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The Flora of the Bahamas, Donovan Correll, and the Miami University Connection.

Introduction

Mark Catesby (1683-1749), an English naturalist, first documented the plants of the Bahamas in his Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands published between 1729 and 1747. The work included 220 plates and extensive written notes on the natural history of the region he explored. His notes go far beyond illustrating the flora and fauna providing a lens into 17th and 18th century life. He illustrated and discussed 65 plants from the Bahamas and six plants from North America that also occur in the Bahamas. In addition, Catesby provided accounts, without illustrations, for another eight plants found in the Bahamas (including four palm species) (Cates 1996, 1998). Reveal (2012,2013) has made a modern analysis of Catesby's contributions to our knowledge of the plants and animals of the New World documenting the modern names of all of the taxa he illustrated. Most of Catesby's Bahamian plant illustrations served as type specimens in Linnaeus' Species plantarum (1753). Catesby apparently only introduced one species, Catesbaea spinosa L. (Rubiaceae) from the Bahamas to Europe. Although it might appear that Catesby recommended Linnaeus to name this species after himself this is not the case. It was the Dutch botanist Gronovius (1686-1762) who suggested Linnaeus to include it in his book. Remarkably, Catesby did not illustrate or discuss the Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea Morelet var. bahamensis (Griseb.) W. H. Barrett & Golfari (Pinaceae)), one of the most abundant species on Andros Island, even though he spent several months on the island. Also, he did not illustrate or mention the Australian pine (Casuarina sp. (Casuarinaceae)) raising the question of whether it had been introduced into the Bahamas by that time. Two other significant early publications on the flora of the Bahamas include Alice Northrop's (1902, 1910) Flora of New Provdence and Andros, with an enumeration of the plants collected by John I. Northrop and Alice R. Northrop, in 1890 and Britton and Millspaugh's (1920) The Bahama Flora. In 2005 Kass documented Northrop's type specimens for the Bahamas. In 1982 Donovan and Helen Correll published the Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Cornell & Correll 1982). Several local floras have been published in recent years including the Vascular Flora of Andros Island, Bahmas by Nickrent et al. (1988*) and An Illustrated Guide to the Common Plants of san Salvador Island, Bahamas by Kass (2009). Currently there is a proposal for a new modern electronic flora, Systematics, taxonomy, and the new flora of the Bahamian Archipelago, that would incorporate the many changes that have occurred during the last 30 years (Vincent & Hickey, submitted*).

The Miami University Connection

The Miami University connection to the Flora of the Bahamas begins with Richard A. Howard, a 1938 graduate of the Department of Botany at Miami University and former director of Harvard University's Arnold Arboretum. Two of his early publications include the Vegetation of the Bimini Island Group: Bahamas, B. W. I (Howard 1950*) and The modern names for Catesby's plants (Howard & Staples 1983*). In summer of 1976 Miami University professor Thomas K. Wilson and his wife Nancy participated in an educator's trip to the Forfar Field Station, Andros Island, Bahamas sponsored by the Center of Science and Industry, Columbus, Ohio. Soon after his return to Miami University he suggested that the two of us initiate a course on the Tropical Flora of the Bahamas at Forfar Field Station. However, the reality was that neither of us knew anything about the Bahama flora. In 1976 William Gillis was invited to give a seminar at Miami University on his comprehensive study of the genus Rhus (Anacardiaceae). During his visit we spent a lot of time learning everything we could about his studies in the Bahamas. We suggested for him to teach with us when we would first offer this tropical flora course in 1977, but he had made previous teaching commitments at Michigan State University. We then contacted Donovan Cornell at the Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden who agreed to spend a week in the field with our class in 1977. However, 2 months before the course was to be taught Correll called to say he was sorry but he had to give his undivided attention to the Flora of the Bahama Archipelago project. I asked him what we were supposed to do now. His response was that he had just the person who could teach with us sitting in his office. This is how I was first introduced to George Proctor who was more than willing to teach with us. Thus, in 1977 The Tropical Flora of the Bahamas, a 2 weeks course, was taught for the first time by Hardy Eshbaugh, Thomas K Wilson, and George Proctor to sixteen eager students at the Forfar Field Station on north Andros Island.

The course truly was a "baptism by fire." The first morning, in less than a mile along the beach and adjacent pineland to the north of the Forfar Field Station, George covered 90 plants with our bewildered students. It is fair to say that the two instructors were no less bewildered. After lunch we took our students aside and told them not to worry! We would just learn what we could with Dr. Proctor for the next 6 days and after he left we would reexamine all the plants to which we had been exposed. That first year was a sprint through the flora and plant taxonomy of Andros Island, Bahamas. We knew we did not want to teach the course the same way after that first year. We refined our efforts when we next taught the course in 1979. The title remained the same throughout the history of the course but the 2 weeks course became a natural history course blending taxonomy, economic botany and ethnobotany, ecology, floral biology, and other relevant tropical biology topics into the course. We also required the students to do an independent project both observational and analytical, that they had to write up as a part of their experiences.

The students who took the course were a mixture of undergraduate and graduate students mostly from the departments of Botany, Zoology, and the then Institute of Environmental Sciences at Miami University. We drew some students from other universities, the Forfar Field Station staff, and the Bahamas. A number of students who took the course saw the possibility of using it as a platform from which to launch research projects that later became published papers, reports, Master's, and Doctor's degree theses.

Scholarship and Publication

The first year we taught the course two students, Charlie Werth and Vance Baird (Fig. la) started a project looking at root parasitism in the genus Schoepfia (White Wood), a hemiparasite in the Olacaceae. These two students spent every spare moment they had excavating plants of this species out of the typical hardpan limestone pavement that characterizes the Andros landscape. They ended up using chisels to get enough material for their study. They were rewarded for their efforts when their paper Root parasitism in Schoepfia Shreb. (Olacaceae) was published in Biotropica (Werth et al. 1979*). The terrain of Andros Island offered certain unique challenges when it came to collecting plants (Fig. 1b).

