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The Global Emission Control Catalyst Network of [dmc.sup.2].

A World of Research and Development

Our affiliated R&D teams in Germany and Japan continuously improve upon emission control catalyst technologies. The improved technologies are then transferred to [dmc.sup.2]'s technical centers located in major auto manufacturing regions of the world. In this manner, the emission control catalyst customers of [dmc.sup.2] have rapid access to the best available emission control solutions in North America. The Auburn Hills, Michigan, Technical Center is structured to deliver the best technology in a minimal amount of time for customers serving both regional and global markets.

The HPT-X5 Meets New Emission Regulations Worldwide

Changing emission regulations worldwide present a challenge to vehicle manufacturers. HPT-X5, a platinum- and rhodium-based emission control technology produced by [dmc.sup.2], helps the vehicle manufacturers meet that challenge. This versatile technology offers higher temperature stability while incorporating a minimal amount of precious metal. The HPT-X5 technology and other catalysts designed for gasoline and diesel applications are manufactured at [dmc.sup.2] facilities throughout the world. [dmc.sup.2] offers a wide range of technologies on ceramic and metallic substrates, including:

* Three-way and OBD (Pt/Rh, Pd/Rh, Pt/Pd/Rh, Pd only)

* GDI and Diesel NOx Storage

* Diesel Oxidation

* Diesel Active Hydrocarbon and Passive deNOx

* Urea SCR

* Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)

Global Capabilities

A worldwide network of affiliated R&D facilities, technical centers and catalyst manufacturing plants gives [dmc.sup.2] a truly global footprint in the automotive industry. All facilities are QS 9000 and VDA 6.1 certified as required and fully capable of delivering local solutions to stringent emission regulations around the world. [dmc.sup.2] and affiliates supply catalysts from production facilities in the United States, Canada, Brazil, Germany, Sweden, South Africa, Japan, South Korea and Thailand.

Technical Milestones

North America:

Development Stages:

1960

Pellet Catalysts

1973

Ceramic monolith catalysts

1976

Metal monolith catalysts

1978

Pellet catalyst production in Calvert City, Kentucky (USA)

1983

Monolith catalysts production in Burlington (Canada)

1987

Diesel catalysts for passenger cars

1993

Production start-up of monolithic three-way and HD diesel catalysts in Calvert City, Kentucky (USA) and Himeji (Japan)

1994

Monolith catalysts production in Puebla (Mexico)

1996

GDI catalysts

1997

Establishment of Technical Center in Auburn Hills, Michigan (USA)

SCR catalysts systems

Active hydrocarbon deNOx catalyst

1998

GDI NOX adsorber catalyst

2000

Production of palladium/rhodium (MLKX-5) and platinum/rhodium (HPT-X5) in Burlington (Canada)

DPF filters and passive deNOx catalyst

Fuel Cell Components from [dmc.sup.2] are Available Today

[dmc.sup.2] supplies fuel cell products to the development marketplace and is preparing to meet a growing future demand in the years ahead. [dmc.sup.2] fuel cell products, designed to support the operation of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems, include the pMembrain[TM] membrane electrode assembly (MEA), protonics[TM] fuel processing catalysts, and elysl[TM] electrocatalysts. These products' proven technology is based on more than 15 years of research dedicated to the catalysis function of fuel cells.

pMembrain, a proprietary MEA, has been designed to meet the specifications of various fuel cell stack sizes, shapes and operating parameters. [dmc.sup.2] integrates its own electrocatalysts into the five-layer (PEM, anode, cathode, two gas distribution layers) or three-layer (PEM, anode, cathode) pMembrain MEAs. One important feature of [dmc.sup.2]'s MEA is the simple design which is expected to result in simplified manufacturing and reduced product cost. MEA lifetime is also a priority in [dmc.sup.2]'s MEA design. Automated pilot production of pMembrain MEAs is scheduled to begin during 2001 at [dmc.sup.2]'s Hanau-Wolfgang facility in Germany.

In addition to the MEA, [dmc.sup.2] provides the protonics family of fuel processing catalysts (reforming, water gas shift, preferential oxidation and tail gas oxidation) that are used to convert fuels such as gasoline and methanol to hydrogen and purify the hydrogen for fuel cell use. [dmc.sup.2] elyst platinum and platinum-ruthenium electrocatalysts are used as fuel cell electrodes and provide CO-tolerant anode performance for systems engineered to operate on reformate fuel.

[dmc.sup.2] has applied its know-how in catalysis, coatings technology and precious metals chemistry to develop and manufacture components that will support the success of fuel cell power generation in the years ahead. Partner with [dmc.sup.2] today and reduce your product development cycle time, scale-up risks and reengineering.
                               UNITED STATES
                    US FEDERAL TAILPIPE EMISSION LIMITS
               US Tier 1. NLEV and Tier 2 Emission Standards
                             (US FTP 75 cycle)
Eff.     Vehicle up to  CO g/mile  CO (-7C)  HC g/mile NHMC g/mile NOx g/mile
Date       6000 lbs.    50K/100K  g/mile 50K    50K     50K/100K    (petrol)
MY            GVWR        miles     miles      miles      miles     50K/100K
                                                                     miles
1994-      PC/LDT1 0-    3.4/4.2     10.0      0.41     0.25/0.31   0.4/0.6
2000 [1] 3750 lbs. LVW
Tier 1
              LDT2       4.4/5.5     10.0    N/A/0.80   0.32/0.40   0.7/0.97
         3751-5750 lbs.
              LVW
Eff.     NOx g/mile PM g/mile
Date      (diesel)  50K/100K
MY        50K/100K    miles
           miles
1994-     1.0/1.25  0.08/0.10
2000 [1]
Tier 1
          1.0/1.25  0.08/0.10
        Vehicle          CO g/mile CO (-7C) HC g/mile NMHC g/mile NOx g/mile
[greater than] 6000 lbs. 50K/120K   g/mile     50K     50K/120K    (petrol)
          GVWR             miles   50K/120K   miles      miles     50K/120K
                                    miles                           miles
          LDT3            4.4/6.4    12.5   N/A/0.80   0.32/0.46   0.7/0.98
    Up to 5750 lbs.
          ALVW
LDT4 [greater than]5750   5.0/7.3    12.5   N/A/0.80   0.39/0.56   1.1/1.53
       lbs. ALVW
        Vehicle            NOx g/mile        PM g/mile
[greater than] 6000 lbs.    (diesel)      50K/120K miles
          GVWR           50K/120K miles (petrol and diesel)
          LDT3              --/0.98          N/A/0.10
    Up to 5750 lbs.
          ALVW
LDT4 [greater than]5750     --/1.53          N/A/0.12
       lbs. ALVW
Eff.                    Vehicle type                CO g/mile 50K miles
date
1999     PC/LT [less than or equal to] 3750 lbs.LVW         3.4
NLEV                LT 3751-5750 lbs.LVW                    4.4
2000     PC/LT [less than or equal to] 3750 lbs.LVW         3.4
NLEV                LT 3751-5750 lbs.LVW                    4.4
2001 [2] PC/LT [less than or equal to] 3750 lbs.LVW         3.4
NLEV                LT 3751-5750 lbs.LVW                    4.4
Eff.         Fleet average     NOx g/mile 50K miles
date     NMOG g/mile 50K miles
1999             0.148                 0.2
NLEV             0.190                 0.4
2000             0.095                 0.2
NLEV             0.124                 0.4
2001 [2]         0.075                 0.2
NLEV             0.100                 0.4
Eff.     Vehicle CO g/mile  CO (-7C)  NMHC g/mile 50K/100K   NOx g/mile
Date      type   50K/100K  g/mile 50K        miles            (petrol)
                   miles     miles                         50K/100K miles
2004 [3]   LDV    1.7 [4]   3.4 [4]        0.125 [4]         0.2 [4,5]
Tier 2                                                        0.07 [4]
Eff.     NOx g/mile   PM g/mile
Date      (diesel)     (diesel)
          50K/100K  50K/100K miles
           miles
2004 [3] 0.2 [4,5]     0.08 [4]
Tier 2    0.07 [4]


MY = model year; LDV = light-duty vehicle; PC = passenger cars; LT = light truck; LVW = loaded vehicle weight; GVWR = gross vehicle weight; ALVW = adjusted loaded vehicle weight; CO = carbon monoxide; HC = hydrocarbon; NMHC = non methane hydrocarbon; NOx = oxides of nitrogen; PM = particulate matter; N/A = not applicable.

