, 12-13. Several phrases in Celsus are close enough to phrases in Anat. to qualify as translation or at least paraphrase. The most striking parallels in phraseology are these: `constat ex circuit's quibusdam' (of

trachea: note metaphor, toned down by `quibusdam' and correspondence `circulus' ~ [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `is spongiosus' (of lung: note the initial pronoun); `in sinus vehementer implicitum' (of intestine: note correspondence `sinus' ~ [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); `vesica... nervosa' (of bladder).

Rufus aims at a correct account of anatomical terminology, rather than at the consecutive description seen in Celsus, The closest parallels to Anat. in expression are these: lung colour is [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the spleen resembles a footprint, and the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is used. Pollux provides no independent evidence and was probably utilizing Rufus directly in compiling the medical section of his great lexicon. In the case of Hsch., several glosses suggest familiarity with Anat., or at least with a work or works employing similar diction: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are glossed. There is, then, some reason to suppose that Celsus and Rufus, as well as later lexicographers, knew Anat.; but none to confirm that it was then regarded as Hippocratic.

II. Anat. and the HC: content

There is no parallel in the HC for the narrowly anatomical content of Anat., with its exclusion of physiology and pathology. Elsewhere, attempts at anatomy are incorporated in general schemes (Loc.Hom.), or are allied with theory (Carn.) or address physical function (Cord., Oss.) or are embedded in discussion of treatment (Epid., Artic, Fract., Mochl.). But how, and indeed whether, the work continued is unknown; and the similar precision of Oss. 1 and Loc. Hom. 6, which list bones, gives way to more elaborate and leisurely expression. The titles of treatises often give little clue to their actual content: the author of Cam., a work primarily on the viscera, refers to his own earlier work on the vessels, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Carn. 5; and promises future work on the essential character of the human constitution, based on the number seven, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Carn. fin. The work itself deals in a wide-ranging way with the formation of lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys; also flesh, limbs, nails, teeth, hair, and the senses hearing, smell, sight, and speech. Mochl. begins [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Oss., with implied comparative anatomy, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] But overall, the subject of Oss. is not bones at all, but vessels.

The nature of many Hippocratic treatises raises fundamental questions of authorship: they may have been the common property of a professional group, pooling ideas and information in an age innocent of concepts of plagiarism and publication, though not immune from professional rivalries. Oss. is a composite text, stitched together from heterogeneous and even inconsistent elements and some of its content is identical with passages in Epid. 2.(32) The treatise is an amalgam of bits, some of which are replicated elsewhere: Oss. 8 = Arist. H.A. 3.3, where Aristotle gives his source as Syennesis of Cyprus; Oss. 9 = Nat. Hom. 11; Oss. 4-7 and Oss. 10 = Epid. 2.4.1. The last part of Oss. has been identified with the treatise on vessels mentioned by Galen as an appendage to Mochl., [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Galen 19.128 K. However, it is likely that the first person throughout represents the same editorial voice. In Epid. also there are repetitions and other elements which make unity of authorship highly unlikely and suggest a process of redaction and compilation: either editorial activity carried out by a single author or case notes from different hands, recording impressions of different doctors. Mochl. is a summary of Artic. and Fract., carefully executed and often keeping the original expression. Another common element is the presence of disagreement (as Anat. 10, on terminology) or polemic: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Fract. 3; cf. also polemic against Herodikos, Epid 6.3.18. It is in this scheme that Anat. has some place. Anat. has affinities of content particularly with Oss. (and confirms the relationship between Oss. and Epid. 2); also with Epid. 6: see on 3, 4, 5, and especially on 9 (liver and diaphragm), and 10 (intestines).

Anat. comprises a description of the internal configuration of the human trunk. The precision is exemplary. The continuous schematic arrangement is evident in the repeated [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]--six times, four with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], one with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and one alone; or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] --twice, one with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and one alone). It is precise in its stress on start and finish ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); on situation, orientation, and extent ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); on size, shape, and colour; and particularly on relative position in the body--top, bottom, front, back, right, left, or middle--cf. proximal, distal, anterior, posterior, etc. ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). The treatise records organs and viscera, i.e. in Greek terms [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Flesh, bones, and cords are not mentioned at all, and vessels are mentioned only incidentally, as links. The author is writing a comparative study, expounding human anatomy by reference to the anatomy of mammals in general, with which he takes his readers to be familiar: see on 1, 3, 4, 5, and 10. Simply, he is following the procedure recommended by Aristotle (H.A. 1.16.494621-4): in the absence of dissection, it is necessary to refer to animals similar to man to understand human anatomy. Aristotle examined many different mammals (e.g. hare, doer, mouse, hyena, ass, leopard, weasel, all listed EA. 667a; seal and ox, ibid., 671b) and Herophilos still depended largely on comparative anatomy, despite the availability to him of humans (von Staden, 1989, 182-3). Other Hippocratic authors refer to animals, either in general, as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Carn. 1; and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], with reference to two halves of the brain, Morb. Sacr. 6; or with reference to particular animals: the ox (thighbone), Artic. 8; the pig (lung), Cord. 2; the dog (intestines), Epid. 6.4.6 and Oss. 1; cf. also Demokritos' study of dog and pig embryology, DK 68 A 151 = Ael. N.A. 12.16 (cf. Nat. Pue. 31) and the vignette of Demokritos at home, surrounded by heaps of animal carcasses, which he is laying out and dissecting in order to examine their [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], with a view to assessing the significance of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ep. 17.