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In 1983, Dan Nickrent, a graduate student, took the course, amazing the entire class with his quick, skilled, and accurate diagnostic pen and ink sketches of all the plants the class encountered while in the field. His talent ultimately resulted in the publication of the Vascular Flora of Andros Island, Bahamas (Nickrent et al. 1988*) an illustrated species by species guide to the flora of Andros Island. During the 30 year interval that the Tropical Flora of the Bahamas course was taught a number of faculty and student based studies led to the discovery of many plants new to the Bahamas or new to individual islands in the Bahamas (Table 1): Abaco Island (Freid et al. 2006*), Bell Island (Freid & Kerwin 1998*), Cat Island (Richey & Freid 2001*), Crooked Island (Freid 2004*), Eleuthera Island (Vincent & Kwit 2007*), Long Island (Richey & Freid 2001), and Mayaguana Island (Freid & Vincent 2007*). Also, there were many reports on some species or segments of the flora: Fungal Flora, (Vincent 1990*), Euphorbia graminea Jacq. (Euphorbiaceae) (Vincent 2013*), Harrisia brookii Britton (Cactaceae) (Vincent 2007*), Indigofera spicata Forssk. (Fabaceae) (Vincent 1995), Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) Hilliard & B. L. Burtt (Asteraceae) (Vincent & Freid 2006*), and Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb. var. sericea (Vahl) Merr. (Goodeniaceae) (Eshbaugh & Wilson, 1986*).

About the same time that these many floristic discoveries were being made several faculty and students became interested in the economic botany/ethnobotany of the islands. Mrs. Amelia Marshall (Fig. 2a) of Red Bays, Andros Island (who passed away in her nineties in 2012), was the inspiration for much of this work. Publications emulating from this research resulted in papers on: Andros Island (McClure 1981**, 1982*, 1986*; McClure & Eshbaugh 1983*; Eshbaugh etal. 1986*; Randolph 1994**, 1996*, 2005*; Randolph et al. 1997a*, 1997b*); Cat Island (Richey 2003*; Richey-Abbey 2012**) and Long Island (Richey-Abbey 2012**). McClure & Eshbaugh's (1983*) investigation of herbal love potions (aphrodisiacs) on Andros Island identified the primary plants used, methods of preparation, chemical constituents, and social and medicinal functions of these plant products (Table 2). Although the species incorporated into the love potions varied among individual preparer certain taxa were always present including Five-finger (Tabebuia bahamensis (Northr.) Britton (Bignoniaceae)), Strong back (Bourreria ovata Miers (Boraginaceae)), Stiff-cock (Diospyros crassinervis (Krug & Urb.) Standi. (Ebenaceae)), Love-vine (Cassytha filiforms L. (Lauraceae), Fig. 2a and b), Gum-elemi (Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae)), and Rat-wood (Erythroxylon rotundifolium Lunan (Erythroxylaceae)). Economic botany became a part of the class and students learned about how the people lived with and depended on plants. Silver-top (Coccothrinax argentata (Jacq.) L. H. Bailey (Arecaceae)) provided exceptional insights into the cultural connection to a unique from of baskets (Fig. 3a and b) made by the people of Red Bays, Andros Island.

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Archeological investigations were made by Berman and her associates on fuel wood selection (Berman 1992*), Lucayan-Taino basketry (Berman & Hutcheson 2000*), early Lucayan settlements (Berman & Pearsall 2000*), the Lucayan world (Berman 2013*), starch grain and phytolith analysis in early Lucayan prehistory (Berman & Pearsall 2008*; Berman, Middleton, and Pearsall, in press*), and chili peppers (Perry et al. 2007*), and the archeology of the Bahamian Archipelago (Berman et al. 2013*).

Quantitative ecological studies examined the nature of macrophyte communities off shore of Andros Island (Ford 1995**; Ford & Eshbaugh 1996*), pineland and dry evergreen vines (Frazer 1995**; Frazer & Eshbaugh 1996*), disturbance type plant successional communities in Bahamian Dry Forests (Larkin 2010**; Larkin et al. 2012*) and savannah grassland communities on the western side of Andros Island (Fig. 4a). Smith (1991**); Smith & Vankat (1992*), and Smith et al. (1992*) investigated the dry-evergreen forest (coppice) communities of North Andros Island. Fifteen stands of dry evergreen forest were sampled by quadrats and the data analyzed by dominance-type classification and Detrended Correspondence Analysis. These data and analyses indicate that coastal stands are generally at lower elevations and have fewer sinkholes than interior stands. They also are less dense, less rich in species, lower in species diversity, and have more trees with a low-branched or multiple-stemmed growth form. Coastal stands were divided into two communities: 1) Metopium-Coccoloba (Coastal), and 2) Coccoloba. Interior stands can be classified into three communites: 1) Metopium-Coccoloba (interior), 2) Metopium-Exothea, and 3) Eothea-Bursera-Metopium. The Bahamian dry evergreen forest of North Andros is more similar to the vegetation which occurs on the northern and central Islands than to the scrubbier vegetation on the southern islands. It is very similar to the tropical hardwood hammocks of southern Florida and some communities on limestone and coral soils in the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

