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The Hemingways and Massachusetts.

I was born in a little white house on the Island of Marthas Vineyard in
the State of Massachuset.
"My First Sea Vogue," Ernest Hemingway, 1911 (qtd. in Baker 12).


While Massachusetts rarely receives significant scrutiny in Hemingway studies, his stay on Nantucket at age eleven shaped his earliest-surviving piece of fiction, a vignette entitled "My First Sea Vogue." He maintained friends and acquaintances from Massachusetts and even had a childhood love interest, Katy Smith, who lived in Provincetown and died in a car accident in Wareham. Her death might have prompted the car crash scene in Islands in the Stream. This article takes a new analytic approach to Hemingway's experiences in the Bay State and aims to flesh out the importance of Massachusetts places, cultures, and events in Hemingway's life before his papers were housed on Dorchester Bay.

Despite being a thousand miles away from Oak Park, Massachusetts had an important cultural significance in the Hemingway home. Ernest's mother, Grace Hall, visited Nantucket in her youth and fondly recalled how the seaside trips allowed her to cultivate a connection to her grandfather, Alexander Hancock, who had been a captain on transoceanic voyages. Grace Hall's fascination with Massachusetts brought certain themes into her children's lives--including travel, literary culture, and oceangoing--that would be central to Ernest Hemingway's development. When the Hemingway and his siblings turned eleven, each traveled with Grace Hall alone for a month-long trip to Nantucket and the Boston area. On these excursions she would develop her own talents as a singer, budding artist and author, and socialize with leading suffragettes and feminists. Grace Hall also visited Massachusetts after the children were grown and began a literary history entitled "Tales of Old Nantucket," complemented by her own illustrations. She gave a lecture on Nantucket in 1937 about travel writing, and in 1940, she spoke before the Illinois Nineteenth Century Club about her work in Massachusetts.

Ernest Hemingway and Grace Hall set off for Massachusetts in late summer 1910, a few months after his eleventh birthday. "Leaving Windemere on August 29th," writes Carlos Baker, the two "went by boat and train to Woods Hole" (11). (1) The village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts appears only once in The Official Guide of the Railways and Steam Navigation Lines of the United States, Porto Rico, Canada, Mexico and Cuba, 42nd Year (September 1910) on a Boston-to-Cape Cod spur line.

The New York Central Lines railway dominated the 1910 direct service from Chicago to Boston. "Chicago and Boston Special" had a "Drawing-room and Compartment Sleeping Car" leaving La Salle Street Station in Chicago daily at 3:00 AM and 8:25 AM (Official Guide of the Railways 280, 279). (2) Ernest noted in a letter that they had eaten breakfast in Chicago before boarding the train, making the 8:25 AM service, arriving South Station at 10:40 AM the next day after the 26-hour journey, a possible departure. He also remarked, "There are only three people in our sleeper" (Letters vol. 1, 9). As their coach arrived in Pullman, Illinois, Ernest wrote to Ruth Arnold, "I will write again when we get to Albany N. Y." (Letters vol. 1, 9).

In 1910 as well as today, direct trains from the Midwest to Boston bypass New York via Albany, entering Boston proper from the west. This detail indicates that, if Grace Hall and Ernest stayed inside South Station during their layover waiting for the Woods Hole train, Hemingway would have seen the ocean for the first time on the train enroute to Woods Hole. More specifically, the first time the sea would be visible was to the left just after the train cleared the South Station railyard, on the segment of track that precedes what was then Crescent Ave Station (now JFK/UMASS on the Red Line (3) at Dorchester Bay, in sight of where his documents are housed at the JFK Library.