It may be supposed that Anat. belongs to a period when dissection was not practised on human cadavers, a period when knowledge was gleaned from observation of butchered sacrificial victims (of which the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] were particularly familiar) and from animal dissection; and that knowledge of the interior of the human body would depend on chance supplementary findings from observation of injuries to citizens on the battlefield (cf. V..C) or to slaves in industrial accidents, such as must have occurred in mills and mines. That dissection of human cadavers was not practised in mainland Greece in the fifth and fourth centuries has been cogently argued often enough; but perhaps classical scholars make insufficient allowance for medical curiosity.(33) Examination of aborted foetuses or stillborn infants might have been relatively easy (cf. on 3); and conventions obtaining in such semi-barbarous regions as Thrace may have differed from those of Athens. Certainly many intellectuals, including Herodotos and Demokritos, travelled to Egypt, where they had opportunities to observe the anatomical procedures involved in mummification (cf. Hdt. 2.86). Theoretical modification too might obtrude (cf. view of the heart, 3).

Although Anat. is remarkably free from explicit theoretical comment or doctrinal content, some views which are implicit can be extracted. From the pathway postulated trachea-lung-kidneys-bladder, it seems that the writer believes that some fluid enters the body via the trachea. This view is explicitly and forcefully expounded by the author of Cord, and supposedly corroborated by an experiment which involves dissecting a pig, after giving it coloured fluid to drink (Cord 2). The author of Oss: init. shares this view: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Oss. 2; though a somewhat different (or perhaps merely more detailed) route is postulated in the drink-kidneys --bladder sequence which follows, Oss. 4; similarly drink, air, and blood all pass through the lung, Oss. 13. The expression of Oss. 2 is close to that of Anat. 5; and the postulated route of fluids is the same. The belief that fluid could enter the body via the trachea seems to be implied in the medical orthodoxy regarding treatments for lung disorders (among the most common of all Hippocratic ailments and ranging from mild infections of the respiratory tract to pneumonia): warm drinks are recommended to render the lung moist and so to dislodge pus, Morb. 3.16; drink is required to moisten the lung and encourage expectoration, Morb. 1.28; liquid medicine is to be administered to clear pus when the lung dries out, Aff. 9; trouble ensues if the lung dries up [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Loc.Hom. 26. (And the medical view was generally known: Alcaeus frg. 94; Euripides frg. 983 N.) But the matter was controversial: it is disputed by Aristotle (P.A. 664b) and with an emphatic introductory verb [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], argued that fluids pass not to the lung but to the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Morb. 4.56.(34) The parallel working of bladder and belly is similarly presented elsewhere, in the HC and in other medical writers: e.g. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] parallel Morb. 4.38 and Acut. Sp.15; [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] parallel Mul. 1.34 al.; [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] parallel Carn. 3; [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] de Arte 10; also [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Anon. Lend. 24.18-20 and the necessary parts [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Arist. P.A. 655b and 664a.

Despite the broad accuracy and precision of the work, it displays only the most rudimentary knowledge of the body's workings.(35) The descriptions of the regions between heart and liver, liver and kidneys are just that, descriptions; and there is no indication whatsoever that the importance of heart and liver is recognized. There is no justification for imputing to the author the perception that the heart has a peculiarly important place as centre of the vascular system; see on 3. Despite detailed reference to the lobes of the lung and of the liver (the latter somewhat confused), there is nothing on the chambers of the heart and no awareness of the heart's complex structure. Similarly, the statement that the liver is [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may, but need not, imply a view of the liver as producer of blood for the rest: of the body; and the interpretation of the vessel which `nurtures' the body is problematical. The reference to the belly as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] takes a primitive view of the digestive process, reminiscent of Empedokles; and the adjective applied to the liver, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `blood-suffused', has an Empedoklean analogue also.

Sometimes, the writer of Anat. seems to be at a loss or mistaken: see on 2, 4, 9. These lapses might result from misunderstanding of a technical source by a writer or excerptor without technical knowledge or from hastily and carelessly executed summary. Compression seems to lead to unclear exposition and even to the elision of essentials: see on 9 and 10, where the parallel versions of Oss., in conjunction with Epid. 2 and Epid. 6, help to elucidate the sense. The consistent use of the third person may imply that the writer is not himself a medical expert, or is distancing himself from other practitioners; the first person is used only once and introduces an error: see on 9. Treatises evidently written by practitioners tend to use the first-person plural in giving nomenclature for anatomical or diagnostic terms (V.M. 19 of yellow bile; Cam. 17 of the tunic of the eye, cf. 2); whereas more rhetorical treatises tend to use the third person (de Arte 10 of muscle). But there is a wide range from firm to tentative expression and the common use of the passive militates against generalization: veins are described, as Anat. 3, in such expressions as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Loc. Hom. 3.5.

