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The French Violin School: from Viotti to Beriot.

In 1782, a young Italian violinist debuted at the Concert spirituel in Paris. His name was Giovanni Battista Viotti and he had recently toured Europe with his teacher Gaetano Pugnani. His concerts were a revelation, and have influenced violin playing and composing to the present day. Viotti was one of the first great violinists to use the newly designed Tourte bow, and this naturally had implications for the music he composed and the sound he was able to produce. The Tourte family of bow makers (especially Francois Xavier [le jeune]) is credited with the final design of the violin bow, in particular the concave stick that allowed more expressive bowing by making it easier to control dynamics and execute a wider variety of bow strokes, especially "off the string" bowings. The development of a new bowing was "accompanied (and promoted) by a different ethos about the basic stroke .. and by an expansion of the range of special bowings. There was a movement away from a naturally articulated stroke towards a more legato style." (1) Viotti made his stunning debut with a concerto of his own composition, and for a year and a half was the talk of the Parisian, and even European, musical world. The school he founded, whose pillars were Pierre Rode, Rodolphe Kreutzer, and Pierre Baillot (all professors at the Paris Conservatoire), would follow the example of their great Italian mentor in matters of style and musical taste, and influence the violin concerto even into the late romantic age. Baillot, building on the pedagogical work he and his colleagues had accomplished at the conservatoire in the 1790s, would later write one of the greatest treatises on violin playing: The Art of the Violin. (2) In his memoirs, Carl Flesch remembered that the Paris Conservatoire used French School concertos as test pieces as late as the 1890s. And in Berlin in the winter of 1903-4, Flesch selected Viotti's nineteenth concerto as part of a series of concerts detailing the history of the violin. (3) Rode was one of the few composers whose works Nicolo Paganini consented to play, and later in the century Henryk Wieniawski composed a cadenza to Rode's Seventh Concerto. (4)

The French School influenced the Viennese School. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart added orchestra parts to Viotti's Sixteenth Violin Concerto, and French School violin writing influenced Ludwig van Beethoven. Beethoven was personally acquainted with both Kreutzer and Rode, and Baillot was one of a handful of violinists who played Beethoven's violin concerto publicly before its revival by Joseph Joachim. The Franco-Belgian School of Charles-Auguste de Beriot and later Henry Vieuxtemps is an offshoot of the French School--indeed even the Russian School is related to the French School, as both Rode and Baillot spent years in Russia, Rode from 1804 to 1808 and Baillot from 1805 to 1808.

Despite the historical importance of the French Violin School of Viotti, Rode, Kreutzer, Baillot, and their colleagues, the twentieth century has not been kind to them. Scores of most Viotti and Rode concertos are difficult to acquire, and those of Kreutzer and Baillot even more so. Kreutzer, in fact, is the best-known name among the French School composers, and that is due to the fact that Beethoven's most famous violin sonata bears his name. Kreutzer's name is also featured in the title of a famous novella by Leo Tolstoy. The same pattern is true in the realm of recordings. Viotti, Rode, Kreutzer, and Baillot collectively composed about seventy violin concertos; only the twenty-nine concertos of Viotti have received much attention and most of that has focused on his Concerto no. 22 in A Minor, by far the most famous work of the French Violin School. (Interestingly, one of the few recordings of Kreutzer in the mid-twentieth century is Joe Venuti's 1940s jazz arrangement of Kreutzer's Twenty-seventh Caprice [Tempo TR 530, 78 rpm].) Despite the lean catalog, the situation is improving, at least for Viotti. An excellent series of Viotti recordings has recently become available, allowing the listener to hear all the Viotti concertos and sonatas for the first time.

Here is an opportunity for an enterprising violinist to assume the task of recording the other forgotten works of the French Violin School.

GIOVANNI BATTISTA VIOTTI (1755-1824)

Viotti was born in Fontanetto da Po, Italy, in 1755. The son of a blacksmith, he was sent to Turin to complete his musical studies, and eventually came under the tutelage of Pugnani. When Pugnani went on a European tour in 1780, he took his young colleague along. After an apparent falling-out with Pugnani before the pair reached Paris, Viotti arrived in Paris alone and made his debut in the Concert spirituel of 17 March 1782. Viotti apparently had no need for the applause of the public, for after only a year and a half of public performance he retired to the quieter life of courtier to the aristocracy. Because of his connections, he was appointed to manage the Theatre du Monsieur in 1788. This was not an auspicious time for the theater and performances were temporarily suspended the following year. Under suspicion by both the sans culottes (revolutionaries who distrusted Viotti because of his long association with the aristocracy) and royalist elements (because he was a foreigner and sometimes expressed republican sentiments), Viotti fled to London in 1792. In England he was suspected of republicanism and forced to move again, this time to Germany. In 1801 Viotti returned to London, where he stayed until 1818. After another disastrous stint in Parisian theater management (a political assassination occurred in the theater he managed), Viotti returned to England in 1822 and died there in 1824.