The 1910 Boston-Woods Hole trains connected to steamships to Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket two times daily: the first leaving South Station at 7:05 AM connecting to a ferry departure from Woods Hole at 9:47 AM; after a stop at Oak Bluffs on Marthas Vineyard at 10:20 AM the service arrives on Nantucket at 12:45 PM; and second leaving South Station at 1:38 PM connecting to a ferry departure from Woods Hole at 3:55 PM; after a stop at Oak Bluffs at 4:35 PM, the service arrives on Nantucket 7:00 PM (Figure 10; Official Guide of the Railways 204). Given their morning departure from Chicago on 30 August, they likely arrived at South Station at 10:40 AM on 31 August (Figure 2). After a three-hour layover at South Station, the 1:38 PM service would bring them to Nantucket just after sundown.

The steamship leg from Woods Hole to Nantucket via Martha's Vineyard was Hemingway's first boat ride on the ocean. The ensuing weeks on Nantucket were filled with time on the water--sailing, fishing, and swimming--and the visit also had an important cultural dimension, one that introduced Ernest to the literary history of the area. As his sister Carol recalled of her trip to Massachusetts:
The trip alone with my mother to Nantucket brought more a feeling for
the atmosphere, a sense of history and a look at historic buildings and
those associated with literary personalities. We quickly got into a
routine of reading aloud, rest times, main meals at a respectable
place, and picnic meals in our room. I enjoyed being away from the
formality of the big table at home and I think my mother did too. Her
favorite meal was afternoon tea and we were regulars at a tea room (4)
in the village. We enjoyed walks and books together and had a quiet
time. (Gardner and Buske 28)


Ernest met Austin Strong, grandson of the wife of Robert Louis Stevenson, who had published Seventh Heaven and Three Wise Fools. (Grace Hall would call on Strong on later visits to the island, as well. (5)) Ernest's imagination was stirred by experiences, and he would write this short piece the following April. It is his earliest-known piece of fiction:
Ernest H
MY FIRST SEA VOUGE

I was born in a little white house on the Island of Marthas Vineyard in
the State of Massachuset. My mother died when I was four years old and
my father, a captain of the three masted schooner "Elizabeth" took me
and my little brother around the "Horn" with him to Australia, (qtd.
Baker 12)


After the island adventures, Grace Hall and Ernest returned to Boston and toured some of the historical and literary sites. Hemingway's sister Marceline recalls of her age-eleven visit to Boston:
We saw the Old North Church and climbed about inside it, and Mother
took me to Paul Reveres home. Bunker Hill seemed too small to call a
hill, but Concord and Lexington gave me a thrill as Mother told me
about my Hancock ancestry and we saw the home of the first signer of
the Declaration of Independence, John Hancock. (Sanford 113)


And his sister Carol recalls about her trip:
we went sight-seeing in Boston and Concord and it was historical spots
and architecture she was interested in. I especially remember Louisa
May Alcott's house, since she was one of my heroines. We saw the Old
North Church in Boston, followed Paul Reveres ride. (Gardner and Buske
28)


While the Alcott home did not open to the public until 1912, Ernests visit had a similar circuit of sites. The Hemingway family's tourism is one example of a popular movement of the era, one that fomented patriotism (even for second-generation immigrants, like Grace Hall) in the wake of the US imperial interventions in the Caribbean and Pacific, and the western American continent, much of which was under annex and US martial law. Amidst these colonial initiatives emerged a form of hyper-nationalistic tourism centered in and around Boston. The upsurge in this form of travel was made possible by rail and automobiles and was so popular that several sites on the Hemingway tour had been renovated just before their arrival, including the Paul Revere home (restored in 1908), the North Bridge in Concord (rebuilt in 1909), and the graves of British soldiers at Concord (commemorated in 1910).