There is nothing in the content to suggest any knowledge of the advances made in Alexandria; and nothing to suggest familiarity even with Aristotelian biology. In particular, the ignorance of the structure and function of the heart suggests a date before the research activities of the Lyceum.

III. Anat. and the HC: expression

The vocabulary of Anat. has many unusual features, which, like the content, show affinities with Oss. A common concentration of anatomical terms in anatomical works has no implications for direct connections, far less for common authorship or shared school of thought. However, the use of different terms for the same parts of the body can be significant; and it is noteable that the author of Anat. shares a preference for [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with the writer of Oss. fin. (ten instances 11-19: 12, 13, 14, 15, 16; five instances 18), as opposed to the writer of Oss. init., who like the author of Mochl. and Artic. uses [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (nine instances 1- 10; three instances 1, 3; two instances 7; two instances 9, I0). tn general usage, there are further parallels with Oss. and with Epid. 2 and 6: see especially on 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10. Such coincidences in general medical terms and in non-technical vocabulary become cumulatively significant, especially when these are allied with common ground in doctrinal content. On the basis of this analysis, Anat. can be firmly aligned with Oss, and with certain parts of Epidemics; also to some extent with Mochl. and with Carn. Clearly the author sought out a recondite vocabulary; and it is in the nature of this that many words are not commonly found elsewhere. In some instances, the parallel usage is entirely from verse; [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `last' is common but exclusively poetic and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is epic.

The poetic texture is reinforced by the use of simile (see on 9) and figurative language ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); these devices are, however, typical of anatomical writing in general. There are runs of dactylic rhythm ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with synizesis, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and some attempt seems to be made to end sentences with spondees, molossi, or still longer sequences of long syllables [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). These are all features of early prose style, influenced by epic patterns of expression; and in material of this kind the rhythm (like the stress on counting--lobes of lung, gates of liver, six key parts--and on naming--`they call') might originally have served as an aide-memoire. Another feature of the stylistic register belonging to early prose style is the use of abstract noun plus verb [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], in preference to a verb of the same root.

While the vocabulary is recondite, the syntax is uncontrived, with compound rather than complex sentences. Such loosely connected writing is typical of early prose. Connection is simple ([Delta] [Epsilon] and kai) after asyndeton in the first sentence. Like Mochl., the terse summary Oss. init, and the compressed annotations of Epid., it eschews words which are semantically otiose, such as the definite article and the verb `to be'. The general, apparently arbitrary, omission of the article in Anat. is remarkable: it is usually omitted with such adjectives as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and, most obviously, in the case of the bodily parts.(36) This characterizes summaries, but is a common feature also of the aphoristic style affected by Herakleitos; and is seen also in certain Hippocratic texts, such as Alim. Similarly the compendious comparisons recurrent in the text characterize both terse and poetic writing style, Anat. is bald, yet still stylistically arresting.

Resemblances with Demokritos are explored in the next section. However, there are certain resemblances too with other pre-Socratics: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are certainly used by Empedokles; as are [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] by Parmenides (both in the same fragment, DK 28 B 8, lines 43 and 5 = Simp. In Ph. 144.29); and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] by many writers on scientific subjects. However, these may be chance findings. Caution may be induced by the reflection that two of the more colourful, and apparently recondite, anatomical terms of Anat. occur in Euripides: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (El. 837) and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (El. 492 and Tro. 117). Euripides shows some precision in anatomical knowledge; the first datable use of the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Ion 1011. As in the case of content, nothing in language is incompatible with an early date, and the stylistic register is that of early prose.

IV. The Demokritean dimension

An affinity of Anat. with the work of Demokritos of Abdera(37) was long ago noted.(38) Strong, and relatively early, traditions linked Demokritos with Hippocrates: Celsus described Hippocrates as `pupil' of Demokritos (Proem 8; there are similar accounts in the later Vitae of Soranos, Tzetzes, and Suda). Demokritos was a most prolific writer on a great range of scientific subjects. Many of his works have titles similar to those of Hippocratic treatises: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].(39) He was much revered in later antiquity. But there are pressing problems of authenticity: many citations are not of Demokritos but of Demokrates, and there were allegedly early forgeries, detected by Kallimachos.(40) The extant fragments indicate that the style of Demokritos was sometimes functional, sometimes elaborate, but certain recurrent distinctive features can be isolated: a liking for compound words and compound verbs, and a tendency to poetic idiom with neologisms.(41) Certain catchwords recurrent in the citations suggest that he was a natural target for imitation, forgery, and pastiche. The key idea of `similarity', expressed in the root [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], may be seen as peculiarly Demokritean. In addition to treatises on the subject [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (`on different dispositions' and `on changing dispositions' DK 68 B 8a and 139; cf. also Ep. 18 fin.), there are incidental references in many fragments--which cannot all be inventions of forgers or of writers of pastiche---to the terms [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (DK 68 B 197 = Stob. 3.4.70), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (B 33 = Clem. Strom. 4.151 = Stob. 2.31.65), and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (B7 = Sext. 7.137). That [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is pervasive in his physical system may be seen in the argument that colour arises from elements mixed [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] DK 68 A 125 = Aet. 1.15.8). Demokritos does seem to have been preoccupied with the idea of form, and especially of sameness in form; cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], DK 68 A 128 = Aet. 4.19.13 and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] A 135 = Thphr. de sens. 50; also [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] A 61 = Simp. in cael. 569, cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] A 37 = Simp. ibid. 294; and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] B 164 = S.E.M. 7.116; note too his view that the [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of man is recognizable [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] B 165 = Arist. PA 640b.42 (See also on 2, 3, and 4 for Demokritean usage.)