(1.)US 94/Tier 1 phased in to 100% compliance by 1996 model year and effective nationwide through 2000, with the exception of nine Northeastern states (sans New York and Massachusetts. which have California standards) and the District of Columbia. where the EPA implemented NLEV standards began in 1299;

(2.)NLEV standards adopted by Northeastern states in 1999 and to be applied nationwide beginning 2001;

(3.)Tier 2 standards apply to all vehicles, regardless of fuel type. Tier 2 to begin phase-in 2004. Compliance by all light-duty vehicle classes, including heavy light-duty vehicles, is to be achieved by 2009. Tier 2 requirements have 11 levels of stringency, referred to as "EPA bins" with an average standard for NOx. Automakers can certify vehicles to any one of the bins, but must meet the fleet average NOx requirement.

(4.)Limits are for 100,000 miles

(5.)Transitional limits for heavy light-duty vehicles (6,000-8,500 lbs.) from 2004-2007.
                  Tire 2 Emission Standards for Cars and
                             Light-Duty Trucks
                Effective 2004 - 2009 MY (US FTP 75 cycle)
  Bin No.     NMOG g/mile    CO g/mile   NOx [7] g/mile   PM g/mile
             50/120K miles 50/120K miles 50/120K miles  50/120K miles
  MDPV [3]     --/0.280       --/7.3         --/0.9        --/0.12
10 [1,2,4,6]  0.125/0.156     3.4/4.2       0.4/0.6        --/0.08
             (0.160/0.230)   (4.4/6.4)
 9 [1,2,5]    0.075/0.090     3.4/4.2       0.2/0.3        --/0.06
             (0.140/0.180
   8 [2]      0.100/0.125     3.4/4.2      0.14/0.20       --/0.02
             (0.125/0.156)
     7        0.075/0.090     3.4/4.2      0.11/0.15       --/0.02
     6        0.075/0.090     3.4/4.2      0.08/0.10       --/0.01
     5        0.075/0.090     3.4/4.2      0.05/0.07       --/0.01
     4         --/0.070       --/2.1        --/0.04        --/0.01
     3         --/0.055       --/2.1        --/0.03        --/0.01
     2         --/0.010       --/2.1        --/0.02        --/0.01
     1          --/0.00       --/0.0        --/0.00        --/0.00
  Bin No.     HCHO g/mile
             50/120K miles
  MDPV [3]     --/0.032
10 [1,2,4,6]  0.015/0.018
             (0.018/0.027)
 9 [1,2,5]    0.015/0.018
   8 [2]      0.015/0.018
     7        0.015/0.018
     6        0.015/0.018
     5       0.015/0/0.018
     4         --/0.011
     3         --/0.011
     2         --/0.004
     1         --/0.000


In parentheses are additional temporary "relaxed" bins in effect until 2008.

(1.)bin deleted at end of 2006 model year, 2008 for HLDTs (heavy light duty trucks);

(2.)higher temporary NMOG (non methane organic gas), CO and HCHO (formaldehyde) values apply to HLDTs and expire after 2008;

(3.)additional temporary bins restricted to MDPVs (medium duty passenger vehicle) and expires after 2008;

(4.)optional temporary NMOG standard of 0.105/0.280 50/120K g/mile for qualifying LDT4s and MDPVs;

(5.)optional temporary NMOG standard of 0.100/0.130 g/mile at 50/120K applies to qualifying LDT2s;

(6.)1 150K mile standard optional for diesels certified to Bin 10;

(7.)NOx average manufacturer fleet standard is 0.07 glmile.
                    Future US Gasoline Sulfur Standards
Averaging period Refinery/importer  Corporate pool  Maximum cap.
beginning        average. ppm/gal  average. ppm/gal   ppm/gal
Jan. 1, 2004      Not applicable         120            300
Jan. 1, 2005            30                90            300
Jan. 1, 2006+           30          Not applicable       80
Temporary, less-stringent standards to apply to small refiners through 2007.
Also temporary, less-stringent standards to apply to limited geographic area
in western US between 2004-2006.
       US Reformulated Gasoline, Simple Model Per Gallon Requirement
RVP lbs./sq.in. RVP lbs./sq.in.       Oxygen        % toxic emission
   Region 1        Region 2            %/w             reductions
[less than] 7.2 [less than] 8.1 [greater than] 2.0 [greater than] 15.0
RVP lbs./sq.in.     Benzene
   Region 1           %/v
[less than] 7.2 [less than] 1.0
                        US Gasoline Fuel Standards
Parameter       Environmental
and Unit      Protection Agency                                    CARB
                   Ambient          Cold CO         Cold CO       Phase 2
                                  low octane      high octane
Octane               93          87.8[+ or -]3  92.3[+ or -]0.5     91
(R+M)/2
RVP [1]             8-9.2        11.5[+ or -]3   11.5[+ or -]3    6.7-7.0
psi (kPa)        (55.2-63.4)                                    (46.8-48.3)
RVP Evap           8.7-9.2             -               -             7
Psi (kPa)         (60-63.4)                                        (48.3
T10[degrees]F      120-135          98-118          105-125       130-150
T50[degrees]F      200-230          179-214         195-225       200-210
T90[degrees]F      300-325          316-346         316-346       290-300
FBP[degrees]F        415              413             413           390
Aromatics            35          26.4[+ or -]4    32[+ or -]4      22-25
% vol.
Olefins              10          12.5[+ or -]5    10[+ or -]5       4-6
% vol.
Benzene               -                -               -           0.8-1
% vol.
Sulfur ppm        1000 [1]      350[[+ or -]150 200[+ or -]150     30-40
Lead                0.05             0.05            0.05          0.01
G/gal(g/l)         (0.013)          (0.013)         (0.013)
Phosphorus          0.005            0.005           0.005         0.005
G/gal(g/l)        (0.0013)         (0.0013)        (0.0013)
RVP (reed vapor pressure) for high altitude tests: 7.6-8.0 psi or 52-55 kPa
(1.)becomes 300 in 2004 and 80 in 2006.
                California Emission Standards (US 75 cycle)
                 for 2001 - 2003 [1] Model Year Tier 1 and
                 TLEV Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks
                  2001 - 2006 Model Year LEV I and ULEV I
                   Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks
Eff. Date      Vehicle type      Emission   CO g/mile     NMOG g/mile
                                 category 50K/100K miles 50K/100K miles
See above PC/LDT[greater than or  Tler 1     3.4/4.2       0.25/0.31
               equal] 3750         TLEV      3.4/4.2      0.125/0.156
                 lbs. LVW          LEV       3.4/4.2       0.075/0.90
                                   ULEV      1.7/2.1       0.40/0.055
                LDT2 3751-        Tier 1     4.4/5.5       0.32/0.40
              5750 lbs. LVW        TLEV      4.4/5.5      0.160/0.200
                                   LEV       4.4/5.5       0.1/0.130
                                   ULEV      2.2/2.8       0.05/0.070
Eff. Date  HCHO g/mile     NOx g/mile   PM g/mile 50K/100K
          50K/100K miles 50K/100K miles       miles
See above     --/--         0.4/0.6          0.08/--
           0.015/0.018      0.4/0.6          --/0.08
           0.015/0.018      0.2/0.3          --/0.08
           0.008/0.011      0.2/0.3          --/0.04
              --/--         0.7/0.9          0.08/--
           0.018/0.023      0.7/0.9          --/0.10
           0.018/0.023      0.4/0.5          --/0.10
           0.009/0.013      0.4/0.5          --/0.05


PC = passenger car LDT light-duly truck; TLEV = transitional low emissions vehicle; LEV = low emissions vehicle; ULEV = ultra low emissions vehicle; LVW= loaded vehicle weight.