Visiting these sites allowed Grace Hall Hemingway and Clarence Hemingway to inculcate their children in the dominant social system, attempting to channel their personal experiences into what they considered appropriate cultural narratives. Perhaps for these reasons reports of the Italian nature of the Boston neighborhoods they visited (around the North Church and Paul Revere home, as well as much of the route to Lexington) or the Portuguese cultures of Nantucket, Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard, and Native American cultures passim, are absent from the Hemingway correspondence. (6) The nature of the Hemingway tourism in Massachusetts, celebrating colonial and postcolonial rather than Native American, African American, migrant, or any non-Anglo-Saxon Protestant figures, was a method for the Hemingways to nationalize their children in specific ways, situating them into "American" narratives that they felt that these Boston sites symbolized. But the rituals were somewhat counterintuitive, as Carol notes: "My mother's parents had both emigrated from England and were real Anglophiles. This attitude passed down to my mother and I grew up feeling that anything English was better that anything American" (Gardner and Buske 23). (7)

Massachusetts in Paris

Massachusetts appears occasionally in Hemingway's letters and short stories from Paris in the 1920s. In "Mr. and Mrs. Elliot," Boston is a point of reference that satirizes Victorian ideals: Mr. Elliot "was twenty-five years old and had never gone to bed with a woman"; their wedding night "in a Boston hotel" left them "both disappointed." They could not produce a child but "tried as often as Mrs. Elliot could stand it. They tried in Boston after they were married and they tried coming over on the boat" (IOT 85). In Paris, they abandon sex and Mr. Elliot moves into a separate room. Mrs. Elliot begins a lesbian relationship with a woman from Boston and Mr. Elliot self-publishes poetry; he is eager that his book appear "in Boston" (IOT 85).

Hemingway claimed that Cambridge native e.e. cumming's The Enormous Room was "the best book published last year [1922]" (SL 105). (8) That year he also wrote an evocative letter to Edward O'Brien, a Boston native, comparing fishermen on George's Bank (9) to bullfighters: "their actual physical conduct gave you a real feeling of admiration like the sealers, and the men off the banks up in your country" (SL 117). Hemingway was in Santiago de Compostela on 23 August 1927 when Nicola Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti, and Celestino Medeiros (an Azorean migrant to New Bedford) (10) were executed in Charlestown State Prison, an event that caused riots in Paris and London. Sacco and Vanzetti's bodies were displayed at Langone's Funeral Home at 383 Hanover Street in the North End, 100 meters from the Revere Home and the North Church (already an Italian district) where Hemingway had visited with his mother; (11) Hemingway notes that "All rioting has been censured out of the Spanish papers" (Letters vol. 3, 274).

1928: Football, Western Mass, and Hobnobbing with the New England Gentry

In 1928, after several years in Europe, Hemingway would return to the US and to the Bay State. Poet Archibald MacLeish, whom Hemingway had met in Paris, had ties to Massachusetts, including a vacation home in the foothills of the Berkshires. Hemingway recalls,
I remember very clearly comeing to the Rue du Bac the first time and
stealing a cork screw which I remember returning.... Did you think I
had forgotten Rue de Bac, juan les Pins, Zaragoza, Chartres, that place
of Peter Hamiltons you lived, our bicycles, Ada and the Six Jours [bike
races], rue Froidevaux, and a million things Gstaad,--don't ask me to
name them all, Bassano and A Pursuit Race. (SL 948) (12)


MacLeish invited Hemingway to Massachusetts in November to visit the rural retreat he had just purchased in the town of Conway, Uphill Farm, (13) and to see a football game at Yale.

Hemingway was hesitant. "Do you really want us to come to Conway?" he writes. As Jeffrey Myers notes, "MacLeish was fortunate in birth, wealth, education, and connections" (74). Son of the president of Rockford College, MacLeish attended Hotchkiss and Yale (where he was a member of the exclusive Skull and Bones social group) before Harvard; during World War II he would be named assistant Secretary of State and assistant director of the Office of War; later he was appointed Librarian of Congress and Boylston Professor of Rhetoric at Harvard. Drinking together in Paris was one thing, visiting an Ivy League campus with one of the landed-gentry--as a Midwesterner with a public high school diploma and no college experience--was another. Hemingway scheduled just an overnight stay: "we leave here [Chicago] Thursday night arrive at MacLeish's direct in Mass. (Conway) leaving train at Greenfield--Spend 2-3 days and go to New Haven to see Dartmouth vs Yale--Then to N.Y." (Letters vol. 3, 471). Hemingway fudges the schedule: departing Chicago Thursday night, they would arrive in Greenfield, Massachusetts, on Friday afternoon or evening; a visit to New Haven the next morning would leave just a few hours in Conway and 12-14 hours with MacLeish. This plan changed when he arrived; Hemingway would spend a week at the farm, including an excursion to Boston to see a Harvard game the following Saturday.