Supposed relations between Hippocrates and Demokritos are described in the Hippocratic letter.(43) The letters fall into three distinct groups: 1 0-17, 18- 21 and 22-4. Ep. 23, the Demokritean letter to Hippocrates [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is particularly relevant to this discussion; but there is much of significance also in 10-17, in 18, and in 20. In Epp. 10-17, the main voice is that of Hippocrates, called to Abdera to treat the supposedly mad Demokritos. There are several comments on [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `the richness of nature', and the letter ends with the designation of Demokritos as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `tracking down and considering the true nature of man'.

Epp. 18-21, which purport to be an exchange between Demokritos and Hippocrates (18 from Demokritos; the others from Hippocrates) seem to have been composed for the express purpose of displaying knowledge of the corpora of these two writers. In Ep. 18 the expression [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is followed up by clear reference to the titles of works by Demokritos.(44) This letter ends with a positive concatenation of Demokritean vocabulary, in the recommendation that the doctor should consider [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Ep. 19 (general statements on madness), Ep. 20 (on the place of chance in medicine), and Ep. 21 (on the use of hellebore) have elements demonstrably lifted from the HC, with some misunderstandings and additions imported by the excerptor;(45) and doubtless Demokritean elements are similarly present throughout 18.

Epp. 22-4 have a different manuscript tradition from the other letters.(46) The content is somewhat mixed: in Ep. 22 Hippocrates writes to his son Thessalos, urging the study of mathematics on the grounds that it is closely allied with medicine; Ep. 23 is the Demokritean letter which concerns us here; in 24 Hippocrates writes to King Demetrios, recommending ways to maintain health. Ep. 24 is prefaced by the statement [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (It has been supposed that this is a reference to Ep. 23. This seems unlikely, as Ep. 23, the odd one out in this rather ragged sequence, is Demokritean. It may be rather that Anat., which has strong affinities in content and expression with Ep. 23, was known and referred to by the author of Ep. 24, who believed the work to be Hippocratic.)

The preamble of Ep. 23, leading in to the anatomical discourse, is regarded by Smith as detachable.(47) This preamble justifies the study of medicine by all, on the grounds that bodily malaise affects mental function. The proem is taken to be Demokritean in the second to third centuries A.D.: the words of the letter [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are reiterated in [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] DK 68 B 31 = Clem. Paed. 1.6, conceivably an independent source drawing not on the letter but on a work of Demokritos, the source also of the letter; the connection with Ep. 23 is noted DK ad loc.). There are some striking similarities in phraseology between this letter and Anat.: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (of the faculty of sight) ~ [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (of the heart), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (of the chin) ~ [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chest), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ~ [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (similar expressions of intestines), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (both of bladder). Similarities in spirit are even more striking. It is particularly remarkable that the nuances of the concepts [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are parallel, and allied with the pervasive concept of order in or aptness to bodily function, and to the craft in design of the living organism. There is even a parallel change in use of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. At the beginning of the anatomical description, we find [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (same sense as Anat. 7); and at the end [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (same sense as Anat. 12). (In the latter passage, Ermerins reads [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], linking this genitive with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: this attractive emendation tones down but does not alter the abstract sense of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].) There is in Ep. 23 much stress on the notion that the organs are fashioned or marshalled by `nature' to serve [the nature of] the body; [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (sex organs) and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (stomach and intestines), until death ends their service; cf. here [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In the letter the nouns [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the verb [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and the expressions of the bodily parts [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hair), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (trachea and oesophagus), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chin) are more elaborate than, but similar in spirit to, Anat. 7 and 12. These ideas accord well with known Demokritean views of man `governed' by divinity, the two being microcosm and macrocosm, as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and of origins in general as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] where [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] play a part (DK 68 B 34 = David Prol. 38.14 and A 38 = Simp. In Ph. 28.15).