(1.) After 2003. Tier I and TLEV standards will be eliminated as emission categories. Additional SFTP (supplemental federal test procedure) cycle to be phased-in in California 2001-2005.
                 California LEV. II Emission Standards for
                   LEV ULEV and SULEV Passenger Cars and
                    Light-Duty Trucks (US FTP 75 cycle)
  Eff.       Vehicle      Miles  Emission  CO g/mile NMOG g/mile Formaldehyde
  Date        type               Category                          mg/mile
 2004-        PC/LT      50,000    LEV        3.4       0.075         15
2009 [1] [less than]8500           LEV [2]    3.4       0.075         15
            lbs. GVW               ULEV       1.7       0.04          8
                         120,000   LEV        4.2       0.09          18
                                   LEV [2]    4.2       0.09          18
                                   ULEV       2.1       0.055         11
                                  SULEV        1        0.01          4
                         150,000   LEV        4.2       0.09          18
                                   LEV [2]    4.2       0.09          18
                                   ULEV       2.1       0.055         11
                                  SULEV        1        0.01          4
  Eff.   NOx g/mile PM (diesel) g/mile
  Date
 2004-      0.05           N/A
2009 [1]    0.07           N/A
            0.05           N/A
            0.07           0.01
            0.1            0.01
            0.07           0.01
            0.02           0.01
            0.07           0.01
            0.1            0.01
            0.07           0.01
            0.02           0.01


PC = passenger car; LT = light truck; LEV = low emissions vehicle; ULEV = ultra low emissions vehicle; SULEV = super ultra low emissions vehicle; GVW = gross vehicle weight; N/A not applicable.

(1.)Tier 2 phase-in period.

(2.)Optional LEV standards applies to up to 4% of an automaker's LDT2 (3751-5750 lbs.) fleet with a maximum base payload in excess of 2500 lbs.; After 2003, Tier 1 standards (0.25 glm NMHC) and TLEV standards will be dropped as emissions categories. The 50[degrees] F multiplier for SULEVs will be 2.0 and the cold-temperature CO standard will be 10.0.
                 California Emission Standards for Medium-
                 Duty Vehicles (US FTP 75 cycle) Effective
                                 to 2003.
   Vehicle type    Category NMOG g/mile CO g/mile NOx g/mile PM g/mile
                              50/120K    50/120K   50/120K    50/120K
       MDV4         Tier 1   0.46/0.66   5.5/8.1   1.3/1.81   --/0.12
 8501-10.000 lbs.    LEV    0.230/0.330  5.5/8.1   0.7/1.0    --/0.12
                     ULEV   0.138/0.197  5.5/8.1   0.7/1.0    --/0.06
                    SULEV   0.069/0.100  2.8/4.1   0.35/0.5   --/0.06
       MDV5         Tire 1   0.60/0.86  7.0/10.3   2.0/2.77   --/0.12
10,001-14,000 lbs.   LEV    0.300/0.430 7.0/10.3   1.0/1.5    --/0.12
                     ULEV   0.180/0.257 7.0/10.3   1.0/1.5    --/0.06
                    SULEV   0.090/0.130  3.5/5.2   0.5/0.7    --/0.06
   Vehicle type    HCHO g/mile
                     50/120K
       MDV4         0.028/--
 8501-10.000 lbs.  0.028/0.040
                   0.014/0.021
                   0.007/0.010
       MDV5           --/--
10,001-14,000 lbs. 0.036/0.052
                   0.018/0.026
                   0.009/0.013


NMHC for all Tier 1 standards; MDV = medium-duty vehicle (max GWVR 8500-14,000 lbs.). MDV is divided into five classes based on vehicle test weight. California definition of test weight is identical to the Federal ALVW. NMOG: non-methane organic gases; HCHO: formaldehyde.
                 California Emission Standards for Medium-
                         Duty Vehicles@120K Miles
Vehicle type        Category NMOG g/mile CO g/mile NOx g/mile PM g/mile
MDV                   LEV       0.195       6.4       0.2       0.12
8500-10.000 lbs.      ULEV      0.143       6.4       0.2       0.06
GVWR                 SULEV      0.100       3.2       0.1       0.06
MDV                   LEV       0.230       7.3       0.4       0.12
10,0001-14,000 lbs.   ULEV      0.167       7.3       0.4       0.06
GVWR                 SULEV      0.117       3.7       0.2       0.06
Vehicle type        HCHO g/mile
MDV                    0.032
8500-10.000 lbs.       0.016
GVWR                   0.008
MDV                    0.040
10,0001-14,000 lbs.    0.021
GVWR                   0.010


LEV II standards include an extension and tightening of fleet average standards that require automakers to reduce fleet emission levels each year through 2010, and tightening of evaporative emission standards.
                     Federal Standards for Heavy-Duty
                           Diesel Engines (HDDE)
Eff.Date   Vehicle type   HC g/bhp-hr CO g/bhp-hr NOx g/bhp-hr PM g/bhp-hr
1998-2003 HD diesel truck     1.3        15.5         4.0         0.10
1998-2003    Urban bus        1.3        15.5         4.0         0.05 [1]


Heavy-duty vehicles defined as [less than]8500 lbs. GVWR. Current federal regulations do not require that complete heavy-duty diesel vehicles be chassis certified, just the engines, which are tested over the transient FTP engine dynamometer cycle. Thus, standards are expressed in g/bhp-hr. Also, since 1994 sulfur content in certification fuel has been reduced to 500-ppm wt.

(1.)in-use PM standard 0.07 g/bhp-hr. (Chassis certification may be required for complete heavy-duty gasoline vehicles with standards expressed in g/mile.)
                      Promulgated Federal Heavy-Duty
                          Diesel Engine Standards
Effective date Standard
June 2006      Diesel fuel: 15 ppm wt sulfur content
Phase in:      PM: 0.01 g/bhp-hr
2007 --        NOx: 0.20 g/bhp-hr
2009 -- 50%    NMHC: 0.14 g/bhp-hr
2010 -- 100%   Formaldehyde: 0.016 g/bhp-hr


Per the EPA, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel is viewed as a "technology enabler" to allow use of advanced, sulfur-intolerant exhaust emission control technologies, such as diesel particulate filters and NOx catalysts, which will be necessary to meet 2007 emission standards.
                         US Diesel Fuel Standards
    Parameter and unit     EPA and CARB specification
          Cetane                     42-50
Distillation T10[degrees]F          400-460
Distillation T50[degrees]F          470-540
Distillation T90[degrees]F          560-630
      FBP[degrees]F                 610-690
  Flash point[degrees]F               130
     Aromatics % vol.                  27
        Sulfur ppm                  300-500
Viscosity at 40[degrees]C           2.0-3.2
       [mm.sup.2]/s
The EPA has proposed a diesel fuel
sulfur content limit of 15 ppm
effective June 2006 for 80% of
fuel sold by major refiners for
highway use.
                Federal Full Useful Life Emission Standards
                          for Otto-cycle (Diesel)
                  Complete Vehicles Effective 2007 MY@FTP
     Vehicle category      NMOG g/mile NOx g/mile CO g/mile
8,500-10,000 lbs. [*] GVWR    0.28        0.9        7.3
 10,001-14,000 lbs. GVWR      0.33        1.0        8.1


