The Genital Morphology and Major Taxonomic Characteristics of Zerynthia deyrollei (OberthUr, 1869) and Zerynthia cerisyi (Godart, 1822) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Zerynthiinae).
An investigation was conducted in 2009-2010 in order to study the butterflies in the province of Hatay in view of faunistic, ecological and zoogeographic aspects. Species Zerynthia deyrollei and Zerynthia cerisyi, belonging to Papilionidae family caught during the study, were remarkably alike on account of their wing patterns. This was the first study to look through the species, Zerynthia deyrollei and Zerynthia cerisyi from the point of male genital organ morphology and their remarkable wing patterns. Meanwhile; major taxonomic differences which help distinguish them from each other were photographed and the related information was given accordingly.
Key Words. Zerynthia deyrollei, Zerynthia cerisyi, Lepidoptera, Papilionidae, Zerynthiinae.
Genital organs, particularly those of male are often used for the identification of insect species as the structure of their genital organs are specific to them. The shape, structure and metric dimensions of such parts of genital organs as valve, uncus, juxta, vinculum and aedeagus count as the major parameters. Even if there happen to be significant morphologic similarities between the species of a given genus, the morphological structure and metric dimensions of these organs differ. Such taxonomic characteristic differences are also essential for species identification (Onder, 1998; Kiyak, 2000).
Genital structure has been one of the most important sources of characteristic information in Lepidoptera systematics. Taxonomists often use differences in genital morphology to distinguish between species. Homogeneous similarities have provided characteristic clues for defining higher categories in Lepidoptera classification (Miller, 1988; Goulson, 1993; Arikawa and Suyama, 1997).
The genus Zerynthia Ochsenheimer, 1816, which contains only six species throughout the world including Zerynthia ruminata (Linnaeus, 1758); Z. polyxena (Denis and SchiffermUller, 1775); Z. cerisyi (Godart, 1822); Z. cretica (Rebel, 1904); Z. deyrollei (OberthUr, 1869); Z. caucasica (Lerderer, 1864) in the world (Karsholt and Razowski, 1996), is represented by Z. polyxena, Z. cerisyi, Z. deyrollei, Z. caucasica in Turkey (KoCak and Kemal, 2006, 2007, 2009), Z. (Allancastria) louristana (Le Cerf, 1908) (Nazari and Sperling, 2007).
Z. deyrollei and Z. cerisyi are remarkably alike in body size and wing pattern. These species, which are widespread in Turkey, are mistaken for each other by butterfly systematists as well as by amateur butterfly watchers. These two species which are among those under first level threat in Turkey (Ozkol, 2006; Kayci, 2007; Seven, 2010) are refered to in low Critical Level in their study so called "The Red List of Butterlies in Turkey" (KaraCetin and Welch, 2011; KaraCetin et al., 2011).
Z. cerisyi is widespread in the world including Albania, Bosnia, Cyprus, Croatia, Poland, Turkey, Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia (Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; Van Swaay and Warren, 1999); Iran, Iraq, Israel, Cyprus, Lebanon, North-Eastern Europe (Tekin, 2007); Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Aydin, Balikesir, Bilecik, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Edirne, EskiSehir, Hatay, Isparta, Mersin, Istanbul, Konya, KUtahya, Manisa, KahramanmaraS, Mugla, Nigde, Tekirdag, Osmaniye (Tekin, 2007; KoCak and Kemal, 2009) in Turkey.
Z. deyrollei is also widespread in the world including Jordan (Katbeh-Bader et al. 2003), Iran, Israel, Turkey (Nazari and Sperling, 2007; KoCak and Kemal, 2009).
This study will help both amateurs and entomologists involved in butterfly systematics to readily distinguish between species Z. deyrollei and Z. cerisyi.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The material of this study included species Z. deyrollei and Z. cerisyi, which were collected during the site work in the Amanos Mountains in the province of Hatay in Eastern Mediterranean Region during 2009-2010. Butterflies were collected at intervals with insect net from different elevations with various vegetation, placed in killing jars and then transported to the laboratory in Petri dish.
Later, butterflies were stretched wide with their wings and transferred to collection boards, where identification work was carried out with the help of Borror et al. (1989), Ecevit (2000), Demirsoy (2003), BaytaS and KaraCetin (2008), KoCak and Kemal (2009) and KaraCetin and Welch (2011). Z. deyrollei and Z. cerisyi were dissected in the laboratory for preparation of male genital organ and fore and hind wings were also prepared. The major taxonomic characters were described. The butterfly specimens were stored in the Biology Department of Mustafa Kemal University.
Z. deyrollei and Z. cerisyi closely resemble each other in size, colour and wing patterns and morphology of their male genital organs. At thesame time they also considerably differ from each other.