While Hemingway enjoyed the entrapments of an upper-middle-class background with servants and summer homes in Michigan, the elite circles Hemingway would encounter on this visit would have been daunting (MacLeish's friends all were of similar class, wealth, and privilege). After the Yale-Dartmouth game, MacLeish writes to Harry Crosby, "excellent news. I am to be in Boston with Hemingway this week end (Nov. 10). Are you? Lunching Sat. with the Chris. Herters & dining that night with the Curtises (Chas. P. Jr.) [Harvard football] Game in the afternoon. Where if ever will you be? Leave a call either house or call us Sat. morning at H. H. Bundy's 131 Beacon--or 133 or thereabouts" (Letters of Archibald MacLeish 217). (14)

131/3 Beacon Street is in the heart of the Brahmin enclave, just down the street from State Capitol and Boston Common. (15) Aside the score of the game (Harvard lost 7-0 to the University of Pennsylvania) few items document that weekend--and while they remained friends, years later MacLeish was irked when Hemingway omitted him from recollections on Paris in the 1920s.

Hemingway mentions Provincetown, Massachusetts, in The Sun Also Rises, (16) and two of his closest childhood friends lived there when the book was published. (17) Katy Smith (perhaps Hemingway's teenage love and first sexual experience) and her brother Bill were longtime residents of Cape Cod. Katy and Ernest were unusually close: "Ain't I your best friend? Or ain't I? Who's fonder of you than I am anyway?" (Letters vol. 1, 323-25). As Donald Daiker notes, Katy introduced Ernest to his first "wife, and in the short story "Summer People," the character Kate "is Kate Smith" (38). (18) While many critics maintain John Dos Passos met Katy Smith on Key West in 1928, Townsend Ludington has argued that it would make sense if they met "when Dos Passos visited Provincetown [in 1926]" (1). On their Key West encounter, Katy was on her way to Massachusetts from Mexico and, as Ludington argues, their mutual interest in Cape Cod probably fueled their romance. After wedding vows in 1929, they lived at 517 Commercial Street in Provincetown. Katy Smith co-authored two books about Cape Cod with Edith Shay. The first, Down Cape Cod (1936), was a guidebook that had two printings (1936 and 1946). The second was a novel, The Private Adventure of Captain Shaw (1945), about a man from Cape Cod involved in the French Revolution. (19)

On 12 September 1947, the sun set on Cape Cod at 6:59 PM. That evening Dos Passos and Smith were enroute from Provincetown to the Bee & Thistle Inn in Old Lyme, Connecticut. They were to continue to Virginia the next morning. After a stop in Wellfleet to say goodbye to Edith Shay, about an hour later at dusk they were heading west on route 28 in Wareham. Earlier in the trip Katy volunteered to drive but had since fallen asleep. Dos Passos squinted in the glare of the oncoming sun. As the gray Chevrolet Roadster approached Wareham Center, they rounded two curves, and another, and headed almost due west down a slight hill. At a point probably just beyond the intersection of 28 and Charge Pond Road, near 2585 Cranberry Highway, a cranberry truck driven by Joseph P. Ribeiro was parked at an angle on the roadside. The tailgate was down. The police report details what occurred next:
the Chicago-born writer... apparently was blinded by the setting sun
and did not see the truck parked beside Route 28. Mrs. Dos Passos, the
former Katharine F. Smith, was virtually scalped as she was catapulted
through the windshield, and killed instantly. ("Wife of Writer in Motor
Accident" 2)