The core of Viotti's work is his twenty-nine violin concertos, which span the entire breadth of his career. These are generally divided into two groups: the Parisian concertos (nos. 1-19) and the London concertos (nos. 20-29). The London concertos, especially the Twenty-Second in A minor, are the better known. The French School composers sometimes neglected the orchestra, but in the London concertos Viotti wrote for a full romantic orchestra, comparable to the orchestra Beethoven used for his violin concerto. The London concertos are also generally less technically difficult and are more Haydnesque, reflecting, perhaps, the time he had spent with Joseph Haydn while in London.

Most commentators consider Viotti's Violin Concerto no. 22 in A Minor his masterpiece--a feeling echoed by Johannes Brahms and Joachim. This concerto is by far the most frequently recorded of Viotti's work (or any French School composition). Several of the great violinists of the mid-twentieth century recorded it; among them were Isaac Stern, Arthur Grumiaux, Yehudi Menuhin, and David Oistrakh. While there has been greater interest in all of Viotti's works in recent years, the Twenty-second still holds a prominent place among more recent recordings. These include readings by Itzhak Perlman (EMI Classics CDC 55675026), Rainer Kussmaul's very fine performance (CPO 999 324-2), Elizabeth Wallfisch playing on a baroque violin (Hyperion CDH55157), Mark Kaplan (Arabesque Z6691), Franco Mezzena in his almost completed survey of all twenty-nine concertos (Dynamic CDS 425), and Uto Ughi's fine rendering (P&P Classica CDC 010). Perhaps the second best-known Viotti concerto is the Twenty-third in G major. Mauro Ranieri and the Accademia dei filarmonici (Naxos 8.553861) present a fine version of this; especially noteworthy are the wonderful atmospheric yearning of the andante and the jaunty high spirits of the finale.

One of the finest of the Paris concertos is the Nineteenth in G minor. For Viotti's first eighteen concertos he employed a chamber orchestra of oboes, horns, and strings. In the Nineteenth he added clarinets and flutes; under the influence of Haydn, Viotti would feature the till "state-of-the-art" orchestra as it existed at that time. The same disc that contains Kussmaul's performance of the Twenty-second Concerto also includes his version of the Nineteenth. Kussmaul's fine reading of two of the best Viotti works make this one of the best available Viotti discs. His chief contemporary competition is Franco Mezzena and the Symphonia Perusina. Mezzena is the soloist for all of the Dynamic label's recordings of Viotti concertos, which now includes twenty-seven of Viotti's twenty-nine concertos (the series lacks only Concertos nos. 21 and 29). Mezzena's playing is quite good and all of his renditions can be recommended.

Though recordings of some of Viotti's other concertos have appeared on various labels in earlier years, Dynamic's set (CDS nos. 63, 86, 103, 150, 206, 238, 243, 364, 425), which was recorded over an approximately ten-year period beginning in 1990, is the standard for Viotti and includes concertos never recorded before. Any volume in the series is well worth owning. The earlier concertos, some of which were composed as early as 1780, are very much in the eighteenth-century style, while still displaying elements of the romantic virtuoso style that made them revolutionary in their time. The orchestra, as previously noted, is smaller in the earlier Paris concertos. The typical characteristics of the French style are in evidence from the first concerto: an heroic conception of the soloist that makes good use of the new Tourte bow (and often includes an extended section on the G string), the typical dotted-rhythm themes, and the jaunty rondo finales. The same Dynamic disc with Mezzena that contains Viotti's Nineteenth Concerto also features Viotti's First Concerto in C Major and Second Concerto in E Major. This disc represents Viotti's Paris style well and is highly recommended.

The discs in Dynamic's series typically contain three concertos, often mixing Paris and London compositions. Besides the grouping of Concertos nos. 1, 2, and 19, other excellent combinations are Concertos nos. 20, 27, and 4 (Concerto no. 27 features a lovely first movement andante before the allegro vivace); Concertos nos. 18, 14, and 3; and Concertos nos. 7, 13, and 16 (the Thirteenth is one of Viotti's best and Mozart actually added orchestra parts to the Sixteenth). The volumes in this series are uniformly excellent.