Synonyms: deyrollei OberthUr, 1869; eisneri Bernardi, 1970; iycaoniae Eisner and Wagener, 1974; flavomaculata Verity, 1905; ochracea Verity, 1905; obscurior Verity, 1905; subflava Schultz, 1908; deflexa Schultz, 1908; charis Schultz, 1908; separata Sheljuzhko, 1927 (Ozkol, 2006; Kayci, 2007; KoCak and Kemal, 2009; Seven, 2010).
Kizildag-Hatay (900-1200 m), 15.V.2009 2 male (), 1 female (); 11.VI.2010 2 male ().
Samples were caught on mountain sides, low lands and river beds vegetated with flowering herbaceous plants, and sparsely populated bush like red oaks and pinus trees.
Length 20 mm, 17 mm; wingspan 44 mm, 43 mm.
Forewing broad and triangle shaped, twice as long as its width. Hindwing broad, 1.57 times as long as its width.
In male genitalia of Z. deyrollei (Fig. 1D) all the organs are strongly scletorized. Valve; long and broad, 2.54 times as long as its width. The costa margin of the valve is rather straight upto the first half, but strongly convex right to apex. The apex of the valve is strongly pointed. The ventral magrin of the valve is short and convex in the middle. The costa margin, ventral margin and the apex of the valve have sparse long hair. Uncus is split and strongly scletorized. Its apex is pointed, its length 0.55 times as long as valve length. Saccus is rather short with its apical part narrowly rounded. Juxta is thin and long, narrow V-shaped. Aedeagus is thin and long, almost straight, its length being 9.50 times as long as its width (Fig. 1E).
Synonyms: cerisyi Godart, 1822; cerisy Godart,
1824; martini Fruhst, 1906; speciosa Stichel,
1907; destrigata Schultz, 1908; caeca Shelj,
1927; mysiniensis Eisn. and Wag., 1974;
koroneii Katt. and Kouts., 1978; sami Schmidt, 1989 ( KoCak and Kemal, 2009).
Kizildag-Hatay (900-1200 m), 20.IV.2009 2 male (); 15.V.2009 1 male (), 1 female (); 11.VI.2010 1 male (); 25.VI.2010 4 male ().
Samples were caught on mountain sides and river beds vegetated with flowering herbaceous plants, and sparsely populated bush like red oaks and pinus trees.
Length 23 mm, 19 mm; wingspan 57 mm, 53 mm.
Forewing broad and triangle shaped, its length being 2.20 times as long as its width. Hindwing broad, 1.60 times as long as its width.
There are five different patterns between M2- M3-Cu1-Cu2-2A wing veins underneath the hindwings of both male and female butterflies. These patterns are large and have black cores (Fig.2C).
In male genitalia of Z. cerisyi (Fig. 2D) all the organs are strongly scletorized. Valve; long and broad, its length: 3.23 times as long as its width. The costa margin of the valve is rather straight upto the first half, but strongly convex right to apex. The apex of the valve is strongly pointed. The ventral magrin of the valve is short convex in the middle. The costa margin, ventral margin and apex of the valve have sparse long hair. Uncus is split and strongly scletorized. Its apex is pointed, its length: 0.48 times as long as valve length. Saccus is rather short, its apical part broadly rounded. Juxta is thin and long, narrow V-shaped. Aedeagus is thin and long, almost straight, its length being 15 times as long as its width (Fig. 2E).
Z. cerisyi is very similar to Z. deyrollei while being longer and larger. These two species were caught in various habitats between 900-1200 meters altitudes in the Kizildag region of the Amanos Mountains. Z. cerisyi was often met in rocky areas, and river beds with ample flowering herbaceous plants and shrubs. On the other hand Z. deyrollei was sampled more in low lands, and hill sides vegetated with flowering herbaceous plants and river beds as well as in open pine forests. The large rectangular patterns occurring between M2-M3- Cu1-Cu2-2A wing veings underneath the hindwings of Z. cerisyi are covered with black scales. On the other hand, the same patterns on Z. deyrollei are relatively smaller and have yellow scales. Pattern number two is relatively longer in Z. cerisyi while it is more in square form in Z. deyrollei. The wing tail formed by the M3 vein on the hind wing is relatively longer in Z. cerisyi.
When it comes to male genital organs of both species, Z. cerisyi's is bigger than that of Z. deyrollei. Belonging to genus Zeriynthia, which has 4 species in Turkey, Z. polyxena and Z. caucasica exhibit several differences in wing patterns not only within their genus but also when compared with Z. cerisyi and Z. deyrollei. These two species were not studied here since they do not exhibit any similiarities in wing patterns.