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Reproductive biology studies were undertaken with Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) ant plant interactions (Eshbaugh 1987*), buttonwood (Conocarpus (Combretaceae)) (Kass et al. 2007a*, 2007b*), the Malpighiaceae (Schoffeitt 1985**), Canella (Canellaceae) (Wilson 1986*), Ernodea (Rubiaceae) (Negron-Ortiz 1994**, 1996*) and Consolea (Cactaceae) (Strittmatter 2006**; Strittmatter et al. 2002*, 2006*; Strittmatter et al. 2008*). Wilson's investigation (1986*) of the floral biology of Canella (Fig. 4b) showed that the bisexual flowers begin to open in June to the middle of June and flowering lasts until late August when it is in fruit (Fig. 4c). Not all trees flower at the same time. Normally only one or two flowers in a cyme are open at the same time. Flowers show a 2 days cycle where the first day it is in a female phase, with the stigma receptive and the second day is a male phase with the pollen being released. During this study students reported only finding flowers of one phase on any tree on a given day. Wilson told the students that their findings were impossible but upon reexamination their findings were confirmed much to Wilson's surprise. Essentially, Canella trees were functionally dioecious even when the flowers were bisexual. The system described for Canella increases the potential for out crossing. The operational system in Canella virtually precludes self-pollination. This system is described as "temporal dioecy" by pollination biologists. As Wilson pointed out it appears pollination within the same flower (autogamy) and between flowers on the same plant (geitonogamy) is extremely limited. Anatomical and Morphological studies were made on Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis (Block 1991**; Block & T. K. Wilson 1994*), Coccoloba (Polygonaceae) (Freid 2000**; Freid & Wilson 1996*), and the Malpighiaceae (Schoffeitt 1985**; Schoffeitt & Wilson 1987**).

Kjellmark (1995**, 1996*) looked at the late Holocene climate change and human disturbance on Andros Island using pollen cores of inland blue holes. Kjellmark's research indicates that three distinct plant communities have existed around Church's Blue Hole for the past 3,000 years (Fig. 5a). There was a much moister period before 1,500 BP and a drier period thereafter. Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, Myrica cerifera L. (Myricaceae), and Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (Dennstaedtiaceae) became dominant between 900 and 600 BP (Fig. 5b). Snyder et al. (2007) published a key to the pollen flora of the Bahamas.

A number of conservation issues have been examined including the need to conserve Bahamian floral biodiversity (Eshbaugh & Wilson 1996*). One year, in the 1980's as the class gathered to fly out of the Andros Town International Airport, we noted that Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake (Paperbark Tree) (Myrtaceae) had been planted as a landscaping item around the area. Within a few years it had spread beyond the airport and become well established around an adjacent pond. More recently the non-native invasive Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (Brazilian Pepper Tree) (Anacardiaceae) can be found at the same general location (Hickey & Vincent 2005*). Both these species need to be addressed and controlled. Ross Smith (2010**), a native of the Bahamas, wrote a practicum report for his master's degree on management and restoration biology perspectives for invasive alien plant species of the Bahamas Commonwealth.

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However, even more is known about a much more serious invasive, Scaevola taccada var. sericea. It was first reported in the Bahamas by Hill (1976) on Cat Cay, Bimini. In 1980 Donovan Cornell asked if he could come over to Forfar and join the course for a few days. He realized that we were making a number of discoveries that he wanted to include in his treatment of the Bahama Flora. One afternoon at Staniard Creek Wilson, Cornell, and the class made a momentous discovery of a new plant growing along the beach. It was obviously a Scaevola but not the species S. plumieri. There weren't many plants but it was well established along the shore. Later it was identified as Scaevola taccada var. sericea (Fig. 6a) (Eshbaugh & Wilson 1986*, Koontz 1995**, Koontz et al. 1996*). Now some 32 years later this plant has spread throughout the Bahamas and significantly impacted the beach strand community and some of the organisms that live in this zone (Stap 2012). Eshbaugh et al. (2012*) presented a poster at the symposium "Celebrating 30 Years of the Flora of the Bahamas: Conservation and Science Challenges" held at the The Bahamas National Trust and The College of the Bahamas discussing the impact of Scaevola taccada var. sericea on the wintering habitat of the Piping Plover. According to the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall 2012) it is an agricultural and environmental weed. The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council lists S. taccada as a Category I species, defined as a plant that is invading and disrupting native plant communities. Scaevola taccada var. sericea colonizes sand dunes and beaches and competes with native coastal vegetation. It can quickly form extensive colonies, providing a seed source for more rapid dispersal to other shorelines. One can only wonder why this species is being planted along the streets and other locations in Nassau. Along the east coast in southern Florida it competes directly with the related native inkberry (Scaevola plumieri (L.) Vahl), a state threatened species. Florida may well have been the original source of the material that established itself in the Bahamas. Effective management can control and even eradicate Scaevola tacadda var. sericea but now without a lot of effort (Fig. 6b).

One remarkable exploratory and revealing expedition grew out of the course when Jimi Allen and Ethan Freid crossed from the east to the west coast of Andros Island via North Bight Passage (Allen 1997*) by canoe. The first and even more remarkable botanical expedition of the North Bight Passage was made by Alice Northrop in 1890 when she made many significant botanical collections now housed at the New York Botanical Garden herbarium. Unfortunately, she provided little detail about the landscape other than noting that it was desolate. The Allen and Freid expedition was inspired by a skiff trip down the west coast of Andros by two Miami University students, Logan Randolph and Ann Frazer, in 1991 in search of the American Flamingo, once a colonial species on the island prior to being devastated in the 1950's when the area was used for target practice by the US military. In 1991 they found that the flamingos had returned. They also found an unanticipated rich landscape. Allen and Freid made thirteen floristic surveys noting and documenting a far richer landscape than Alice Northop reported. Their's is a perceptive lens into the geographic and botanical diversity of a transect across Andros Island.