(*.)Excluding medium-duty passenger vehicles covered under the Tier 2 program. Vehicles tested at adjusted loaded weight (ALVW). Effective 2007 under Option 1, 2004 under Option 2 or 2005 under Option 3. Full useful life is currently defined as 110,000 miles, EPA to adopt 120,000 miles as full useful life. EPA finalizing HC standard in the form of NMOG to be consistent with California MDV standards.
                     Federal Emission Standards for MY
                  2004 and Later Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
Option NMHC + NOx g/bhp-hr NMHC g/bhp-hr
  1            2.4              N/A
  2            2.5              0.5


Goal of standard per EPA, CARB and heavy-duty diesel manufacturer agreement is to reduce heavy-duty highway NOx emissions to about 2.0 g/bhp-hr. Manufacturers can certify their engines under either option. Emission standards other than NMHC and NOx continue at their 1998 levels. Beginning in 2004, EPA will enforce revised definition of useful life of heavy-duty engines for all emissions: 435,000 miles or 10 years. whichever comes first. EPA and CARB standards harmonized, though CARB has different standards for urban bus engines.
                   HDDE Supplemental Steady State Test,
                  Effective 2007 MY (consistent with Euro
               III Esc Test, but not all aspects Identical)
 Mode                 Engine Speed                 Percent Weighting
number                                              load    factor
  1                       Idle                       --      0.15
  2    [N.sub.lo] + 0.25 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   100     0.08
  3    [N.sub.lo] + 0.50 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   50      0.10
  4    [N.sub.lo] + 0.50 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   75      0.10
  5    [N.sub.lo] + 0.25 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   50      0.05
  6    [N.sub.lo] + 0.25 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   75      0.05
  7    [N.sub.lo] + 0.25 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   25      0.05
  8    [N.sub.lo] + 0.50 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   100     0.09
  9    [N.sub.lo] + 0.50 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   25      0.10
  10   [N.sub.lo] + 0.75 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   100     0.08
  11   [N.sub.lo] + 0.75 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   25      0.05
  12   [N.sub.lo] + 0.75 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   75      0.05
  13   [N.sub.lo] + 0.75 x ([n.sub.hi]-[n.sub.lo])   50      0.05
 Mode    Model
number  length
       (minutes)
  1        4
  2        2
  3        2
  4        2
  5        2
  6        2
  7        2
  8        2
  9        2
  10       2
  11       2
  12       2
  13       2


Nhi: high speed determined by calculating 70% of maximum power;

NIo: low speed determined by calculating 50% of maximum power;

Maximum power calculated according to engine mapping procedures
                                  EUROPE
                      EC 93 and EC 96 (Euro 1 and 2)
                   Passenger Cars ([less than]2.5t GVW,
                           [less than] 6 seats)
                           Directives 91/441/EEC
                          or 93/59/EEC ("EC 93")
                          Directives 94/12/EC or
                             96/69/EC ("EC96")
                                        EC 93 [2]        EC 96
Test              Emissions    Unit       TA-FR          TA-FR
                                        7/92-1/93     1/96 - 1/97
                                    Gasoline = Diesel  Gasoline   Diesel
ECE + EUDC [*] HC + [NO.sub.x] g/km    .097 (1.13)        0.5      0.7
                     CO                2.72 (3.16)        2.2       1
                   PM [1]              0.14 (0.18)         -       0.08
                       Euro III, (2000) and Euro IV
                         (2005) Emission Standards
                       For Passenger Cars and Light
                      Commercial Vehicles @ Modified
                         ECE + EUDC Driving Cycle
Eff. Date Category/class      Ref. Mass                       Fuel type
2000      [M.sup.1]/-         Al; [2]                         Petrol
                                                              Diesel
          [[N.sup.3].sub.1]/1 [less than or equal to] 1305 kg Petrol
                                                              Diesel
          [[N.sup.3].sub.1]/2 1305 [less than or equal to]    Petrol
                              1760 kg                         Diesel
          [[N.sup.3].sub.1]/3 1760 [less than]                Petrol
                              1760 kg                         Diesel
2005      [M.sup.2]/-         Al; [2]                         Petrol
                                                              Diesel
          [[N.sup.3].sub.1]/1 [less than or equal to] 1305 kg Petrol
                                                              Diesel
          [[N.sup.3].sub.1]/2 1305 [less than or equal to]    Petrol
                              1760 kg                         Diesel
          [[N.sup.3].sub.1]/3 1760 [less than]                Petrol
                              1760 kg                         Diesel
Eff. Date CO g/km HC g/km NOx g/km HC + NOx PM [1] g/km
                                   g/km
2000      2.3     0.20    0.15     --       --
          0.64    --      0.50     0.56     0.050
          2.3     0.20    0.15     --       --
          0.64    --      0.50     0.56     0.050
          4.17    0.25    0.18     --       --
          0.80    --      0.65     0.72     0.070
          5.22    0.29    0.21     --       --
          0.95    --      0.78     0.86     0.100
2005      1.0     0.10    0.08     --       --
          0.50    --      0.25     0.30     0.025
          1.0     0.10    0.08     --       --
          0.50    --      0.25     0.30     0.025
          1.81    0.13    0.10     --       --
          0.63    --      0.33     0.39     0.040
          2.27    0.16    0.11     --       --
          0.74    --      0.39     0.46     0.06


Modified ECE+EUDC driving cycle deletes first 40 seconds of idle period/start of bag sampling at engine crank 2000 limits implemented 1/1/2000 for new type M and N Class 1; 1/1/2001 for new type N Class 1 and 2, and all model M and N Class 1; and 1/1/2002 for all model N Class 2 and 3. 2005 limits implemented 111/2005 for new type M and N Class 1; 1/1/2006 for all model M and N Class 1, and new type N Class 1 and 2; 1/1/2007 for all model N Class 2 and 3.

(1.)PM limits for compression ignition engines only;

(2.)M category vehicles over 2500 kg are treated as N Class 1 vehicles. M category diesel vehicles over 2000 kg that carry more than six people or classed as off-road are treated as N Category vehicles until 1/1/2003;

(3.)Plus Category M vehicles as indicated in footnote 2.
                Large Passenger Cars and Light Duty Trucks
                      (7-9 seats, [greater than]2.5t
                         GVW, LDT [less than] 3.5t
                         GVW - Directive 96-69/EC)
            Test                   Emissions      Unit
 Step I: TA 10/93, FR 10/94
       ECE + EUDC [*]           HC + [NO.sub.x]   g/km
                                      CO
                                    PM [1]
  Step II: TA 1/97 (CI. I),
1/198 (CI. II, III). FR 10/97
     (I), 10/98 (II,III)
       ECE + EUDC [*]           HC + [NO.sub.x]   g/km
                                      CO
                              HC + [NO.sub.x] [1] g/km
                                    CO [1]
                                    PM [1]
            Test                    Class I [2]
                              [less than or equal to]
                                    1250 kg [3]
 Step I: TA 10/93, FR 10/94
       ECE + EUDC [*]               0.97 (1.13)
                                    2.72 (3.16)
                                    0.14 (0.18)
  Step II: TA 1/97 (CI. I),
1/198 (CI. II, III). FR 10/97
     (I), 10/98 (II,III)
       ECE + EUDC [*]                   0.5
                                        2.2
                                      0.7/09
                                        1.0
                                     0.08/0.1
            Test                     Class II [2]
                                [greater than] 1250 kg
                              [greater than] 1700 kg [3]
 Step I: TA 10/93, FR 10/94
       ECE + EUDC [*]                 1.4 (1.6)
                                      5.17 (6.0)
                                     0.19 (0.22)
  Step II: TA 1/97 (CI. I),
1/198 (CI. II, III). FR 10/97
     (I), 10/98 (II,III)
       ECE + EUDC [*]                    0.6
                                         4.0
                                       1.0/1.3
                                         1.25
                                      0.12/0.14
            Test                    Class III [2]
                              [greater than]1700 kg [3]
 Step I: TA 10/93, FR 10/94
       ECE + EUDC [*]                 1.7 (2.0)
                                      6.9 (8.0)
                                     0.25 (0.29)
  Step II: TA 1/97 (CI. I),
1/198 (CI. II, III). FR 10/97
     (I), 10/98 (II,III)
       ECE + EUDC [*]                    0.7
                                         5.0
                                       1.2/1.6
                                         1.5
                                      0.17/0.2
(*.)ECE + EUDC driving cycle
includes first 40 seconds of idle period
start of bag sampling at engine crank
(MVEG-B).