However, with these similarities in phraseology and spirit, there are fundamental divergences. The overall tenor is completely different: the letter is mannered and pompous, whereas Anat., despite its poetic touches, is spare and functional. There are differences too in attitude to bodily function, and in anatomical sophistication. In the letter, the organs are the seat of the emotions (the heart of anger, the liver of desire). The letter is full of theoretical notions, whereas Anat. is practical and descriptive. Furthermore, whereas the anatomy of Anat. is primitive, and Contains no elements which suggest a post-classical date (though, unlike the letter, Anat. gives such precise details as the number of lobes in lungs and liver), that of Ep. 23 displays insights which seem to follow the work of Herophilos and Erasistratos. These are listed by Smith as: the comment on the uselessness of the spleen; the description of the bladder, woven from vessels; the concept that swallowing is accompanied by a shove; the insight that the brain directs the limbs via the nerves.(48) To these may be added: it is [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], not drink, which enters by the trachea; the term lungs, not sg. lung, is used; the heart is not `round', but `conical' and in general there is attention to and some understanding of, function.

The two texts, Ep. 23 and Anat., are related in a complex fashion. The most plausible hypothesis is that both are derived, directly or indirectly, from the same Demokritean text, but by writers with entirely different purposes. That there are Demokritean elements in Anat. is assured. But Demokritean need not mean `by Demokritos'. Nothing militates against the supposition that this is an excerpt of a genuine work by Demokritos; but it might be a pre-Alexandrian forgery (to be linked with those allegedly detected by Callimachus), or a later pastiche (to be linked with the epistolary tradition). However, the theory of guileless abridgement seems more probable. As the comparative anatomy which features so prominently in Anat. belongs not with Ep. 23 (though cf. the presentation of Demokritos in Ep. 18) but With Oss. and Epid. 2, it may be supposed that the writer is adapting more than one text. The doctor(s) involved in the writing or compilation of Epid. 2, 4 and 6 practised at Abdera, Ainos, and other such northern centres. The common elements in expression between these, Oss., Anat., and the works of Demokritos is some indication of interaction between Hippocratics and Demokriteans in fifth-century Thrace; and between their later imitators. This can only be glimpsed, hardly reconstructed.(49)

V. Conclusion

This extraordinary little piece has found its way into the HC by accident. It is an unoriginal and uncritical summary of earlier anatomical works, incorporating Demokritean material. There is a nexus of related Hippocratic texts, most notably Oss. The date of the anonymous redactor is indeterminate, but may be as early as the fourth century. The treatise is a unique testimonial to the nature and extent of ancient anatomical knowlege, and an important document linking the lost Demokritean corpus with certain Hippocratic texts.

(1) Appreciative thanks are due to the director and trustees of the Wellcome Trust for the award of a research leave fellowship which released me from arduous teaching duties at the University of St Andrews to pursue work on the Hippocratic treatise Places in Man (ed., tr., and comm., forthcoming, Oxford University Press). This paper is a parergon of that work. I am most grateful to Professor Vivian Nutton (WIHM and University College London), who first drew On Anatomy to my attention and who commented most helpfully on drafts of this paper at successive stages, I am grateful also to Mr James Longrigg (University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne) for advice on the pre-Socratic background, to Sir Kenneth Dover (St Andrews) for comments on the `style' of the piece, and to Professor Jacques Jouanna (Sorbonne) for invaluable aid in checking and communicating the readings of the ms V. Assistance of a different but equally important kind was afforded by those who answered my countless (doubtless often silly) anatomical questions with great good sense and good humour, especially Dr Donald Coid, whose copy of Gray's Anatomy has now become even more thumbed and tattered; Dr Ann Dally, who introduced me to the ways of Wimpole Street; and Dr Susan Whiten, who, with Mr Robin Clark, gave me an unforgettable and highly instructive tour of visual aids in the Department of Anatomy at St Andrews. Without the encouragement and support of all these friends, I should never have completed this paper. In the final stages, it was improved by the comments of the referee (anonymous) and the editors (Stephen Heyworth and Christopher Collard) of CQ. For any remaining errors or misapprehensions, I am alone responsible.

(2) A Bude text by M.-P. Duminil is promised.

(3) See Greenhill (1864-6), Irigoin (1980).

(4) Ibycus, TLG: Aretaeus, Aetius, Galen, and Oribasius.

(5) Maladies of the lung and respiratory tract occupy much space in the HC: see especially Int. init. and Loc. Hom. 14.

(6) Following van der Linden, Triller emends the two occurrences of [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. However, this is unnecessary, as the difference between [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]- words (from [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `one and the same') and [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]- words (from [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], `like', `resembling') is not always strictly maintained; except that whereas [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]- words can mean `similar', [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]- words cannot mean `the same'. Thus [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (close in nuance to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] here) can mean either `of like form' or `uniform'; and coexists with [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which must mean `of like form'. In our passage, no instance of [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] imperatively demands the sense of sameness rather than similarity; and only one (the case of the spleen) demands the sense of similarity rather than sameness. The Greek is ambiguous, but reference to comparative anatomy (`rings like [those in other animals]') is more probable than to `a series of rings'; see further below.

(7) Ibycus, TLG: 46 occurrences, most Hellenistic or later, but found in Hesiod, Aischylos and Plato.