Summary

Miami University contributions to the knowledge of the flora of the Bahamas is evidenced by the publication of 92 papers, reports, maps, and books by students and faculty (Appendix I) and 22 theses/dissertations (Appendix II). This productivity is remarkable when one considers that the original intent in coming to the Bahamas was only to teach students something about the tropical flora of the Bahamas. That plan morphed into a plethora of archeological, economic botanical, ethnobotanical, systematic, anatomic/morphological, ecological, reproductive biological, and conservation biology investigations.

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When one examines the impact on the botany on the Bahamas of courses taught at two field stations, Forfar on Andros and The Gerace Research Center (formerly the Bahamian Field Station) on San Salvador, it is obvious that the Bahamas got more than they could have ever anticipated. During its history The Tropical Flora of the Bahamas course taught students primarily from the United States but also from Argentina, the Bahamas, Canada, China, India, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, and Thailand. Fifty-seven percent of the students were women and forty-three percent men. More than forty percent were graduate students. At least nine former students have gone on to teach their own classes in the Bahamas at Forfar Field Station, The College of the Bahamas, or The Gerace Research Centre. Over the years we can trace at least 13 marriages and one divorce that resulted from the course.

The impact of the course and the Bahamian experience was transformative for many students. Perhaps this can be best illustrated by the comment of one student who recently wrote "you took a little girl from a Kentucky tobacco farm on her first plane flight, to her first foreign country, where she swam in her first ocean and that has made all the difference." Now these many years later that professor returns to the Bahamas with her own university students.

One former student, Dr. Ethan Freid, has worked part time in the Bahamas as a Professor at The College of the Bahamas and more recently on the staff of the Bahamas National Trust where he had a major role in the planning and development of the Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve on Eleuthera that Shelby White through the Leon Levy Foundation made possible. In the fall of 2012 at the symposium "Celebrating 30 Years of the Flora of the Bahamas: Conservation and Science Challenges: An International Symposium" the keynote address and two other papers were given by Miami University affiliated faculty and a former student. In the spring of 2013 at the "1st Bahamas Natural History Conference" held at the The Bahamas National Trust and The College of the Bahamas five presentations were given by Miami University professors and former students.

Unfortunately, the legacy of Miami University in the Bahamas ends on a sad note. In 2006 Miami University changed the historic funding model for workshops established in 1976 which had allowed undergraduate and graduate students to take the course at a reasonable cost. The new price structure made it all but impossible for a low enrollment course to generate the dollars necessary to cover the expenses of the Tropical Flora of the Bahamas. Another problem arose when an agreement established at the inception of the course by then Miami University President Phillip R. Shriver was cancelled. This agreement had allowed Bahamian students to take courses in the Bahamas paying the equivalent Ohio in-state tuition. Dr. Shriver had reasoned that it was the least Miami University could do since the Bahamas was allowing courses to be taught in the Bahamas without cost. He further reasoned that Miami University instructors and students were in effect guests of the Bahamas. Rather than being perceived as ugly Americans exploiting the system, Shriver believed Miami University could provide something positive for the Bahamas. One has to remember that the course started in 1977 only 4 years after the Bahamas gained its independence.

DOI 10.1007/s12229-014-9141-3

Appendix 1 Publications on the botany of the Bahamas (92) by Miami University (underline) affiliated individuals. These publications are marked with "*" in the main text.

Allen, J. 1997. A naturalists guide to the North Bight Passage and west coast of Andros Island, The Bahamas. Independent study project. Privately published, Department of Botany. Miami University, Oxford. Bansal, A., A. K. Boehme. L. C. Eiter, J. M. Schmidt, W. N. Setzer & M. A. Vincent. 2006. Chemical composition and bioactivity of the leaf oil of Calyptranthes pallens (Poir.) Griseb. from Abaco Island, Bahamas. Natural Products Communications 1: 303-306.

Berman, M. J. 1992. Fuel Wood Selection and the Lucayan--Taino Landscape. Pp. 1-10. In: W. H, Eshbaugh (ed.). Proceedings of the 4th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador, The Bahamas.

--. 1992b. Fuel Wood Selection. 2013. The Lucayans and their world. Pp 151-172. In: C. Tepper & R. Shaklee (eds). Proceedings of the 14th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Gerace Research Centre, San Salvador.

--, P. L. Gnivecki & M. P. Pateman. 2013. The Bahama archipelago. Pp 246-280. In: W. F. Keegan, C. L. Hofman, & R. R. Ramos (eds). The Oxford handbook of Caribbean archaeology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

--, --, -- & C. D. Hutcheson. 2000. Impressions of a lost technology: a study of Lucayan-Taino basketry. Journal of Field Archaeology 27: 417-435.

-- & --, A. Middleton & D. M. Pearsall. In press. Crop Dispersal and Lucayan Tool Use in the Central Bahamas (A.D. 800-1500): Evidence From Starch Grani, Phytolyth, Macrobotanical, and Artifact Studies. Journal of Field Archaeology.

-- & D. M. Pearsall. 2000. Plants, people, and culture in the prehistoric Central Bahamas, a view from the Three Dog Site, an early Lucayan settlement on San Salvador, Bahamas. Latin American Antiquity 11: 219-240.

-- & --. 2008. At the crossroads: starch grain and phytolith analyses in Lucayan prehistory. Latin American Antiquity 19: 181-203.

Block, T. A. & T. K. Wilson. 1994. An analysis of the growth rings of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis on North Andros Island, Bahamas. Pp. 14-20. In Lee Kass (ed.), Proceedings of the 5th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas: San Salvador, Bahamas.

Carey, E., L. Gape, B. Naqqi Manco, D. Hepburn, R. I. Smith, L. Knowles, D. Knowles, M. Daniels, M. A. Vincent, E. H. Freid, B. Jestrow, M. Calonje, A. W. Meerow, M. Patrick Griffith, D.W. Stevenson & J. Francisco-Ortega. In press. Plant conservation in the Bahamas. Botanical Review.