(1.)Diesel vehicles,
(2.)COP values
(3.)Reference weight in running
order plus 25 kg
               Summary of European Union Fuel Specifications
Petrol RVP summer Aromatics Benzene Sulfur Olefins Oxygen
          kpa       %v/v     %v/v    ppm    %v/v    %m/m
2000       60        42        1     150     18     2.7
2005       --        35       --      60     --      --
Diesel polyaromatics Sulfur Cetane  Density  Distillation --
           %v/v       ppm   Number  15 kg/m3    95% C
2000        11        350   51(Min)   845        360      --
2005        --         50     --       --         --      --
The German government plans to push for a
european Introduction of low-sulfur gasoline
and diesel with a maximum of 10 ppm as of
January 1, 2003.
                 Euro III, IV and V emission Standards for
                    Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines ESC + ELR
                                Test Cycle
  Tier    Eff.Date  CO g/kWh HC g/kWh NOx g/kWh PM g/kWh   Smoke [m.sup.1]
Euro III 1999(EEVs)   1.5      0.25      2.0      0.02          0.15
            2000      2.1      0.66      5.0      0.10          0.80
                                                  0.13 [*]
Euro IV     2005      1.5      0.46      3.5      0.02          0.50
 Euro V     2008      1.5      0.46      2.0      0.02          0.50


EEV = enhanced environmentally friendly vihicle; (*.)for engines less than 0.75 [dm.sup.2] swept volume per cylinder and rated power speed of more than 3000 [min.sup.1]. Euro V HD diesel slandards, as proposed.
                 Euro III, IV and V Emission Standards for
                 Heavy-Duty Diesel and Petrol Engines ETC
                                Test Cycle
Tier      Eff.Date   Co g/kWh NMHC  [CH.sub.4] g/kWh [1]  NOx  PM [2]
                              g/kWh                      g/kwh
Euro III 1999 (EEVs)   3.0    0.40          0.65          2.0   0.02
            2000       5.45   0.78          1.6           5.0   0.16
                                                                0.21 [3]
Eruo IV     2005       4.0    0.55          1.1           3.5   0.03
Euro V      2008       4.0    0.55          1.1           2.0   0.03


EEV = enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle; (1.)for natural gas engines only; (2.)not applicable to petrol engines at 2000 and 2005 tiers; (3.)for engines less then 0.75 [dm.sup.3] swept volume per cylinder end rated power speed of more than 3000 [min.sup.4]
                                 JAPAN
                      JAPAN TAILPIPE EMISSION LIMITS
       Eff. Date Vehicle type
Petrol 2000      PC & LDV [less than or equal to] 1.7 t GVW
& LPG  2001      MDV [greater than]1.7-[less than or equal to]
                 3.5 t GVW
       2002      Mini-sized trucks
       Eff. date Vehicle type
       2001-2002 HDV [greater than] 3.5 t GVW
       NOx                   HC                    CO
       10.15-mode test g/km  10.15-mode test g/km  10.15-mode test g/km
       (11-Mode test g/test) (11-Mode test g/test) (11-Mode test g/test)
Petrol 0.08 (1.40)           0.08 (2.20)           0.67 (19.00)
& LPG  0.13 (1.60)           0.08 (2.20)           2.10 (24.00)
       0.13 (2.20)           0.13 (3.50)           3.30 (38.00)
       NOx                   HC                    CO
       G13-mode test g/kWh   G13-mode test g/kWh   G13-mode test g/kWh
       1.40                  0.58                  16.00
       (2002)                (2001)                (2001)
       Eff. Date Vehicle type                              NOx g/km PM g/km
Diesel 2002      [less than or equal to] 1.25 t GVW [1]    0.28     0.052
       2002      medium cars [greater than] 1.25 t GVW [1] 0.30     0.056
       2002      LD trucks & buses [less than or equal to] 0.28     0.052
                 1.7 t GVW [2]
       2003      Diesel MD trucks & buses [greater than]   0.49     0.06
                 1.7-[less than or equal to]2.5 t GVW [2]
Diesel 2003      HD trucks & buses [greater than]2.5-      3.38     0.18
                 [less than or equal to]12.0 t GVW
       2004      Diesel HD trucks & buses [greater than]   3.38     0.18
                 12.0 t GVW[2]
       HC g/km CO g/km Test cycle
Diesel 0.12    0.63    10.15-mode test
       0.12    0.63
       0.12    0.63
       0.12    0.63
Diesel 0.87    2.22    D13-mode test
       0.87    2.22
                   Summary of Japan Fuel Specifications
Petrol  RVP @ 37.8[degrees] C kPa Sulfur (%m/m) Benzene (%v/v) MTBE (%v/v)
                   max                 max           max           max
Premium         44-78 [1]             0.01           5.0           7.0
Regular         44-78 [1]             0.01           5.0           7.0
Petrol  Lead Methanol Density (kg/m3)   Oxidation
                            max       stability min
Premium  0      0          0.783           240
Regular  0      0          0.783           240
Diesel    Cetane Number min Sulfur (%m/m) Distillation 90% v/v
                                 max      rec ([degrees]C) max
Sp. No. 1        50             0.05              360
No. 1            50             0.05              360
No. 2            45             0.05              350
No. 3            45             0.05              330 [2]
Sp. No. 3        45             0.05              330
Diesel       Kinematic      Carbon residue      Cold flow pour
          viscosity (cSt)     (%wt). 10%    point ([degrees]C) max
          30[degrees]C min residual oil max
Sp. No. 1       2.7              0.1                  +5
No. 1           2.7              0.1                 -2.5
No. 2           2.0              0.1                 -7.5
No. 3           2.0              0.1                 -20
Sp. No. 3       1.8              0.1                 -30
Diesel       Cold flow cloud      Flash point PM
          point ([degrees]C) max ([degrees]C) min
Sp. No. 1           --                  50
No. 1               -1                  50
No. 2               -5                  50
No. 3               -2                  50
Sp. No. 3           --                  50