While all the French School composers tended to focus on the violin concerto, and the concerto form was the school's great contribution to the history of the violin, they also explored other musical forms. The French School treatment of the violin sonata is interesting. While Mozart and Beethoven were pioneering the violin sonata as it is known today, the French School stayed true to the earlier model of a dominant violin part with figured bass accompaniment. Viotti's violin sonatas are characterized by a more antique sound than that of his concertos, and are quite satisfying examples of the genre. Again Dynamic offers the listener the entire range of Viotti's violin sonatas in a series of multiple discs (S 2002, S 2003, and S 2004). The sonatas are performed by Felix Ayo and Corrado de Bernart in delightful readings.

The same Naxos disc that includes Ranieri's rendition of the Twenty-third Concerto also contains the Sinfonia Concertante no. 1 in F Major and the Sinfonia Concertante no. 2 in B-flat Major. Roberto Baraldi, Alberto Martini, and the Accademia dei filarmonici offer excellent performances of these delightful works. In the sinfonie concertanti, Viotti displays in full measure a delicacy and charm that recall Mozart. Viotti himself later arranged the B-flat major sinfonia concertante as a piano concerto--most of Viotti's piano concertos were reworkings of previous compositions in other forms.

The string quartet was another form regularly explored by the French School composers. Among current readings of Viotti quartets are those by L'Arte del Suono (featuring Lola Bobesco) on the Talent label (DOM 291046). As well as offering outstanding performances, this disc includes all six string quartets. Dynamic also has also released recordings of these works played by the Quartetto Aira (CDS 138).

Several Viotti recordings could not be reviewed for this article but may be worth examination, and are included in the discography. These include a disc on the Bongiovanni label with Meditazione in preghiera for violin and orchestra, the Concerto no. 20, and the Concerto for Violin, Piano, and Orchestra no. 3 (Bongiovanni GB 5101-2); several discs of harp music containing the Sonata for Harp in B-flat Major, and one also has the Rondo for Harp in A Major (Naxos 8.554252; Tactus TC.752201); Lola Bobesco's performance of Concertos nos. 22 and 23 on the Talent label (DOM 291013); a Viotti violin duet performed by Yehudi Menuhin and Giaconda de Vito (EMI Classics CZS 5738192); duets and serenades for two violins performed by Dina Schneidermann and Emil Kamilarov (Dynamic S 2008); Marielle Nordmann's performance (in her own arrangement for harp) of Viotti's Violin Concerto no. 19 (Sony Classical SK 58919); Adelina Oprean's recording of Viotti's Violin Concerto no. 13, coupled with Fiorillo's rarely performed Violin Concerto no. 1 in F Major (Hyperion CDH 55062); a disc of trios and serenades performed by L'Arte del Arco (Dynamic CDS 101); an Adagio and Rondeau for cello and orchestra performed by Franco Maggio Ormezowski (Bongiovanni GB 5095-2); and Guido Rimonda's performance of the Concerto for Violin no. 9 in A Major coupled with a Viotti piano concerto (Bongiovanni GB 5092-2).

PIERRE RODE (1774-1830)

Born in Bordeaux in 1774, Rode traveled to Paris in 1787, apparently intending to make his fortune as a prodigy, and soon became a pupil of Viotti. Though Viotti had retired from the concert stage, he had able pupils to perform the compositions he was producing steadily during this period: during Holy Week 1792 Rode played five Viotti concertos, including the premiere of Viotti's Eighteenth Concerto. Within months of this series of concerts by his principal pupil, Viotti had fled to England. Rode became one of the first violin professors at the newly organized Paris Conservatoire and was soon considered the leading composer of the French School, after Viotti. He traveled across Europe and eventually became violinist to Tsar Alexander I, a position he held for four years. His return to Paris in 1808 marked a turning point in his career. Before his Russian adventure he had been lionized; after his return he was met with indifference by public and press alike. If we are to believe Louis Spohr's autobiography, Spohr (having years before modeled himself on the "perfect" Rode) later humiliated Rode in public by demonstrating to Rode himself how Rode's music should be played, just after Rode had played the same piece. (5) Rode ended his public career shortly after his return to Paris, but continued to play at private gatherings; among his subsequent private concerts was the premier performance of Beethoven's opus 96 violin sonata (Beethoven later complained about his playing). Rode lived in Berlin for a number of years and knew the Mendelssohns well, but eventually returned to France. In 1828, he attempted a public comeback that was so disastrous that some commentators believe it shortened his life. He died in 1830.