Eshbaugh, W. H. In press. The flora of the Bahamas, Donovan Cornell, and the Miami University connection. Botanical Review.

--. 1987a. Plant-ant relationships and interactions--Tillandsia and Crematogaster. Pp 9-11. In: R. Smith (ed). Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on the botany of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station. College Center of the Finger Lakes, San Salvador.

--. 1987b. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae) in the Bahamas. Pp 13-17. In: R. Smith (ed). Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on the botany of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station. Colleg S.A e Center of the Finger Lakes, San Salvador.

--, M. Jeffrey & W. Colder. 2012. The Piping Plover, new discoveries, new opportunities, poster presented at the international symposium: "Celebrating 30 Years of the Flora of the Bahamas: Conservation and Science Challenges." Bahamas National Trust and College of the Bahamas. Nassau, The Bahamas.

--, S. A. McClure & J. L. Bolyard. 1986. Bush medicine studies, Andros Island, Bahamas. Pp 129-138. In: R. Smith (ed). Proceedings of the 1st symposium of the botany of the Bahamas. College Center of the Finger Lakes, San Salvador.

-- & T. K. Wilson. 1986. Scaevola sericea (Goodeniaceae) in the Bahamas. Pp 79-85. In: R. Smith (ed). Proceedings on the 1st symposium of the botany of the Bahamas. College Center of the Finger Lakes, San Salvador.

-- & --. 1990. The tropical flora of Andros Island, Bahamas: observations and notes. Pp 17-24. In: R. Smith (ed). Proceedings of the 3rd symposium of the botany of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

-- & --. 1996. On the need to conserve Bahamian floral biodiversity. Pp 77-82. In: P. J. Godfrey & N. Elliott (eds). Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on the Natural History of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

Ford, K. A. 1998. A description of the communities of North Andros Island, Bahamas. Pp 33-36. In: T. K. Wilson (ed). Proceedings of the 7th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

Ford, D. M. & W, H. Eshbaugh. 1996. A comparison of subtidal benthic macrophyte communities in wave-exposed and wave-sheltered habitats off the coasts of three cays near Andros Island, Bahamas. Pp. 10-21. In: P.J. Godfrey & N. Elliott (eds.). Proceedings of the 6th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas, Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador, The Bahamas.

Frazer, A. M. & W. H. Eshbaugh. 1996. The vines of pineland and dry evergreen forest (coppice) communities on North Andros Island, Bahamas: abundance and floristic composition. Pp. 22-38. In: P. J. Godfrey & N. Elliott (eds.). Proceedings of the 6th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas, Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador, The Bahamas.

Freid, E. H. 2004. Additions to the flora of Crooked Island, Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of Science 12(1): 47-48.

--, J. Francisco-Ortega & B. Jestrow. In press. Endemic seed plants in the Bahamian archipelago. Botanical Review.

-- & M. A. Kerwin. 1998. Flora and vegetation of Bell Island (Exuma Chain), Bahamas. Pp 41-52. In: T. K. Wilson (ed). Proceedings of the 7th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

--, -- & L. R. Richey. 2001. Additions to the flora of Long Island, Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of Science 9(1): 47-49.

--, L. R. Richey, T. Ferguson & E. Carey. 2003. A proposed new system for the division of islands within the Bahamian archipelago. Bahamas Journal of Science 11(1): 36-38.

-- & M. A. Vincent. 2007. Additions to the flora of Mayaguana. Bahamas Naturalist and Journal of Science 2(1): 18-20.

--, -- & R. J. Hickey. 2006. Additions to the flora of Abaco Island, Bahamas. Bahamas Naturalist and Journal of Science 1(2): 16-19.

-- & T. K. Wilson. 1996. Anatomy of the Bahamian Coccoloba (Polygonaceae). Pp 39-47. In: P. J. Godfrey & N. Elliott (eds). Proceedings of the 6th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

Fulton, S. B. J. & L. E. Watson. 2014. Bixaceae. Flora of North America. Oxford University Press, Mexico.

Hickey, R. J. & M. A. Vincent. 2005. Nearing a point of no return with Schinus terebinthifolius in the Bahamas. Pp. 55-63. In: Fried, E. H. & L. Wiedman (eds.). Proceedings of the conference on the natural history of Andros Island, Bahamas. Love at First Sight Resort, Andros Island, The Bahamas.

-- & --. In Preparation. The Pteridophytes of the Bahamian Archipelago.

Howard, R. A. 1950. Vegetation of the Bimini Island Group: Bahamas, B. W. I. Ecological Monographs 20: 317-349.

-- & G. W. Staples. 1983. The modern names for Catesby's plants. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 64: 511-546.

Kass, L. B., R. E. Hunt, S. B. Danforth & T. P. Eagan. 2007. Reproductive biology of Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.; Combretaceae), a polygamous population on San Salvador Island. The Bahamas Naturalist and Journal of Science 2(1): 40-49.

--, --, -- & --. 2007b. Reproductive biology of Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.; Combretaceae), a polygamous population on San Salvador Island. Pp. 31-12. In: B. J. Rathcke & W. K. Hayes (eds.). Proceedings of the 11th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas.

-- & W. H. Eshbaugh. 1993b. The contributions of William T. Gillis (1933-79) to the flora of the Bahamas. Rhodora 95: 369-391.

-- & --. 1994. William T. Gillis and the Bahama flora. Pp 40-49. In: L. B. Kass (ed). Proceedings of the 5th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

-- & --. 1996. William T. Gillis and the flora of the Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of Science 4(1): 15-23.

-- & --. In Review. An historical perspective on the contributions of William T. Gillis to our knowledge and understanding of the Bahama's Flora: Twenty years later. Rhodora.