Table indicates current limits. The Japanese government expects to determine new specific limits and fuel requirements by the end of 2002. (1.)RVP 93 kPa maximum for cold climates; (2.)if viscosity = 1 [greater than] 4.7 mm2/sec, 90% point should be [less than]350[degrees]C.
                       JAPANESE DIESEL 13 MODE CYCLE
Mode     Speed      Load Weighting
     (% of nominal) (%)   factor
 1        idle       -    0.410/2
 2         40        20    0.037
 3         40        40    0.027
 4        idel       -    0.410/2
 5         60        20    0.029
 6         60        40    0.064
 7         80        40    0.041
 8         80        60    0.032
 9         60        60    0.077
 10        60        80    0.055
 11        60        95    0.049
 12        80        80    0.037
 13        60        5     0.142
                              OTHER COUNTRIES
               TAILPIPE EMISSION LIMITS FOR OTHER COUNTRIES
ARGENTINA Eff. Date Vehicle Type                    CO g/km HC g/km NOx g/km
          1997 [3]  PC, LD imports                  2.0     0.3     0.6
                    [less than or equal to]2.8t
          1998      PC, LD all new                  6.2     0.5     1.43
                    reg [less than or equal to]2.8t
          Eff. date Vehicle type                    CO      HC      NOx
                                                    g/kWh   g/kWh   g/kWh
          1997      HD [greater than] 2.8t all      11.2    2.4     14.4
                    vehicles
          1996      HD [greater than] 2.8t urban    4.9     1.23    9.0
                    bus
          1998      HD [greater than] 2.8t all      4.0     1.1     7.0
                    diesels
ARGENTINA PM g/[km.sup.2] CO idle %v [1] HC idle ppm [1] Evap g/test [1]
          0.124           0.5            250             6.0
          0.16 [4]        0.5            250             --
          PM g/kWh [2]    CO idle %v [1] HC idle ppm [1] Evap
                                                         g/test [1]
          0.4/0.68        2.5            400             --
          0.4/0.68        --             --              --
          0.15/0.255      --             --              --
ARGENTINA Test cycle
          US FTP 75
          Test cycle
          UN-ECE R49
AUSTRALIA Vehicle type
          PV [less than or equal to] 3.5 t
          PV [greater than] 3.5 t
          Bus [less than or equal to] 3.5 t
          Bus [greater than] 3.5 - 5 t
          Bus [greater than] 5 t
          Truck [less than or equal to] 3.5 t
          Truck [greater than] 3.5 - 12 t
          Truck [greater than] 12 t
AUSTRALIA Eff. 2002-2003 for diesel [1,3,4,5]
          ADR 79/00
          (Euro 2)
          ADR 80/00
          (Euro 3 or US 98) [6]
          ADR 79/00
          (Euro 2)
          ADR 80/00
          (Euro 3 or US 98) [6]
          ADR 80/00
          (Euro 3 or US 98) [6]
          ADR 79/00
          (Euro 2)
          AR 80/00
          (Euro 3 or US 98) [6]
          ADR 80/00
          (Euro 3 or US 98) [6]
AUSTRALIA Eff. 2003-2004 for petrol [1,3,4] Eff. 2005-2006 for petrol [2,4]
          ADR 79/00                         ADR 79/01
          (Euro 2) [6]                      (Euro 3) [6]
          ADR 80/00                         ADR 80/01
          (US 96) [7]                       (US 98) [7]
          ADR 79/00                         ADR 79/01
          (Euro 2) [6]                      (Euro 3) [6]
          ADR 80/00                         ADR 80/01
          (US 96) [7]                       (US 98) [7]
          ADR 80/00                         ADR 80/01
          (US 96) [7]                       (US 98) [7]
          ADR 79/00                         ADR 79/01
          (Euro 2) [6]                      (Euro 3) [6]
          ADR 80/00                         ADR 80/01
          (US 96) [7]                       (US 98) [7]
          ADR 80/00                         ADR 80/01
          (US 96) [7]                       (US 98) [7]
AUSTRALIA Eff. 2006-2007 for diesel [2,4,5]
          ADR 79/01
          (Euro 4)
          ADR 80/01
          (Euro 4 or US 2004) [6]
          ADR 79/01
          (Euro 4)
          ADR 80/01
          (Euro 4 or US 2004) [6]
          ADR 80/01
          (Euro 4 or US 2004) [6]
          ADR 79/01
          (Euro 4)
          ADR 80/01
          (Euro 4 or US 2004) [6]
          ADR 80/01
          (Euro 4 or US 2004) [6]
BRAZIL Eff. Date Vehicle type          CO g/km HC g/km  NOx g/km  CO idle %
       1999      LDV[less than]2800 kg 2.0     0.3      0.6       0.5
                                       CO      HC g/kWh NOx g/kWh PM g/kWh
                                       g/kWh
       1997      HD petrol and         11.2    2.4      14.4      0.4
                 diesel
       1996      Urban bus             4.9     1.23     9.0       0.4
       1998      HD diesel             4.0     1.1      7.0       0.15
BRAZIL HC idle ppm --          Test cycle
       250         --          US FTP 75
       CO idle %   HC idle ppm Test cycle
       2.5         400         ECE R-49
       --          --
       --          --
BULGARIA Eff. Date
         1997
         Eff. Date
         1997
CANADA   Refer to US charts. Canada harmonized with
         all US vehicle standards and test cycles.
         Refer to CARB charts. The Province of
         British Columbia has adopted CARB standards
         as of 2001.
BULGARIA Vehicle type                          CO g/test HC + NOx NOx g/test
                                                         g/test
         Petrol LDV [less than] 1400 cm [3]    25        6.5      3.5
         Petrol LDV 1400-2000 cm [3]           30        8.0      N/A
         Petrol LDV [greater than] 2000 cm [3] 45        15.0     6.0
         Vehicle type                          CO g/test HC + NOx PM g/test
                                                         g/test
         Diesel LDV [less than] 1400 cm [3]    30        8.0      1.1
         Diesel LDV 1400-2000 cm [3]           25        8.0      1.1
         Diesel LDV [greater than]2000 cm [3]  45        6.0      1.1
CANADA
BULGARIA Test cycle
         ECE R 15
CANADA
CHILE Eff. Date Vehicle type           CO g/km HC g/km NOx g/km PM g/km
      1995      PC                     2.11    0.25    0.82     0.125
      1995      LDT [less than]3800 kp 6.2     0.5     1.43     0.16
CHILE Test cycle
      US FTP 75
Eff. Vehicle            CO g/kWh HC g/kWh NOx g/kWh PM g/kWh Test cycle
1998 HD diesel          4.0      1.1      7.0       0.15     ECE R 49
1998 HD petrol          37.1     1.9      5.0       --       US 13-mode
1998 Santiago urban bus 4.0      1.1      7.0       0.15     ECE R49
CHINA Eff. Date Vehicle type                               CO g/km
      2000      PC                                         2.72
                LDV [less than or equal to] 1250 kg        2.72
                LDV 1251-1700 kg                           5.17
                LDV [less than] l700 kg                    6.9
      2002 or   Petrol PC                                  2.2
      2005 [1]  Diesel PC                                  1.0
                Petrol LDV [less than or equal to] 1250 kg 2.2
                Diesel LDV [less than or equal to] 1250 kg 1.0
                Petrol LDV 1251-1700 kg                    4.0
                Diesel LDV 1251-1700 kg                    1.25
                Petrol LDV [greater than] 1700 kg          5.0
                Diesel LDV [greater than] 1700 kg          1.5
CHINA HC + NOx g/km PM g/km    Test cycle
      0.97          0.14       ECE R15+EUDC
      0.97          0.14       ETP
      1.40          0.19
      1.7           0.25
      0.5           --         ECE R15+EUDC
      0.7 (IDI)     0.08 (IDI)
      0.9 (DI)      0.1 (DI)
      0.5           --         ECE+EUDC
      0.7           0.08
      0.6           --
      1.0           0.08
      1.5           --
      1.2           0.17
Eff. Date Vehicle type                   CO g/kWh HC g/kWh NOx g/kWh PM g/kWh
2000      HDV [greater than] 3500 kg GVW 4.5      1.1      8.0       0.36
2005      HDV [greater than] 3500 kg GVW 4.0      1.1      7.0       0.15
Eff. Date Test cycle
2000      Chinese 9-mode
2005
COLOMBIA   Eff. Date                 Vehicle type               CO g/kWh
           1997                      LDV [less than] 2800 kg    2.10
           (imp)                     MDV 2800 - 3860 kg         11.2
           1998                      Vehiclo type               CO g/bhp.h
           (dom)                     HDV [greater than] 3860 kg 25.0
COSTA RICA As of 1998. Costa Rica
           accepts either US 87 or
           EC 93 compliant vehicles.
COLOMBIA   HC g/km          NOx g/km Test cycle
           0.25             0.62     US FTP 75
           1.05             1.43
           HC + NOx g/bhp.h          Test cycle
           10.0                      US 13-mode
COSTA RICA
CROATIA   Eff. Date Vehicle type                           CO g/test
          N/A       Petrol LDV [less than] 1400 [cm.sup.3] 25
                    Diesel LDV [less than] 1400 [cm.sup.3] 30
                    LDV 1400-2000 [cm.sup.3]               45
                    LDV [greater than] 2000 [cm.sup.3]     45
CZECH &
SLOVAK    1996      Petrol LDV [less than] 1400 [cm.sup.3] 25
REPUBLICS           Disel LDV [less than] 1400 [cm.sup.3]  30
                    LDV 1400-2000 [cm.sup.3]               30
                    LDV [greater than] 2000 [cm.sup.3]     45
                    Petrol PC/LDV [less than or equal to]  2.2
                    3.5 [t.sup.*]
                    Disel PC/LDV [less than or equal to]   1.0
                    3.5 [t.sup.*]
CROATIA   HC + NOx g/test NOx g/test PM g/test Test cycle
          6.5             3.5        --        ECE