When Dos Passos regained consciousness his right eye was out of the socket, the horn was blasting, and his wife was sprawled over the hood, the top of her head nearly severed. Ribeiro was thrown from the truckcab but his injuries were minor. (20) Ribeiro, whose parents were from the Azores, checked on Dos Passos, tried to attend to Katy, and summoned for help. The two Portuguese Americans waited for police to arrive aside Katy's lifeless body. Once extracted from the vehicle, Dos Passos inquired about a payphone. Holding his eye in place, he walked east up Cranberry Highway in the darkness to Suddard's Garage (now Wareham Ford) and called Edith Shay. He went with Smith's body by ambulance to Tobey Hospital where she was pronounced dead, a skull fracture and brain laceration. Dos Passos was taken to Boston where Dr. Abraham Pollen removed his eye (Carr and Pizer 455; Ludington 1+).

Hemingway cabled Dos Passos the next day. After a service at their home in Provincetown, Katy was buried behind the Methodist church in Truro. After Dos Passos arranged for the following headstone, he left Massachusetts:

KATHARINE SMITH

BELOVED WIFE OF JOHN DOS PASSOS

MY SWEET MY LOST LOVE ("Cape Cod Gravestones" 1+)

That roadside in Wareham would haunt Hemingway for the rest of his life. "Katy Dos Passos was an old girl of mine," he would write a few days later. "Had known her since she was 8 years old, and Dos drove her into a parked truck and killed her last Sat" (SL 626). (21) His sorrow was such that he could not offer condolences. "When Katy was killed I felt so god-damned awful that I couldn't write Bill anything," he wrote to Marion Smith. "But he knows that I loved Katy almost as much as Bill and Dos did. As much as anybody could without being her brother or her husband" (SL 635). (22)

In Cuba when the telegram arrived, that small slip of paper summoned some of the most poignant sentences of Hemingways career, explored through the lens of Thomas Hudson:
The end of a man's own world does not come as it does in one of the
great paintings Mr. Bobby had outlined. It comes with one of the island
boys bringing a radio message up the road from the local post office
and saying, 'Please sign on the detachable part of the envelope. We're
sorry, Mr. Tom.' He gave the boy a shilling. But the boy looked at it
and put it down on the table. 'I don't care for a tip, Mr. Tom,' the
boy said and went out. He read it. Then he put it in his pocket and
went out the door and sat on the porch by the sea. He took the radio
form out and read it again. YOUR SONS DAVID AND ANDREW KILLED WITH
THEIR MOTHER IN MOTOR ACCIDENT NEAR BIARRITZ ATTENDING TO EVERYTHING
PENDING YOUR ARRIVAL DEEPEST SYMPATHY. (ISS 193)


Massachusetts and the Hemingways

Molly Bang, Junot Diaz, Jack Kerouc, Louisa May Alcott, David Foster Wallace, Ted Murphy, Katherine Lee Bates, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Kurt Vonnegut, Henry David Thoreau, Sebastian Junger, Emily Dickinson, and Herman Melville are all important authors in Massachusetts literary history. (23) Hemingway's experience may have been minor in comparison, but Massachusetts was the setting of his earliest surviving attempt at fiction and perhaps the inspiration of some of his most memorable prose. Longtime Barnstable resident Kurt Vonnegut said of Hemingway: he was "from the Cornbelt.. .so was I. He was from Chicago, I was from Indianapolis. We both set out to be reporters.. .expressed gratitude to Mark Twain, as our literary ancestor" (qtd. in Florczyk 20). They also both abandoned the Midwest for the ocean climes, Hemingway in Cuba and Vonnegut on Cape Cod. Vonnegut said Midwesterners are "Great Lakes people" who have a "freshwater" sensibility. They are a people with "not an oceanic but a continental" worldview (10). Hemingway's transplantation from the Midwest to a coastal environment imbued Massachusetts and places like it with a sense of visceral sharpness--and Hemingway spent his life cultivating that contrast, a sensation he first experienced in Massachusetts.