Kjellmark, E, 1996. Late Holocene climate change and human disturbance on Andros Island, Bahamas. Journal of Paleolimnology 15: 133-145.

Koontz, J. A., S. I. Guttman & W. H. Eshbaugh. 1996. Scaevola plumieri and S. taccada on Andros Island: Is it hybridization or morphological plasticity? Pp 48-60. In: P. J. Godfrey & N. Elliott (eds). Proceedings of the 6th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

Larkin, C. C., C. Kwit, J. M. Wunderle, E. H. Helmer, M. H. H. Stevens, M. T. R. Roberts & D. M. Ewert 2012. Disturbance type and plant successional communities in Bahamian dry forests. Biotropica 44: 10-18.

McClure, S. A. 1982. Parallel usage of medicinal plants by Africans and their Caribbean descendants. Economic Botany 36: 291-301.

--. 1986. Bush medicine, magic and love potions on Andros Island. The Explorer 29(15): 16-30.

-- & W. H. Eshbaugh. 1983. Love potions of Andros Island, Bahamas. Journal of Ethnobiology 3: 149-156.

McRichey, D. M. 1988. A vegetation field map of Andros Island, Bahamas.

Moynihan, J. & L. E. Watson. 2001. Phylogeography, generic allies, and nomenclature of Caribbean endemic genus Neolaugeria (Rubiaceae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences. International Journal of Plant Science 162: 393-401.

Negron-Ortiz, V. 1996. Reproductive biology of Ernodea (Rubiaceae-Spermacoceae) in the Bahamas and Puerto Rico. Opera Botanica Belgica 7: 403-412.

--. 2005. Taxonomic revision of the neotropical genus: Erithalis (Rubiaceae: Chiococceae). Sida 21: 1565-1598.

--. 2007. Chromosome numbers, nuclear DNA content and polyploidy in Consolea (Cactaceae), an endemic cactus of the Caribbean Islands. American Journal of Botany. 94: 1360-1370.

--. In press. Taxonomic treatment for Rubiaceae: Erithalis. Flora of North America, Vol. 18.

--. In press. Taxonomic treatment for Rubiaceae: Ernodea. Flora of North America, Vol. 18.

-- & R. J. Hickey. 1996a. The genus Ernodea (Rubiaceae) in the Caribbean Basin. I. Allozyme variation and mating systems. Systematic Botany 21: 433-443.

-- & --. 1996b. The genus Ernodea (Rubiaceae) in the Caribbean Basin. II. Morphological Analyses and Systematics. Systematic Botany 21: 445-458.

-- & L. E. Watson. 2002. Molecular phytogeny and biogeography of Erithalis (Rubiaceae), an endemic of the Caribbean Basin. Plant Systematics and Evolution: 234: 71-83.

-- & --. 2003. Hypotheses for the colonization of the Caribbean Basin by two genera of the Rubiaceae: Erithalis and Ernodea. Systematic. Botany. 28: 442-451.

Nickrent, D. L., W. H. Eshbaugh & T. K. Wilson. 1988. The Vascular flora of Andros Island. Bahamas. Kendall Hunt Publ. Co., Dubuque.

Perry, L., R. Dickau, S. Zarillo, I. Holst, D. M. Pearsall, D. Piperno, M. J. Berman, R. G. Cooke, K. Rademaker, A. Ranere, J. S. Raymond, D. H. Sandvveiss, F. Scaramelli, K. Tarble & J. A. Zeidler. 2007. Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp. L.) in the Americas: new data on exploitation, domestication, and dispersals. Science 315: 986-988.

Randolph, L. R. 1996. Medicinal plants of Andros Island, Bahamas: a cross-cultural study. Pp 61-76. In: N. B. Elliott, D. C. Edwards, & P. J. Godfrey (eds). Proceedings of the 6th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

--. 2005. Respect, responsibility and reciprocation: The "Three Rs" of ethnobiological research. Pp 73-75. In: E. H. Freid & L. Wiedman (eds). Proceedings of the Bahamas. Science Alliance - Andros Island Conference. Stafford Creek, Andros Island, Bahamas.

--, W. H, Eshbaugh & M. Burrows. 1997a. Home gardens of Central Andros. Bahamas Journal of Science 5(1): 10-12.

--, --, A. M. Greenberg & A. M. Burrows. 1997b. Home gardens of Central Andros. Pp 99-104. In: T. K. Wilson (ed). Proceedings of the 7th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

Regan, K. D. & T. K. Wilson. 1987. Anemia (Schizaeaceae in the Bahamas. Pp 31-35. In: R. Smith (ed). Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on the botany of the Bahamas. College Center of the Finger Lakes, San Salvador.

Richey, L. R. 2003. Bush Medicine. Pp 31-41. In: J. Campaigne (ed). The Cat Island guide. The Campaigne Group, Cat Island, The Bahamas.

-- & E. H. Freid. 2001. Additions to the flora of Cat Island, Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of Science 9(1): 50-54.

Setzer, W. N., J. A. Noletto & M. A. Vincent 2006. 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene and 2,4,6- trimethoxystyrene are the major components in the leaf oil of Eugenia confusa from Abaco Island, Bahamas. Natural Products Communications 1: 43-45.

Shoffeitt, D. H. & T. K. Wilson. 1987. The floral morphology and pollination biology of three species of Bahamian Malpighiaceae. Pp. 37-44. In: R. Smith (ed.). Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on the botany of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador, Bahamas, College Center of the Finger Lakes, San Salvador, Bahamas.

--, W. H. Eshbaugh, T. K. Wilson & J. Vankat. 1992. A comparative survey of the dry evergreen forest (coppice) communities of North Andros Island, Bahamas. Pp 109-123. In: W. H. Eshbaugh (ed). Proceedings of the 4th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

Smith, I. K. & J. L. Vankat. 1992. Dry evergreen forest (Coppice) communities of North Andros Island, Bahamas. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 119: 181-191.