(8) Hence Triller tr. `coadimplet', following Cornarius in preference to Foesius' `implet'.

(9) [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a common verb of orientation in the body, not only of bodily parts; but also of disease, pain, bile, phlegm, etc.

(10) As Foesius translated `notis cavernosis compunctus', it seems that he finally elected to emend with a word meaning `cavernous', perhaps [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(11) The verb [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is common in post-classical, especially ecclesiastical, writers (Ibycus, TLG: 47 occurrences, headed by 7 in Nicephorus Gregoras); but there are good fifth-century antecedents. Euripides uses it of establishing a cult image, [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], I.T. 978 and employs [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with similar nuance, I.T. 1481; cf. also Ba. 1339.

(12) So earlier editors; but Smith (1990) corrects to [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(13) For the compound verb, there is a parallel in a Demokritean citation, with regard to dream images `deeply penetrating' the body [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], DK 68 A 77 = Plu. Mor. 734f.

(14) But several other identifications have been canvassed: 1. (i) = ducts and (ii) = vena cava. The [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Of the mss is taken by LSJ to be an imaginary system of ducts connecting the heart with the liver; similarly Littre translates `beaucoup de tuyaux'. Harris (1973), pp. 82-3 is impressed by the contrast between [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the great vein; and translates `many a bronchia [= artery?]' finding here `a double system of blood vessels centred on the heart, with veins and arteries clearly distinguished'. But the trouble with this is that even if [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may represent a plurality, [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) does not; and it is hard to extract a `system' from a tube; also the vessels are not `centred on' the heart, but merely leading from it. In short, a distinction between veins and arteries cannot be read into this bald text.

2. (i) = vena cave and (ii) = aorta. Objection: aorta is rarely described as [GREEK WORD NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], though for this designation, cf. Carn. 5.2, quoted above.

3. (i) = vena cava and (ii) = portal vein. Triller compares Aristotle's [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and, while admitting that vena cava is usually that called [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] argues that [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (`spatiosam, amplam, maximam') may here be a substituted descriptive term.

4. (i) = (ii), both refer to vena cava, with emendation of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (adj., `deep'). This is the emendation of Caspar Hoffman adopted by van der Linden (see apparatus). Objection: Greek is awkward, and anyway there is no real need to emend.

5. (i) = vena hepatica and (ii) = vena cava inferior. Ermerins (taking his starting point from van der Linden, who however restricted the reference to a single deep vein, the great vein) reads [is less than][Eta][is greater than] [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and supposes the reference is to two veins, the vena hepatica and the cava inferior.

Interpretations 3, 4, 5 seem open to the fundamental objection that the location is too low in the body to be right; 2 is terminologically awkward; 1 presses the Greek into excessively advanced anatomical knowledge.

(15) It occurs many times in Ti. Locr., a precis of Pl. Ti. preserved in some Platonic mss, apparently (so Taylor ed., 1928) in an attempt to give a superficial Pythagorean colouring to the work. It becomes extremely common in post-classical Greek, for instance in Eusebius (Ibycus, TLG).

(16) Triller's interpretation (above n. 14.3) has some such rationale: the umbilical vein by which `revera infantis corpusculum nutritur' could readily be associated with the portal vein. However, Triller does not totally exclude the vena cava in this connection; and the latter is rendered likely by the fact that the course of blood from placenta is through umbilical vein to ductus venosus to inferior vena cava; before, at birth, the ductus venosus collapses with the collapse of the umbilical vein; see C. W. F. Burnett, The Anatomy and Physiology of Obstetrics (London, 1953), pp. 129-34. It is not impossible that there was some observation of this if the aborted foetus was examined (though observation of the ductus venosus is not recorded until the sixteenth century).

(17) Triller's emendation [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `to all other livers' is made on the grounds that the human liver, though resembling that of some animals, such as cow and sheep, is not like that of all other creatures; but this objection seems to be met by the qualification in the second part of the sentence.

(18) Triller, keeping [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], argues that the phrase does not relate to location at all, either of the organ or of its gates, but to function: in his view [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] means not `dexter' but `receptorius, acceptorius', from root [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and describes the place which receives `succum chylosum' and puts it in the receptacle of the liver. There is some slight support for this ingenious idea from Hsch. s.v. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; and perhaps from Hsch. attribution to Demokritos of usage of the verb to describe blood vessels [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] DK 68 B 135. However, Triller's interpretation is to be rejected for these reasons: [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is so familiar in other senses, [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] clearly suggests a definite location in the body (cf. title of Loc. Hom.); and the writer of this treatise is concerned throughout with description, not with function.

(19) Triller regards this vessel as the descending vena cava ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Galen de ven. et art. diss.); but a vessel other than the `great' one, argued above to be the vena cava, seems intended.

(20) There is some usage of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Aristotle and Plato and much in later Greek; it is favoured by Joannes Chrysostom, Galen, Eusebius, and Simplicius (Ibycus, TLG).

(21) The interpretation is commended by A. von Hailer, Bibliotheca Anatomica (Zurich, 1774-7), vol. 1, p. 20. Triller's emendation of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is not necessary; though it would render the animal sense certain rather than probable.