Rode composed thirteen violin concertos. His style was, for the most part, fully developed in his Concerto no. 1 of 1794. After Viotti, Rode was the leading composer of the French School and his gift for writing fine lyrical melodies is especially noteworthy. Rode, like Viotti, rarely developed themes, but more often simply repeated themes or introduced entirely new material in the development and recapitulation sections of a movement. French School composers generally followed a pattern of alternating ritornello (orchestra) and episode (soloist) that is reminiscent in some ways of the baroque concerto while still pointing to the virtuoso concertos of the nineteenth century. (6) Though several of Rode's concertos (especially nos. 6 and 7) have been in print since Rode wrote them, there unfortunately seem to have been no commercial recordings of any Rode violin concerto.

Rode's best-known work is the Twenty-four Caprices in the Form of Etudes. (7) Almost every French School composer, with the exception of Viotti, produced some sort of pedagogical material, and apparently even Viotti created the beginnings of a method. In the history of violin etudes, Rode's set of caprices is only overshadowed by those of Kreutzer and Paganini. There are two recent complete recordings of the Rode Caprices: Oscar Shumsky (ebs 6007) and Cristina Giovannini (Sipario CS 51-52C). Shumsky plays the Stradivari instrument once owned by Rode himself. In his notes for the compact disc, Shumsky compares Rode's set favorably with Paganini's, writing that Rode's Twenty-four Caprices were written "by a highly gifted and sensitive musician with serious aims. They are no mere 'technical exercises.'" (8) Shumsky and Giovannini present a sharp contrast in tempo--Shumsky plays all twenty-four faster than Giovannini, and in many cases quite a bit faster. Giovannini is perhaps truer to the tempo markings (often moderato), but Shumsky has a bite and presence that make his disc especially compelling. The sound quality of Shumsky's recording is also noticeably better.

Giovannini's rendering of the 24 Caprices is coupled on her two-disc set with Rode's Two Duets for Two Violins, op. 3 (Sipario CS 51-52C). The duet form was a favorite with the French School, and these two duets are prime examples of Rode's genial "house music."

The Quatuor Debussy includes Rode's Quatuor it cordes brillant no. 2 in a program of three little-known French quartets entitled Trois quatuors: Georges Onslow, Charles Dancla, Pierre Rode (Auvidis Valois V 4749). The sound quality is excellent and the quartet's performance of this three-movement work is exceptional; Rode's melodic gift and typical charm are fully in evidence. The disc also features another work from the French School: the Quatuor it cordes no. 8, op. 87 by Charles Dancla. Dancla was recommended for admission to the Paris Conservatoire in 1828 by Rode (he was eleven years old at the time) and he remained true to French School aesthetic ideals until his death in 1907. His quartet is a graceful work in the French tradition.

Several performances of available Rode works could not be reviewed for this article. These include Fabio Biondi's performance of the Twenty-fourth Caprice on his The Poet-Violinist disc (Opus 111 OPS 3095); Thibaud's ca. 1922 performance of the Eighteenth Caprice (called the "Minuet-Caprice" and with added piano accompaniment) on a Biddulph disc (LAB014); and a Polonaise for Flute and Guitar performed by Augustin Maruri and Sabine Dreier (EMEC E-040).

RODOLPHE KREUTZER (1766-1831)

Rodolphe Kreutzer, the son of a musician, was born at Versailles in 1766. At sixteen he was appointed first violin in the Chapelle du Roi and in 1780 (two years before Viotti) he made his debut at the Concert spirituel. Kreutzer later stated that Viotti's advent in Paris in 1782 was a revelation; he premiered his own first concerto in 1784. He wrote nineteen violin concertos and continued to pursue his violinistic path throughout his career, but he may have been better known as a composer of popular operas (he penned thirty-nine operas and ballets). Kreutzer held various posts, traveled widely, and taught at the conservatoire until 1826. He died in 1831.

A disc not heard by this reviewer, and apparently the only Kreutzer commercial recording currently available, is the Quintet for Oboe and Strings in C Major op. 9, "Grand" (Hyperion CDH 55015).

PIERRE BAILLOT (1771-1842)

Pierre Baillot is a rarity among virtuosi: he was not a child prodigy. Born in Passy, France, in 1771, his family lived in Italy and Paris. Though Baillot studied the violin throughout his youth and briefly held a position in a Parisian theater during several months of 1791, he worked as a private secretary and as an official in the Ministry of Finance until he was in his mid-twenties. In 1795, he made a successful Parisian debut and was able to devote himself entirely to music. Appointed a professor at the conservatoire at the end of 1795, he remained there for forty-seven years. He followed his friend Rode to Russia in 1805, but unlike Rode's his career expanded upon his return to Paris three years later. His series of chamber concerts was famous throughout Europe and for ten years he served as soloist at the opera. He died in 1842.