Snyder, T., J. Chiantello, E. Kjellmark & K. B. Baumgardner. 2007. Key to the pollen flora of the Bahamas. The Gerace Research Center, San Salvador, Bahamas. Available online: http://www.pollen.mtu.edu/.

Sprunt, S. V., H. Schneider, L. E. Watson, S. J. Russell, A. Navarro-Gomez & R. J. Hickey. 2011. Exploring the molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Pleopeltis polypodioides (Polypodiaceae, Polypodiales) inferred from plastid DNA sequences. Systematic Botany 36: 862-869.

Strittmatter, L. I., R. J. Hickey & V. Negron-Ortiz. 2008. Heterochrony and its role in sex determination of cryptically dioecious Consolea (Cactaceae) staminate flowers. Botanical. Journal of the Linnean Society. 156: 305-326.

--, V. Negron-Ortiz & R. J. Hickey. 2002. Subdioecy in Consolea spinosissima (Cactaceae): breeding system and embryological studies. American Journal of Botany. 89: 1373-1387.

--, -- & --. 2006. Comparative microsporangium development in male-fertile and male-sterile flowers of Consolea (Cactaceae): when and how does pollen abortion occur? Grana. 45: 81-100.

Vincent, M. A. 1990. Additions to the fungal flora of the Bahamas. Pp 79-83. In: R. R. Smith (ed). Proceedings of the 3rd symposium on the botany of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador.

--. 1995. Creeping Indigo (Indigofera spicata Forssk.; Fabaceae) new to the Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of Science 3(1): 36.

--. 2004. Spread of Fatorn villosa (Mulberry weed; Moraceae) in North America. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science 65: 66-74.

--. 2003. Basellaceae. Pp. 505-508. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.). Flora of North America. Vol. 4. Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York.

--. 2003. Molluginaceae. Pp. 509-512. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.). Flora of North America. Vol. 4. Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York.

--. 2007. Harrisia brookii Britton (Cactaceae) found on Eleuthera. Bahamas Naturalist and Journal of Science 2(2): 61-62.

--. 2013. Euphorbia graminea Jacq. (Euphorbiaceae), new to the Bahamas. Phytoneuron 2013-22: 1-3.

--. In press. Guettarda Linnaeus (Rubiaceae). In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.). Flora of North America. Vol. 18. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae to Valerianaceae. Oxford University Press, New York.

Vincent, M. A. & E. H. Freid. 2006. A new genus for the flora of the Bahamas. Bahamas. Naturalist and Journal of Science 1(2): 20-21.

-- & R. J. Hickey. In press. Systematics, taxonomy, and the new flora of the Bahamian Archipelago. Botanical Review.

-- & D. Kearns. In press. Sophora (Fabaceae). In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.). Flora of North America. Vol. 10-11. Magnoliophyta: Fabales. Oxford University Press, New York.

-- & C. Kwit. 2007. Additions to the vascular plant flora of Eleuthera. Bahamas Naturalist and Journal of Science 2(2): 52-54.

--, L. R. Richey & R. J. Hickey. 2002. Vascular plants new to San Salvador. Bahamas Journal of Science 10(1): 52-53.

Werth, C. R., W. V. Baird & L. J. Musselman. 1979a. Root parasitism in Schoepfia Schreb. (Olacaceae). Biotropica 11: 140-143.

--, W. P. Pusateri, W. H, Eshbaugh & T. K. Wilson. 1979b. Field observations on the natural history of Cassytha filiformis L. (Lauraceae) in the Bahamas. Pp 94-102. In: L. J. Musselman, A. D. Worsham, & R. E. Eplee (eds). Second international symposium on parasitic weeds. North Carolina State University, Raleigh.

Wilson, T. K. 1986. The natural history of Canella alba (Canellaceae) Pp. Pp 101-115. In: R. Smith (ed). Proceedings of the 1st symposium of the botany of the Bahamas. College Center of the Finger Lakes, San Salvador.

Appendix 2 Thesis and dissertation (22)--on the botany of the Bahamas by Miami University (underline) affiliated individuals

Barcelona, J. F. 2000. Systematics of the fem genus Odontosoria sensu lato (Lindsaeaceae), p. 326. Thesis (Ph. D.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Block, T. A. 1991. An analysis of the growth rings of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis on North Andros Island, Bahamas, p. 91. Thesis (M.S.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

--. 1996. Comparative anatomy and morphology of Auerodendron urb. (Rhamnaceae), p. 117. Thesis (Ph. D.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Booncong, P. 1989. A pharmacognostic and taxonomic study of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae), p. 183. Thesis (Ph.D.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Ford, D. M. 1995. A comparison of subtidal benthic macrophyte communities in wave-exposed and wave-sheltered habitats off the coasts of three cays near Andros Island, Bahamas, p. 89. Thesis (M.S.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Frazer, A. M. 1995. Ecology and floristic composition of the vine assemblages of pineland and dry evergreen forest (coppice) communities on North Andros Island, Bahamas, p. 108. Thesis (M.S.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Freid, E. H. 2000. Descriptive anatomy of Coccolobeae Dammer (Polygonaceae) and its systematic implications, p. 162. Thesis (Ph.D.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Fulton, S. B. J. 2014. Systematics, biogeography, and ethnobotany of the Pantropical family Cochlospermaceae (Malvales), p. 181. Thesis (Ph.D.) Miami Univertsity, Oxford, OH.

Kjellmark, E. 1995. The effects of late Holocene climate change and human disturbance on the vegetation and fire history of Andros Island, Bahamas, p. 418. Thesis (Ph. D.) Duke University. Durham, NC.