(22) Triller punctuates [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], tr. `vesica quae nervosa, constrictiva est et expansiva'. There is some force in his assertion that `res ... ipsa id postulat'; but the parallels for this extraordinary meaning attributed to [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are not altogether convincing: Hsch. glosses s.v. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and scholiast Ar. Ran. 1067 [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] associated with [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], viz. `coarctare, complicate, in angustum cogere'.

(23) Earlier emendations (see apparatus) may be briefly considered: the interpretation of Triller (with reference to the sphincter, tr. `The constriction of the bladder is deep within') involves a level of detail out of keeping with the rest of the treatise; that of Littre (tr. `From a distance is the working of the bladder for the purpose for which it exists') involves obscure sense and unidiomatic expression; that of Ermerins (tr. `From the bladder there is a channel outside') gives good sense, but is very distant from the mss. (Triller emends on the basis of Galen's gloss [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and interprets on the basis of the Suda [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]--i.e. `ambitus, circulus, orbiculus', commenting, `in ima vesicae parte sire cervice, orbiculus quidam, sire orbicularis est ambiens quidam musculus a natura formata est'.)

(24) On such lists, and their possible importance as a source for Hebd, see Mansfeld (1971), pp. 197-202.

(25) The derivation is doubtless (Irigoin, 1980) from [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] + [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], i.e. `transporting what is eaten'.

(26) In the HC, the term [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is applied also to the mouth of the womb. Only later, as in NT Soranus, and Galen, did the word take over as `stomach', a sense firmly fixed in Latin and hence modern European languages.

(27) Triller's emendation [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], tr. `cicatricatus' or `rugis incisus' imports a needlessly explicit reference to this aspect.

(28) Reference to the length of the intestine was a common element in lists of the seven organs transporting food and breath; see Mansfeld (1971), p. 197.

(29) Pollux finds an etymological link, involving digestive suffering, 2.209; for other fanciful etymologies based on an original meaning [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] `food' for [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], see Ath. 262a.

(30) Even in the Pneumatic school of medicine, influenced by Posidonius and the Stoics, the seven [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the seven [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] were defined in various ways; see Mansfeld (1971).

(31) On the tradition, see Smith (1979) and yon Staden (1989); on terminology see Lloyd (1983) and Skoda (1988).

(32) This was already noted by Littre; see now Duminil (1980) for analysis of structure and content.

(33) See Edelstein (1932, tr. 1967; but Edelstein suggests in a cryptic footnote that Demokritos may have been an exception and this notion has a bearing on Anat.), Lloyd (1975), Longrigg (1993).

(34) See Lonie (1981), pp. 361 sqq.

(35) Triller's commentary constantly superimposes his own knowledge on the text.

(36) Comparison of usage in Mochl. shows that in paraphrasing Artic., the author often repeats the base text almost verbatim while omitting such otiose words as the definite article: e.g. Mochl. 8 ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] without article) ~ Artic 18 ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with article). But it is omitted in both model and precis, Mochl. 12 ~ Artic. 22; and in Fract. 4 [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is followed in the next section by [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Similarly, in the compressed annotations of Epid., [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is commonly used without the article (6.1, 4.19); cf. also [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Oss. 1 and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Oss. 5.

(37) This was a highly prosperous region, with an important trade in grain: evidently it had its own cultural as well as economic vitality; but of this little direct evidence survives. Like Demokritos,, the `sophist' Protagoras came from Abdera. (Demokritos is never described as a sophist, though in many respects his intellectual activity corresponds to that typical in the sophistic movement. For some reason, ho did not interest Plato.)

(38) See already Triller (1766), p. 258, who regarded the author as `aut ipsum Democritum aut allium Abderitum philosophum'; echoed more sceptically by Ermerins (1864), Prolegomena to Anat., XLII, finding a sophistic attempt `Democriti personam induere'.

(39) Cf. also the descriptions of Demokritos searching out [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Ep. 17, as an interpreter of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Ep. 20, and as the writer of [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Ep. 23. There are some seventy titles, according to Diogenes Laertius, DK 68 A 33 = D.L. 9.45-49; but on the sources of D.L. see the sceptical remarks of W. K. C. Guthrie, History of Greek Philosophy (Cambridge, 1965), vol. II, p. 388, n. 1.

(40) See RE s.v. Bolos of Mende on later attempts to lend respectability to spurious writings by arrogating the name of Demokritos; cf. especially Plu. Sympos. 641b.

(41) Roman critics admired Demokritos' style, finding it poetic. Cicero describes him as `ornate locutus' (DK 68 A 34 = Cic. de orat. 1.11.49). There is considerable evidence that he affected an arcane vocabulary: Kallimachos compiled a [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Hegesianax wrote a work [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(42) Perhaps this preoccupation of Demokritos in some degree anticipates the Aristotelian atempt to distinguish parts of the body as [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the latter being such as hand, face which do not by division become two of the same thing, HA 1.1 init. But we need not look beyond the HC to find similar ideas in circulation; cf. [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Loc. Hom. 1 (of the organic unity of the body), [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Vict. 1.6 and [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Nat. Hom. 3. Rather, the abstract principle of sameness and difference, with respect to shape and colour, is here given pragmatic implementation in study of the colour and shape of the bodily organs.