          8.0             --         1.1       R 15
          15.0            6.0        1.1
          15.0            6.0        1.1
CZECH &
SLOVAK    6.5             3.5        --        ECE
REPUBLICS 8.0             --         1.1       R 15
          8.0             --         1.1
          15.0            6.0        1.1
          0.5             --         --
          0.7             --         0.08
            Eff. Date                             Vehicle type
            1992                                  HDV [greater than] 3.51
EGYPT       Adoption of EC 93 emissions standards
            under discussion, with implementation
            in 2003 at the earliest.
EL SALVADOR In 1998, El Salvador implemented US
            87 regulations.
            CO g/kWh HC g/kWh NOx g/kWh PM g/kWh Test cycle
            4.0      1.1      7.0       0.15     ECE
                                                 R 49
EGYPT
EL SALVADOR
HONG KONG Eff. Date Vehicle type  CO g/km               HC + NOx g/km PM g/km
          1996      Petrol LV     2.2                   0.5           --
                    IDI diesel LV 1.0                   0.9           0.1
                    DI diesel LV  1.0                   0.7           0.08
          2001      LDV           Reler to Euro 3 table
HONG KONG Evap g/test Test cycle
          2.0         ECE + EUDC
          --
          --
Eff. Date Vahicle type CO g/kWh HC g/kWh NOx g/kWh PM g/kWh Test cycle
1996      HDV          4.0      1.1      7.0       0.15     ECE R 49
HUNGARY Eff. Date Vehicle type CO g/km HC + NOx g/km NOx g/km PM g/km
        2000      Petrol LDV   30      8.0           --       --
                  Diesel LDV   30      8.0           --       1.1
HUNGARY Test cycle
        ECE R15
      Eff. Date                               Vehicle type CO g/kWh HC g/kWh
      1997                                    HDV          11.2     2.4
INDIA In April 2000, India adopted 91/441/EEC
      using the ECE 15 + EUDC test cycle with
      maximum speed limited to 90 km/h. PM
      for engines below 85 kW in heavy-duty
      vehicles above 3.5 t GVW were set at
      0.36 g/kWh.
      NOx g/kWh PM g/kWh Test cycle
      14.4      0.15     US 13-mode
INDIA
INDONESIA Indonesia has CO limits of 4.5% volume;
          HC limits of 1200 ppm and diesel smoke
          opacity limit of 50% for four-wheeled
          vehicles. The country will adopt EC 96
          (Euro 3) standards in 2003 per the
          ASEAN agreement.
ISRAEL    Israel has adopted EC 93 (91/441/EEC
          and 83/351/EEC, respectively) for light-
          and medium-duty vehicles; 72-306/EEC +
          88/77/EEC for heavy-duty vehicles.
      Eff. Date Vehicle type                                       CO g/km
KOREA 2000      Petrol/LPG minicars [less than or equal to] 800 cc 2.11
                Petrol/LPG PC [greater than] 800cc [less than]3.0t 2.11
                Diesel PC' [greater than or equal to]              2.11
                800 cc [less than] 3.0t
                Petrol/LPG LDT [less than or equal to] 1.7 t       2.11
                Petrol/LPG LDT 1.7-3.0 t                           2.74
                Diesel LDT [less than or equal to] 1.7 t Dl & IDI  2.11
                Diesel LDT 1.7-3.0 t Dl & IDI                      2.11
      2004      Petrol/LPG LDT [less than or equal to] 1.7t        1.27
                Petrol/LPG LDT 1.7-3.0 t                           1.65
                Diesel LDT [less than or equal to] 1.7 t Dl & IDI  1.27
                Diesel LDT 1.7-3.0 t Dl & IDI                      1.52
      HC p/km NOx p/km PM g/km Test cycle
KOREA 0.16    0.25     --      US FTP 75
      0.16    0.25     --
      0.25    0.62     0.05
      0.25    0.62     --
      0.29    0.43     --
      0.25    1.02     0.11
      0.50    1.40     0.14
      0.18    0.16     --
      0.24    0.30     --
      0.21    0.64     0.06
      0.33    0.71     0.08
         Eff. Date                                Vehicle type
         2000                                     HD petrol@40,000 km
                                                  HD diesel@40,000 km
         2003 [2]                                 HD petrol@80,000 km
                                                  HD diesel@80,000 km
MALAYSIA In 2000 Malaysia adopted 94/12/EEC for
         light-duty vehicles. As of 1997,
         heavy-duty vehicles above 3.5 t
         had to comply with ECE R 49/20, and
         light-duty diesels had to meet 93/59/EEC
         limits. The country will adopt EC 96
         in 2003 per the ASEAN agreement.
         THC g/kWh CO g/kWh NOx g/kWh PM g/kWh Test cycle
         1.3       33.5     5.5       --       D-13
         1.2       4.9      6.0       0.25
         0.9       4.0      3.5       --
         0.66      2.1      5.0       0.1
MALAYSIA
       Eff. Date Vehicle type                              CO g/mile
MEXICO 1997      PC                                        3.4
                 LCV [less than or equal to] 6012 lbs. GVW 14.0
                 LDT 6013-6614 lbs. GVW                    14.0
       HC g/mile NOx g/mile PM g/mile Test cycle
MEXICO 0.40      1.0        --        US FTP 75
       1.0       2.30       --
       1.0       2.30       --
       Eff. Date                         Vehicle type CO g/bhp.h HC g/bhp.h
       1998                              HD diesel    1.3        15.5
                                         MD diesel    1.3        15.5
NORWAY Norway accepts vehicles that meet
       EC 96 emissions limits, per
       the ECE + EUDC test cycle.
       NOx     PM g/bhp.h Test cycle
       g/bhp.h
       4.0     0.05       US 13-mode
       4.0     0.10
NORWAY
            Eff. Date Vehicle type            CO g/km HC + NOx g/km PM g/km
PHILIPPINES 2000      PC                      2.72    0.97          0.14
                      LDV [less than] 1250 kg 2.27    0.97          0.14
                      LDV 1251-1700 kg        5.17    1.4           0.19
                      LDV [less than] 1700 kg 6.9     1.7           0.25
            2003      Petrol PC               2.2     0.5           --
                      Diesel PC               1.0     0.7           0.08
            -- Test cycle
PHILIPPINES -- CFI
            --
            --
            --
            --
            --
       Eff. Date                                 Vehicle type CO g/kWh
       2003                                      HDV          4.5
POLAND In 1995 PC/LDV followed R 83/02 B&C
       per the ECE R15 + EUDC test cycle,
       and LDV 93/59/EC at the ECE + EUDC
       test cycle. As of 1993, NDV complied
       with R 49/02 and 91/542/EC. Poland
       is expected to be in full compliance with
       Euro 3 regulations by the end of 2000.
       HC g/kWh NOx g/kWh PM g/kWh Test cycle
       1.1      8.0       0.36     N/A
POLAND
        Eff. Date Vehicle type                           Adopted standard
ROMANIA 2000      PC & LVD [less than or equal to] 3.5 t R 83/01
        2002      PC & LVD [less than or equal to] 3.5 t R 83/02
        1996      HDV [greater than]3.5 t                ECE R 24/30
        2002      HDV [greater than]3.5 t                ECE R 49/02B
            Eff. Date
RUSSIA      1997
            1999
            1999
SINGAPORE   2000
            1997
            1997
SLOVENIA    1998
            1994
SWITZERLAND Switzerland has harmonized all requirements
            to accept EC 96 standards.
            Vehicle type
RUSSIA      Diesel PC/LDV [less than or equal to] 3.5 t
            Petrol PC/LDV [less than or equal to] 3.5 t
            HDV
SINGAPORE   Petrol/Diesel PC
            LCV
            HDV
SLOVENIA    PC & LDV [less than or equal to] 3.5 t
            HDV
SWITZERLAND
            Adopted standard
RUSSIA      R 83/02 @ ECE R15 + EUDC
            R 83/02 @ ECE R15 + EUDC
            ECE R 49/02 A & B
SINGAPORE   EC 96 @ ECE + EUDC
            93/59/EEC
            91/542/EEC Stage 1
SLOVENIA    ECE R 83/02
            ECE R 24/03 + R 49/02
SWITZERLAND
       Eff. Date Vehicle type                             CO g/km HC g/km
TAIWAN 2000      Petrol PC [less than or equal to] 3.5 t  2.11    0.255
       1998      Petrol LV & bus                          6.20    0.50
                 [less than or equal to] 1200 cc
       1999      Petrol LV & bus [greater than]           3.11    0.242
                 1200 cc
       1998      LD diesetl [less than or equal to] 2.5 t 2.125   0.156
                 GVW
       NOx g/km PM g/km Idle CO %v Idle HC ppm Test cycle
TAIWAN 0.62     --      3.5        600         US FTP
       1.43     --      0.5        100
       0.68     --      0.5        100
       0.25     0.05    --         --
Eff. Date Vehicle type                   CO      HC g/bhp.h NOx     PM
                                         g/bhp.h            g/bhp.h g/bhp.h
Current   HD diesel [greater than] 3.5 t 10.0    1.3        6.0     0.7
          GVW
Eff. Date Idle CO Idle HC Test cycle
Current   --      --      US Transient
         Eff. Date
THAILAND 1999
         Eff. Date
         1999
TURKEY   Between 1995-2000, Turkey phased-in R 83/01
         @ ECE R15 for diesel and petrol light-duty
         vehicles.
VIETNAM  Implementation of EC 93 in 2003 as per ASEAN
         agreement.
         Vehicle type                    HC g/km  NNOx g/km CO g/km  PM g/km
THAILAND Petrol PC & LDV                 0.5      --        2.2      --
         Diesel PC & LDV                 0.7      --        1.0      0.08
         Vehicle type                    HC g/kWh NOx g/Kwh CO g/kWh PM g/kWh
         Diesel HDV [greater than] 3.5 t 1.1      7.0       4.0      0.15
TURKEY
VIETNAM
         Test cycle
THAILAND ECE + EUDC
         Test cycle
         N/A
TURKEY
VIETNAM