NOTES

(1.) September 1910 was marked by tragedy: ten days after the Hemingways crossed Lake Michigan, twenty-nine died in the same waters when the Pere Marquette No. 18 sank oft" Sheboygan ("Remembering the Pere Marquette" 1); on 21 September a railroad disaster in Indiana killed 42 ("Record of Current Events" 544-47); and on 30 September the Los Angeles Times was bombed, killing 20, an event called "Crime of the Century" by the same newspaper (Blum 17).

(2.) There were also PM departures at 1:40, 2:30, 3:30, 3:55, 5:30, and 10:30.

(3.) The same view is now obscured by the Old Colony Public Housing Project, built in 1940.

(4.) The Red Poppy Tea Room was on Hussey Street.

(5.) After her children were grown, Grace Hall continued to visit Massachusetts periodically and completed more than twenty paintings of the island. At the Illinois Nineteenth Century Club, she presented "Tales of Old Nantucket in Oil Paintings". For more on this topic, see Booker.

(6.) For more on tourism and hyper-nationalism, see chapter 1 of After American Studies by Jeffrey Herlihy-Mera.

(7.) The Hemingway's Massachusetts tourism celebrated figures in a Euro-American independence movement who initiated colonial empires of their own, but they did not commemorate two of Massachusetts's perhaps most notable freedom fighters, Metacomet (King Philip) and Tisquantum (Squanto). The Massachusetts figures marginalized in the congratulatory narratives continues: Plimoth Plantation (aside from having a European nomenclature) receives significantly more public funding than the Wampanoag exhibits, which are smaller and relegated to the far rear of the property. There are no public funds whatever allocated to commemorate Metacomet or Tisquantum. And there's a case to be made that Hemingway would come to have more in common with Tisquantum than with those whom he was in Massachusetts to celebrate: after spells in Europe--in Spain, notably--that changed their cultural perspectives, both Hemingway and Tisquantum returned to an America that was different from what they remembered (Tisquantum was in London at the same time as Pocahontas and worked in shipbuilding before signing on a colonial contract to Salem.)

In Torrents of Spring, Yogi notes that among the Native Americans, "the only real Americans, he had found that true communion" (54). Catherine, in Garden of Eden, says, "1 wish 1 had some Indian blood" (31). Hemingway also frames "Ten Indians" through the lens of the nationalistic exigencies surrounding America's independence, situating Nick between both worlds. As Peter Rooney deftly comments, "Nick as a cultural crossbreed, a hybrid who is linked to both white and Indian communities, a metaphorical amalgamation" (1).

(8.) A bar of the same name in Central Square, Cambridge, closed in 2011.

(9.) Situated between Cape Cod and Sable Island, Georges Bank is among the most accessible fishing banks in the North Atlantic.

(10.) Celestino Medeiros had moved to New Bedford from the Azores in 1904, and was executed for a botched bankrobbery in Wrentham. He said this about the crimes for which Sacco and Vanzetti were executed: "I hereby confess to being in the South Braintree Company crime and Sacco and Vanzetti was not in said crime" (quoted in Silvia and Daley 1).

(11.) Medeiros was waked at Rogers and Sylvia Funeral Home at 216 County Street in New Bedford.

(12.) American football appears to have been a topic they had discussed often in Europe; the trip was arranged around it: "What are some dates on football games?" (Letters 3,437) and in another letter, "whan does the fussballspielen start?" (Letters 3 411).

(13.) The coordinates of "Uphill Farm" are 42.5158539,-72.7072124.

(14.) 131 and 133 Beacon are just steps from Louisburg Square, a private quadrangle in Beacon Hill owned by the Forbes family; a townhouse there sold for 11.5 million in 2011.