This study will help both amateur butterfly watchers and entomologists working in butterfly systematics to distinguish between Z. cerisyi and Z. deyrollei.
The study will also contribute to the collection of data for genital organs of butterflies in Turkey, which has been missing so far.
ARIKAWA, K. AND SUYAMA, D., 1997. Hindsight by genitalia: photo-guided copulation in butterflies. J. Comp. Physiol. A., 180: 295-299.
BAYTAS, A. AND KARACETIN, E., 2008. TUrkiye'nin kelebek rehberi. NTV Yayinlari TUrkiye, pp.173.
BORROR, D.J., TRIPLEHOR, C.A. AND JOHNSON, N.F., 1989. An introduction to the study of insect. Saunders Collage Publishing, America, pp.809.
DEMIRSOY, A., 2003. Entomoloji. YaSamin Temel Kurallari. Ankara, TUrkiye, pp. 941.
ECEVIT, O., 2000. BOcek sistematigi. Ondokuz Mayis Universitesi Ziraat FakUltesi, Samsun, TUrkiye, pp. 487.
GOULSON, D., 1993. Variation in the genitalia of the butterfly Maniola jurtina (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 107: 65-71.
KARACETIN, E. AND WELCH, H.J., 2011. TUrkiye'deki kelebeklerin kirmizi kitabi. Doga Koruma Merkezi, Ankara, TUrkiye, pp. 124.
KARACETIN, E., WELCH, H.J., TURAK, A., BALKIZ, O. AND WELCH, G., 2011. TUrkiye'deki kelebeklerin koruma stratejisi. Doga Koruma Merkezi Ankara, TUrkiye, pp. 65.
KARSHOLT, O. AND RAZOWSKI, J., 1996. The Lepidoptera of Europe A Distributional Checklist. Stenstrup, Denmark, pp. 380.
KATBEH-BADER, A., AMR, Z.S. AND ISMA'EL, S., 2003. The butterflies of Jordan. J. Res. Lepidop., 37: 11-26.
KAYCI, L., 2007. Erek Dagi (Van) Papilionoidea ve Hesperioidea ekolojisi ve faunasi Uzerine araStirmalar (Lepidoptera), Cent. Ent. Stud. Ankara, 6: 1-48.
KIYAK, S., 2000. Entomolojik MUze Metotlari. Ankara, TUrkiye, pp. 201.
KOCAK, A.O. AND KEMAL, M., 2006. Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Turkey. Cent. Ent. Stud. Ankara, 1: 1-196.
KOCAK, A.O. AND KEMAL, M., 2007. Revised and annotated checklist of the Lepidoptera of Turkey. Cent. Ent. Stud. Ankara, 8: 1-150.
KOCAK, A.O. AND KEMAL, M., 2009. Revised checklist of the Lepidoptera of Turkey. Cent. Ent. Stud. Ankara, 17: 1-150.
MILLER, J.S., 1988. External genitalic morphology and copulatory mechanism of Cyanotricha necyria (Felder) (Dioptidae). J. Lepidop. Soc., 42: 103-115.
NAZARI, V. AND SPERLING, F.A.H., 2007. Mitochondrial DNA divergence and phylogeography in western Palaearctic Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): How many species are there? Insect Syst. Evol., 38: 121-138.
ONDER, F., 1998. Taksonomi Ilkeleri. Ege Universitesi Ziraat FakUltesi, Izmir, TUrkiye, pp. 87.
OZKOL, H., 2006. GevaS ilCesi (Van) Papilionoidea ve Hesperioidea ekolojisi ve faunasi Uzerine araStirmalar (Lepidoptera), Cent. Ent. Stud. Ankara, 5: 1-56.
TEKIN, F., 2007. Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera) tUrleri Uzerinde faunistik ve sistematik araStirmalar. Ege Universitesi Fen Bilimleri EnstitUsU, Izmir, TUrkiye, pp. 125.
SEVEN, E., 2010. Sirvan (Siirt) Papilionoidea ve Hesperioidea ekolojisi ve faunasi Uzerine araStirmalar (Lepidoptera), Cent. Ent. Stud. Ankara, 20: 1-120.
VAN SWAAY, C.A.M. AND WARREN, M.S., 1999. Red Data Book of European Butterflies (Rhopalocera). Nature and Envronment, Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg, pp. 260.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31000. Hatay, Turkey, Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Pakistan Journal of Zoology|
|Date:||Oct 31, 2012|
|Previous Article:||New Distribution Information on Woolly Flying Squirrel (Eupetaurus cinereus Thomas, 1888) in Neelum Valley of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.|
|Next Article:||Testicular Toxicity Induced by Deltamethrin in Albino Mice.|