Though Baillot may have been the least talented of the major French School composers, he exercised enormous influence through his example and especially through his magnum opus, The Art of the Violin. He composed nine violin concertos, a symphonie concertante, a violin sonata, and numerous airs varies. One of Baillot's airs varies is performed by the Russian Baroque Ensemble on its two-compact disc set entitled Russian Baroque: Chamber Music from the Court of St. Petersburg (Arte Nova 74321 51626 2). Baillot's contribution is his Air russe varie for string quartet (or violin solo with the accompaniment of violin, viola, and cello). Baillot actually wrote several works with similar titles and it is unclear whether this is one of those mentioned in the Grove Music Online (9) or a different work altogether. The brochure notes state only that the score came from a manuscript in the library of the Moscow Conservatory. The eight-minute piece begins with a soulful slow introduction before the Russian theme enters. A sad and yearning quality is present throughout all of the music, and the performance is excellent. The Baillot work is accompanied by works by Joseph Starzer, Anton Ferdinand Titz, Luigi Madonis, Maxim Sozontovich Berezovsky, and Daniel Steibelt. This disc is a reminder that the French School had a significant influence in Russia.

CHARLES DE BERIOT (1802-1870)

Beriot was instrumental in the creation of the Franco-Belgian School, a marriage of the older French School of Viotti and colleagues and the new technical innovations of Paganini (though Beriot wrote in a more virtuosic style before he heard Paganini). Beriot was born in Louvain, Belgium, to an impoverished aristocratic family and was orphaned at the age of nine. A prodigy, he went to Paris and was briefly a student of Baillot. He also played for Viotti, who gave him a famous piece of advice: "You have a beautiful style, try to perfect it; listen to all violinists of talent, but do not imitate anyone." (10) Though apparently a thoroughly conservative man outside the musical realm, he was part of one of the most dramatic love stories of the nineteenth century. His liaison with (and eventual marriage to) the still-married opera diva Maria Malibran was the talk of the European musical world. When Malibran collapsed on stage in England and died several days later while still in her twenties, Beriot seemingly lost his head and fled to Belgium. Unable to reclaim his wife's body--England refused to recognize their marriage and only surrendered the body when Maria's mother came personally to claim it--he only gradually returned completely to musical life. When the post of violin professor became available in Paris, Beriot was offered the position, but he refused. Perhaps he felt he had already strayed too far outside the bounds of the French School tradition and wanted an opportunity to shape the curriculum more to his own ideals. Such an opportunity soon offered itself in the shape of an offer of the same post in Brussels, which he accepted. He remained at the Brussels Conservatory until failing eyesight forced his retirement in 1852. By 1858 he was totally blind. His great pupil was Henry Vieuxtemps, who succeeded him at the Brussels Conservatory in 1870 and refused to take Beriot's place until after the latter's death. His works with opus numbers exceed one hundred, but his key works are the ten violin concertos. Beriot evolved an interesting style; a typical Beriot concerto (such as no. 9 in A minor, perhaps the best known), while still containing three recognizable movements, is played continuously, and sometimes themes from one movement reappear later. Beriot was also concise: his best-known concertos last fifteen to twenty minutes.

One of the best performances of a French School work is Maud Powell's 1915-16 recording of Beriot's Concerto no. 7 in G Major. Though she is accompanied by a piano instead of an orchestra and much of the original tutti material is deleted, Powell plays with a magic reminiscent of Fritz Kreisler. This concerto appears on a Naxos disc entitled Maud Powell: The Complete Recordings 1904-1917, Volume 1 (Naxos 8.110961) and is testimony to how great an artist Maud Powell was. Powell studied in the French School tradition (with Charles Dancla, who knew Beriot's playing firsthand), a fact that is fully evident in her playing of Beriot.

Takako Nishizaki performs a modern traversal of Beriot Concertos nos. 1, 8, and 9 on a Marco Polo disc (8.220440), later issued by Naxos (8.555104). Beriot uses the full romantic orchestra and every manner of springing bow, harmonics, themes in octaves, etc.--all the equipment of the nineteenth-century virtuoso. Nishizaki is a wonderfully expressive violinist and fully up to the task of presenting this romantic music. Listening to Powell and Nishizaki play Beriot, it is obvious that the French School has moved into a new era--not wholly dismissing the past, but now cross-fertilized by the developments in virtuoso playing symbolized by Paganini.