(15.) The names dropped in the MacLeish letter include: Harry Crosby, nephew of JP Morgan who attended Noble and Greenough and St. Mark's before Harvard (he was also a poet--and committed murder-suicide a year later); Christian Herter went to Browning School and Harvard and would become US Secretary of State and then governor of Massachusetts, and was married to Standard Oil heiress Mary Caroline Pratt; Harvey Hollister Bundy attended Groton, Yale (Skull and Bones) and Harvard before chairing the Carnegie Endowment, and was married to (Catherine Lawrence Putnam, daughter of banker William Lowell Putnam and niece of Harvard president Abbott Lowell Lawrence; Charles Pelham Curtis attended Groton and Harvard before becoming partner at the Choate, Hall & Stewart, and his wife, Edith Roelker Curtis, attended Miss Porter's School and Radcliff before becoming a member of Chilton Club, the private social club of Back Bay that even Harvard Crimson calls the "elite" and "most exclusive women's club" in Boston (Hornblower 1). When Hemingway took the ferry from Woods Hole to Oak Bluffs 17 years earlier, the islands off to his right as the steamer cleared the pier were (and still are) owned by the Forbes family, the same clan who also owned (and yet owns) much of Back Bay. In 1864, the family created the township of Gosnold for themselves to avoid paying taxes on their summer homes, to legalize the appropriation of what had been public spaces, and to ensure privacy; Massachusetts anti-nepotism laws are not in effect in the town, and being present on the islands off Woods Hole without an invitation from the family is considered trespassing. Senator and Secretary of State John Kerry spent summers there as a boy.

(16.) As Jake Barnes notes about Robert Cohn, "he was backing a review of the Arts. The review commenced publication in Carmel, California, and finished in Provincetown, Massachusetts" (SAR 53).

(17.) Hemingway wrote a letter to "Boid" William Smith, in Provincetown, from Schruns 30 January 1925.

(18.) As then-New Bedford resident Peter Griffin observes, "the gossip had it that Ernest and Kate Smith were lovers, that they met at night in the fields to make love" (131).

(19.) In addition to a love interest with an affinity for things Cape Cod, Dos Passos was drawn to Portuguese cultures of the area and envisioned writing "a book of essays on Portuguese culture" (quoted in Goncalves de Abreu xv). As Maria Zina Goncalves de Abreu notes, Dos Passos' "early awareness of his Portuguese roots" had caused "his sense of being an outsider" (xi). Such feelings would have been eased on Cape Cod, where Portuguese cultures, surnames, flags, gastronomy, dancing, sports, were (and are) common, and Dos Passos could practice speaking Portuguese amid a community of recent arrivals as well as second and third generation. In 2000, Vie Boston Globe reported that forty percent of the population of Southeastern Massachusetts is Portuguese or Cape Verdean descent (Karttunen 28). The Portuguese festival in New Bedford is the largest in the world--and the festival in Provincetown is a highlight of each summer.

(20.) Ribeiro lived in the area until his death in 2006.

(21.) She died Friday but Hemingway likely received word Saturday.

(22.) And again he revisits the event: "Honest John Dos Passos... marries Katy and kills her dead finally when he drives into the back of a truck. The windshield cut her throat and Honest John loses an eye" (SL 775-6).

(23.) Edgar Allen Poe was also born in Massachusetts.

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Rooney, Peter. "'I Wish I had Some Indian Blood': Hemingway's Primitivism and the Ojibwa Pimadaziwin Paradigm." IJAS: Irish Journal of American Studies, June 2010, pp. 1 +

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"Wife of Writer in Motor Accident." Dunkirk Evening Observer, 13 Sept. 1947, pp. 2.

Jeffrey Herlihy-Mera

University of Puerto Rico
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Author:Herlihy-Mera, Jeffrey
Publication:The Hemingway Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U3IL
Date:Sep 22, 2019
Words:5302
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