(43) On the letters, see Smith (1990), edition with translation and commentary, especially pp. 102-5 on Ep. 23; see also Littre IX.392; DK 68 C 6; Temkin (1985).

(44) See Smith (1990), p. 93, n. 1

(45) See ibid., p. 95, n. 1 and p. 99, n. 1.

(46) Ibid., p. 42.

(47) The author `borrowed the anatomy and composed the proem'; cf. 32 `detachable philosophic ... proem'.

(48) Smith (1990), p. 33.

(49) See Jouanna (1992), pp. 48-50 on Hippocrates' connections with North Greece and pp. 36-7 on Hippocrates and Demokritos; also Longrigg (1993), pp. 66-9, 93-7 on Demokritean ideas in the HC.

REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS

V Vatican gr. 276 twelfth century Anat. is preserved in a further six manuscripts, all recentiores and apparently without independent value. See H. Diels, Die Handschriften der antiken Arzte, Teil I (1905), p. 31 and also B. Alexanderson, Die hippokratische Schrift Prognostikon (Goteborg, 1963), pp. 70, 77-8, 110. These are:

Paris 2146 and Paris 2255 = C and E on which Littre relied.

Bologna 3632.

Holkham 282, now in Oxford (by the same hand as Paris 2146).

Munich 71.

Vatican, Palatine 192.

Calvus: Latin translation of Hippocratic writings (1525, preceding Aldine editio princeps of Asolanus, 1526).

Cornarius: ed. and Latin trans. (Basle, 1538).

Foesius: ed. and Latin trans. (Frankfurt, 1595; also Oeconomia, Frankfurt, 1588). van der Linden: ed. and Latin trans. (Leiden, 1665).

Triller: Opuscula Medica vol. 2, 1st edn (Leiden, 1728); and 2nd edn (Leipzig, 1766): medico-philological commentary on Anat., intended as specimen for complete Hippocratic edition.

Littre: ed. and French trans. (Paris, 1839-61; Anat. occupies 8.536-41, published 1853).

Ermerins: ed. and Latin trans. (Utrecht, 1851-64; Anat. occupies 3.287-8, published 1864).

BVD: Black's Veterinary Dictionary (14th edn, 1982). GA: Gray's Anatomy (30th edn, 1949). DK: H. Diels and W. Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (10th edn, 1961). DR: C. Daremberg and E. Ruelle, Oeuvres de Rufus d'Ephese (Paris, 1879). HC: Hippocratic Corpus. Ibycus, TLG: computer search of TLG database. K.: C. G. Kuhn, Claudii Galeni Opera Omnia (Leipzig, 1821-30).

Abbreviations for ancient authors and works (including Hippocratic treatises) follow Liddell-Scott-Jones.

The following modern works are referred to by author's name and date:

M.-R Duminil, `La description des vaisseaux dans les chapitres 11-19 du traite de la Nature des Os', Hippocratica (Paris, 1980), 135-48.

L. Edelstein, `The History of Anatomy in Antiquity', Ancient Medicine: Selected Papers of Ludwig Edelstein, edd. O. and E. L. Temkin (Baltimore, 1967; first German publication, 1932), pp. 247-301.

W. A. Greenhill, `Adversaria Medico-Philologica', British and Foreign Medicochirurgical Review 34-38 (1864-1866).

C. R. S. Harris, The Heart and the Vascular System in Ancient Greek Medicine (Oxford, 1973).

J. Irigoin, `La formation du vocabulaire de l'anatomie en grec: du mycenien aux principaux traites de la collection hippocratique', Hippocratica (Paris, 1980), 247-57.

J. Jouanna, Hippocrate (Paris, 1992).

G. E. R. Lloyd, `The Development of Greek Anatomical Terminology', Science, Folklore and Ideology (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 149-67.

J. Longrigg, Greek Rational Medicine (London, 1993).

I. M. Lonie, The Hippocratic Treatises On Generation, On the Nature of the Child, Diseases IV: A Commentary (Berlin and New York, 1981).

J. Mansfeld, The Pseudo-Hippocratic Tract [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Assen, 1971).

R. B. Onians, The Origins of European Thought (Cambridge, 1952).

F. Skoda, Medecine ancienne et metaphore (Paris, 1988).

W. D. Smith, The Hippocratic Tradition (Ithaca, NY and London, 1979).

W. D. Smith, Hippocrates: Pseudepigraphic Writings (Leiden, 1990).

H. von Staden, Herophilus. The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria (Cambridge, 1989).

O. Temkin, `Hippocrates as the Physician of Democritus', Gesnerus 42 (1985), 455-64.
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Author:Craik, E.M.
Publication:The Classical Quarterly
Date:Jan 1, 1998
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