Beriot wrote many airs varits and other miscellaneous pieces. The best known of these is the Scene de ballet. Itzhak Perlman plays this piece to romantic perfection on the same Concertos from My Childhood album that contains his rendition of Viotti's Twenty-second Concerto. Several performances of available Beriot works could not be reviewed for this article. These include three duos concertants for two violins performed by Cecil Vidal and Kuniko Nagata on the Talent label (DOM 291043) and the Gobel Trio's performance of the Trio for Piano and Strings no. 2, op. 58 (Signum, SIGX 11500).

PEDIAGOGICAL RECORDINGS FROM THE FRENCH SCHOOL

The French Violin School was centered at the Paris Conservatoire and the French School composers were nearly all active in pedagogy. Baillot, Kreutzer, and Rode produced a manual of instruction for the conservatoire. Baillot expanded this work in his The Art of the Violin. Kreutzer composed a well-known set of forty (later forty-two) violin etudes that have become essential for violin students almost without exception (Forty-two Studies or Caprices for the Violin). Rode composed his Twenty-four Caprices or Etudes and Beriot wrote many studies as well as his own violin method. In addition, because of the relatively modest technical requirements of French School concertos, several have long been known as "teaching" concertos.

Several recordings make good use of the pedagogical qualities of the French School. A teaching company called Virtual Virtuoso has created Slow Kreutzer: 42 Etudes for Violin (CD140011-B1-ET). Slow Kreutzer presents all forty-two of Kreutzer's etudes for violin on four discs. The recording was made from MIDI files and is played at a constant dynamic level. The purpose is to help students learn the etudes at a slower tempo (often there are two tempos for the same etude: slow and nearly to speed) while hearing the correct intonation. This is a fine teaching tool. A more traditional method of audio teaching assistance is demonstrated by the venerable Music Minus One (MMO) series. For many years MMO has offered Viotti's Violin Concerto no. 22, most recently played by Geoffrey Applegate (MMO CD 3114). The new version contains two discs, one at tempo and one slower. Both discs contain the full version with soloist and without.

A European counterpart of MMO is Dowani. In 2003 Dowani released Beriot's Violin Concerto no. 9 in A Minor (DOW 4501). Dowani teaching products contain a complete version of the work and a complete accompaniment, as well as two slower practice versions with piano-in the case of Beriot, on two separate compact discs. The complete performance by Alexander Trostyansky and the Russian Philharmonic Orchestra is excellent.

CONCLUSION

The French Violin School represents one of the great epochs in the history of the violin and its repertoire. Though its works are rarely performed or recorded today, the French School was recognized in its time as one of the leading centers of musical activity. Only Viotti has received adequate attention on disc; the triumvirate of Rode, Kreutzer, and Baillot has fallen into nearly complete obscurity. Even Beriot, whose more romantic sensibility and greater virtuoso presence might be presumed to guarantee a larger audience, is rarely performed. The recorded music that does exist displays music of charm and taste, in some ways harking back to older traditions even as it opened new vistas, especially for the violin concerto. One can only hope that the successors of Viotti will eventually attract the same attention.

(1.) Peter Walls, "Bowing: sec. II of "Bow," Grove Music Online (2003), http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 14 October 2003), at 2: "Bowstrokes after c1780."

(2.) Pierre Baillot, The Art of the Violin, ed. and trans. Louise Goldberg (Evanston, II,: Northwestern University Press, 1991).

(3.) Carl Flesch, The Memoirs of Carl Flesh (New York: Da Capo Press, 1979), 101,239.

(4.) Pierre Rode, Concerto No. 7 in A Minor; Opus 9, for Violin and Piano, ed. Josef Gingold with a cadenza by Henri Wieniawski (New York: International Music Co., 1966). This edition includes a facsimile of Wieniawski's cadenza.

(5.) Louis Spohr, Louis Spohr's Autobiography (London: Longman, Green. Roberts, and Green, 1865), 165, 167.

(6.) Charles-David Lehrer, The Nineteenth-Century Parisian Concerto (Ph.D. dis., University of California, Los Angeles. 1990).

(7.) Pierre Rode, 24 Capricien in Form yon Etuden fur Violine ,Solo, ed. Walther Davisson (Frankfurt: C. F. Peters, 1946). This is only one of many published versions of the Twenty-four Caprices.

(8.) Oscar Shumsky, "Notes by Oscar Shumsky," Pierre Rode: 24 Caprices for the Solo Violin, ebs 6007, [1988], CD.