ARGENTINA: Crankcase emissions are not permitted from naturally aspirated engines. Crankcase emissions are added to exhaust emissions for turbocharged vehicles. (1.)petrol engines only; (2.)diesel only, HD smoke limits per ECE R 24.01. dual limits for vehicles with max power above/below 85 kW; (3.)1999 for all new registrations; (4.)PM 0.31 g/km for vehicles [less than] 1700 kg. Emissions compliance 80,000 km/5 years for passenger cars and light-duty vehicles end 160,000 km/5 years for heavy-duty vehicles. AUSTRALIA: (1.)Adopts requirements of ECE R83/04: (2.)Adopts requirements of 98/69/EC. ADR will mandate only Euro 3 provisions of 98/69/EC for petrol vehicles, but allow optional compliance with Euro 4; (3.)Adopts requirements of 99/96/EC; (4.)"/00" and "/01" represent 2002-2004 and 2005-2007 groupings of new requirements; (5.)A new smoke standard, ADR/30/0l also applies to all diesel vehicles from 2002-2003. This adopts ECE R24/03 and allows US 94 smoke standards as an alternative; (6.)Standards also apply to LPG or NG vehicles; (7.)UN ECE and EU have no standards for medium-duty petrol engines, so US EPA is adopted. BRAZIL: CO idle % for petrol-fueled vehicles only. BULGARIA: Standards based on ECE 83/01. CHINA: 2000 PC standards based on 91/441/EC; 2000 LDV standards based on EC 93/59. PM limits apply to diesel vehicles only. 2002/2005 standards based on EC 96/69. Heavy-duty vehicle standards in 2000 equivalent to Euro 1, in 2002 to Euro 2. (1.)China provides an option for automakers to subscribe to either 91/441 (2000) and 94/12 (2005) or 94/12 (2002) for passenger cars; and 93/59 (2000) and 96/69 (2005) or 96/69 (2002). Financial incentives are attached to the more stringent emissions limits. CROATIA: Standards based on ECE R 83/01. PM limits apply to diesel vehicles only. CZECH AND SLOVAK REPUBLICS: Standards based on ECE R 83/01. PM limits for diesel vehicles only. PM limits for heavy-duty vehicles: for engine 85 kW or less, limit value is increased by multiplying the quoted limit by a coefficient of 1.7; limit is 0 .25 g/kWh for engines with a cylinder swept volume of [less than] 0.7 dm3 and a rated power speed of [greater than] 3000 min-1. 'Standard similar to ft 83/02 with ECE R15 + EUDC test cycle. HONG KONG: Light-vehicle standards follow 94/12/EEC; heavy-duty vehicles follow 91/542/EEC. PM limits for heavy-duty vehicles: for engine 85 kW or less, limit value is increased by multiplying the quoted limit by a coefficient of 1.7; limit is 0.25 g/kWh for engines with a cylinder swept volume of [less than] 0.7 dm3 and a rated power speed of [greater than] 3000 min-1. HUNGARY: Light-duty standards follow ECE 83/01; heavy-duty standards follow ECE R 49/01. JAPAN: LD = light duty; MD = medium duty; HD = heavy duty; (1.)category/type determined by equivalent inertia weight (EIV), in which EIV of [less than] 1.25 t = vehicle weight of [less than] 1.265 t; (2.)category/type determined by gross vehicle weight (GVW), in which GVW/kg = vehicle weight + maximum loading capacity + (riding capacity x 55). KOREA: 2000 LV standards equ ivalent to US 94 + ECE R-49, to 80.000 km. (1.)for vans [less than] 8 passengers, NOx 0.14 g/km and 0.11 g/km effective 1995 and 2000. respectively; (2.)ND-13 mode proposed. MEXICO: Mexico PC, LDV and LOT standards equivalent to US 94 without OBO provision. No standards have been established for new heavy-duty petrol trucks and buses. PHILIPPINES: CFI is constant volume measurement technique. PM limits for diesel only 2000 PC standards based on 91/441/EEC. 2000 LDV limits based on 93/59/EC. 2003 PC limits based on EC 96 using ECE +/- EUOC test cycle. For HDV, PM limit is increased for engines of 85 kW or less, by multiplying the quoted limit by a coefficient of 1.7. SINGAPORE: JIS 93 for light commercial vehicles, and JIS 94 for passenger cars and heavy-duty vehicles, were accepted as alternative compliance during the 1997-1998 phase-in period. TAIWAN: Based in US 94 without 080 requirements. Diesel passenger vehicles are not allowed. Heavy-duty diesel smoke limit is 40% opacity under acceleration and full load . THAILAND: PC and LDV limits reference 94/12/EEC. HD limits reference 96/1/EEC. Thailand plans to implement EC 96 standards in 2003 as per the ASEAN agreement.

Sources for all data include: US EPA. CARB, [dmc.sup.2] AG, CONCAWE, Motor Vehicle Standards Around the World (June 2000), DieselNet, as well as various government ministries, environmental organizations and industry sources. Data in this chart represents information that is believed to be current at time of publication. Information is believed to be accurate and is presented as a reference source but does not replace official government mandates. All regulations are subject to change.
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Comment:The Global Emission Control Catalyst Network of [dmc.sup.2].
Publication:Automotive Industries
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2001
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