(9.) Paul David, Manoug Parikian, and Michelle Garnier-Butel, "Baillot, Pierre (Marie Francois de Sales)," Grove Music Online, http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 14 October 2003).

(10.) Boris Schwarz, French Instrumental Music between the Revolutions (1789-1830) (New York: Da Capo, 1987), 217.

SELECTED DISCOGRAPHY

GIOVANNI BATTISTA VIOTTI: VIOLIN CONCERTOS

Giovanni Battista Viotti: Complete Violin Concertos. 9 vols. Franco Mezzena (Symphonia Perusina, Franco Mezzena, cond.). Vol. 1: Concertos nos. 8, 11, 12 (Dynamic CDS 63, 1990); Vol. 2: Concertos nos. 1, 2, 19 (Dynamic CDS 86, 1991); Vol. 3: Concertos nos. 7, 13, 16 (Dynamic CDS 103, 1996); Vol. 4: Concertos nos. 18, 14, 3 (Dynamic CDS 150, 1977); Vol. 5: Concertos nos. 20, 27, 4 (CDS 206, 1998); Vol. 6: Concertos nos. 23, 5, 6 (Dynamic CDS 238, 1999); Vol. 7: Concertos nos. 17, 15, 9 (Dynamic CDS 243, 1999); Vol. 8: Concertos nos. 25, 26, 10 (Dynamic CDS 364, 2000); Vol. 9: Concertos nos. 22, 24, 28 (Dynamic CDS 425, 2002).

Viotti: Violin Concertos nos. 4, 22 & 24. Marc Kaplan (Padua Chamber Orchestra, David Golub, cond.). Arabesque Z6691, 1997.

Viotti: Concerto for Violin no. 9 in A Major, Concerto for Piano no. 7 in G Major. Guido Rimonda, Cristina Canziani (Camerate Ducale). Bongiovanni GB 5092-2, 1999.

Two Romantic Violin Concertos. Viotti: Concerto for Violin no. 13 in A Major, G. 65. Adelina Oprean (European Union Chamber Orchestra, Jorg Faerber, cond.). Hyperion CDH 55062, 2000.

Giovanni Battista Viotti: Violin Concertos 19 & 22. Rather Kussmaul (Deutsche Kammerakademie Neuss, Johannes Goritzki, cond.). CPO 999 324-2, 1995.

Itzhak Perlman: Concertos from My Childhood. Viotti: Violin Conerto no. 22 in A Minor. Itzhak Perlman (Juilliard Orchestra, Lawrence Foster, cond.). EMI Classics CDC 55675026, 1998.

Viotti/Mozart Violin Concertos. Vioni: Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A Minor no. 22. Uto Ughi (Chamber Orchestra of Santa Cecilia). P&P Classica cdc 010, 1984 (remastered 1998).

Viotti: Violin Concertos 22 & 23. Lola Bobesco (Rhineland-Pfalz State Philharmonic Orchestra, Kurt Redel, cond.). Talent DOM 291013, 1994.

Viotti: Violin Concerto no. 23; Sinfonie Concertanti nos. 1 and 2. Mauro Ranieri, Roberto Baraldi, and Alberto Martini (Accademia dei Filarmonici, Aldo Sisillo cond.). Naxos 8.553861, 1995.

Viotti: Meditazione in preghiera per violino e orchestra; Concerto per violino, pianoforte, e orchestra n. 3; Concerto per violino e orchestra in re maggiore n. 20. Cristina Canziani, Guido Rimonda (Camerata Ducale, Guido Rimonda cond.). Bongiovanni GB 5101-2, 2000.

Violin Concertos by Myslivecek, Viotti, Schubert, and Spohr. Elizabeth Wallfisch (Brandenburg Orchestra, Roy Goodman, cond.). Hyperion CDH 55157, 1995.

GIOVANNI BATTISTA VIOTTI: SONATAS AND OTHER WORKS

Giovanni Battista Viotti: Complete Sonatas for Violin and Piano, Op. 4. Felix Ayo, Corrado de Bernart. Vol. 1: Dynamic S 2002, 1997; Vol. 2: Dynamic S 2003, 1999; Vol. 3: Dynamic S 2004, 1998.

Viotti: String Quartets nos. 1, 2, & 3. Quartetto Aira. Dynamic CDS 138, 1996.

Viotti: 6 Quartets Concertante. L'Arte del Suono. Talent DOM 291046, 1994.

Viotti: 2 Trios, 3 Serenades. L'Arte del Arco. Dynamic CDS 101, 1996.

Viotti: Duets and Serenades for Two Violins. Duo Deschka (Dina Schneidermann, Emil Kamilarov). Dynamic S 2008, 2000.

Les itrouvables de Yehudi Menuhin. Viotti: Duet for 2 Violins. Yehudi Menuhin, Giaconda de Vito. EMI Classics CZS 5738192, 2002.

Italian Harp Music. Viotti: Sonata for Harp in B-flat Major. Claudia Antonelli. Naxos 8.554252, 2002.

Musiche Per Arpa. Viotti: Sonata Jot Harp in B-flat Major; Rondo for Harp in A Major. Antonella Ciccozzi. Tactus TC.752201, 2000.

Romantic Harp Concertos. Viotti: Concerto for Violin no. 19 in G Minor (arr. for harp). Marielle Nordmann (Franz Liszt Academy Chamber Orchestra, Jean-Pierre Rampal, cond.). Sony Classical SK 58919, 1995.

Viotti: Adagio et Rondeau for Cello and Orchestra. Franco Maggio Ormezowski (Camerate Ducale, Guido Rimonda, cond.). Bongiovanni GB 5095-2, 2000.

PIERRE RODE

Pierre Rode: 24 Caprices for the Solo Violin. Oscar Shumsky. ebs 6007, 1987.

J. P. J. Rode: 24 Capricci per violino solo, 2 Duetti Op. 3 per due violini. Cristina Giovannini and Lorenzo Bertoldi. Sipario CS 51-52C, 1998. (2 discs)

The Poet-Violinist. Rode: Caprice no. 24, Introduzione--Agitato e con fuoco. Fabio Biondi. Opus 111 OPS 3095, 1994.

Jacques Thibaud--The HMV And Victor Recordings 1922-1924. Rode: Caprice no. 18 (Minuet-caprice). Jacques Thibaud, Harold Craxton. Biddulph LAB014, 1997.

Original Romantic Music for Flute & Guitar. Rode: Polonaise. Agustin Maruri, Sabine Dreier. EMEC (Editorial de Musica Espanola Contemporanea) E-040, 2000.

Trois Quatuors: Georges Onslow, Charles Dancla, Pierre Rode. Quatuor Debussy. Auvdis Valois V 4749, 1994.

RODOLPHE KREUTZER

Crusell, Kreutzer, Reicha: Oboe Quintets. Kreutzer: Quintet for Oboe and Strings in C Major, Op. 9 "Grand." Sarah Francis (Allegri String Quartet). Hyperion CDH 55015, 1999.

PIERRE BAILLOT

Russian Baroque: Chamber Music from the Court of St. Petersburg. Baillot: Air russe varie pour le violon avec accompagnement d'un violon, viola, et basse. Russian Baroque Ensemble. Arte Nova 74321 51626 2, 1996.

CHARLES DE BERIOT

Maud Powell: The Complete Recordings 1904-1917, Vol. 1. Beriot: Violin Concerto no. 7 in G major. Maud Powell, George Falkenstein, and Arthur Loesser. Naxos 8.110961, 1915-16 (reissued 2001).

Charles Auguste de Beriot: Violin Concertos nos. 1, 8, and 9. Takako Nishizaki (RTBF Orchestra, Alfred Walter cond.). Marco Polo 8.220440, 1986 (reissued on Naxos 8.555104 [2003]).

Itzhak Perlman: Concertos from My Childhood. Charles-Auguste de Beriot: Scene de Ballet, Op. 100. Itzhak Perlman (Juilliard Orchestra, Lawrence Foster, cond.). EMI Classics CDC 55675026, 1998.

Beriot: Three Duos Concertants for Two Violins. Cecil Vidal, Kuniko Nagata. Talent DOM 291043, 2000.

Lowe, Beriot Piano Trios. Beriot: Trio for Piano and Strings no. 2, op. 58. Gobel Trio. Signum Records SIGX 11500, 2001.

PEDAGOGICAL RECORDINGS

Music Minus One Violin: Viotti Violin Concerto no. 22 in A Minor, G. 97. Geoffrey Applegate (Vienna Festival Orchestra, Franz Litschauer, cond.) Music Minus One MMO CD 3114, 1992.

Slow Kreutzer: 42 Etudes for Violin. Virtual Virtuoso. CD140011-B1-ET, 2001 (4 discs).

Dowani 3 Tempi Play along for Classical Music: Ch. De Beriot, Concerto no. 9 for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 104, A Minor. Alexander Trostyansky, Vitaly Junitsky (Russian Philharmonic Orchestra, Konstantin Krimets, cond.) Dowani DOW 4501, 2003.
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