Koontz, J, A. 1995. Enzymatic and morphological analyses of a putative hybrid swarm between Scaevola plumieri and S. taccada (Goodeniaceae) on Andros Island, Bahamas, p. 43. Thesis (M.S.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Larkin, C. C. 2010. Effects of common disturbances on composition and succession in coppice plant communities on Eleuthera, the Bahamas: conservation implications, p. 35. Thesis (M.S,) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

McClure, S. A. 1981 Bush medicine of Andros Island, Bahamas, p. 81. Thesis (M.S.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Moynihan, J. 1999. Molecular phylogeny of the Caribbean endemic Neolaugeria (Rubiaceae), based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA, p. 180. Thesis (M.S.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Negron-Ortiz, V. 1994. Biosystematics of Emodea SW. (Rubiaceae-Spermacoceae), p. 175. Thesis (Ph. D.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Randolph, L. R. 1994. An ethnobiological investigation of Andros Island Bahamas, p. 317. Thesis (Ph.D.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Regan, K. D. 1985. A systematic study of Bahamian Anemia (Schizaeaceae), p. 87. Thesis (M.S) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Richey-Abbey, L. 2012. Bush medicine in the family islands: the Medical ethnobotany of Cat Island and Long Island, Bahamas, p. 289. Thesis (Ph.D.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Shoffeitt, D. H. 1985. The floral anatomy and pollination biology of three species of Bahamian Malpighiaceae, p. 70. Thesis (M.S.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Smith, I. K. 1991. Dry evergreen forest (coppice) communities of North Andros Island, Bahamas, p. 53. Thesis (M. En.) Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Smith, R. L. 2010. Invasive alien plant species of the Bahamas and biodiversity management. Part I. Restoring the Bahamas biodiversity: strategy for managing invasive plant species. Part H. Non-native invasive plants of the Bahamas, p. 122. Practicum Report (M. En. Sci.) Institute of Environmental Science, Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Sprunt, S. V. 2010. A Revision of the Pleopeltis polypodioides Species Complex (Polypodiaceae), p. 82. Thesis (Ph.D.) Miami University, Oxford, OH

Strittmatter, L. I. 2006. Cryptic dioecy in Consolea (Cactaceae): sex determination and evolutionary implications, p. 149. Thesis (Ph. D.), Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Acknowledgments This paper could not have been written without the participation of many Miami University faculty and students who joined the endeavor that became known as the Tropical Flora of the Bahamas course. Much of what happened is fortuitous and I owe a tremendous debt to my wife Barbara and family who suffered through my 2 weeks absences for many years. I missed my daughter Wendy's birthday celebration no fewer than 15 times. In the course of teaching in the Bahamas I had the pleasure of teaching two of my children, Steve and Wendy, my daughter-in-law Elisa, and my wife. The Forfar Field Station became our home and the staff made it all happen. I am especially grateful to Ben Bohl and Rose Blanchard whose administrative skills made my life simpler. They became life-long friends. The people of north Andros got used to our annual pilgrimages with 16-20 students invading every nook and cranny of their island. Lastly, I could not have done any of it without my colleague and inveterate traveler T. K. (Tom) Wilson. We had one heck of an adventure. Much of the research and resulting theses and papers cited in this publication received financial support from the Willard Sherman Turrell Herbarium of Miami University. Unless otherwise noted all photos are credited to and copyrighted by W. Hardy Eshbaugh.

Literature Cited

Reference cited in Appendix I = *, Reference cited in Appendix II = **

Britton, N. L. & C. F. Millspaugh. 1920. The Bahama flora, Published by the authors, New York.

Cates, D. L. 1996. Mark Catesby and the natural history of Carolina, Florida and The Bahama Islands. Journal of The Bahamas Historical Society 18: 2-11.

--. 1998. Mark Catesby's Bahamian plants. Bahamas Journal of Science 5(3): 16-21.

Catesby, M. 1729-1747. The natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands. London.

Correll, D. S. & H. B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (including the Turks and Caicos Islands). Gantner Verlag, Vaduz.

Hill, S. R. 1976. Additions to the Bahama flora. Sida 6: 321-327.

Kass, L. B. 2005. Alice Northrop's type specimens for the Bahama flora. Brittonia 57: 88-101.

--. 2009. An illustrated guide to common plants of San Salvador Island, Bahamas, 3rd edition. Gerace Research Centre, San Salvador Island, The Bahamas.

Kass, L. B. & W. H. Eshbaugh. 1993. The contributions of William T. Gillis (1933-79) to the flora of the Bahamas. Rhodora 95: 369-391.

Linneaus, C. 1753. Species plantarum. L. Salvii, Stolkholm, Sweden.

Howard, R. A. & G. W. Staples. 1983. The modern names for Catesby's plants. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 64: 511-546.

Northrop, A. R. 1902. Flora of New Providence and Andros, with an enumeration of the plants collected by John I. Northrop and Alice R. Northrop, in 1890. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 12: 1-98.

--. 1910. Flora of New Providence and Andros. Pp. 118-211. In: H. F. Osborne (ed.). A naturalist in the Bahamas. John I. Northrop. October 12, 1861-June 25, 1891. Columbia University Press, New York.

Randall, R. P. 2012. A global compendium of weeds. 2nd Edition. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia. South Perth, Australia. Available online: http://www.agric.wagov.au/objtwr/imported_ assets/content/pw/weed/global-compendium-weeds.pdf

Reveal, J. L. 2012. A nomenclature summary of the plant and animal names based on images in Mark Catesby's Natural History (1729-1747). Phytoneuron 2012-11: 1-32.

--. 2013. Identification of the plants and animals illustrated by Mark Catesby for his Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands. Phytoneuron 2013-6: 1-55.

Stap, D. 2012. The Plover Platoon. Audubon 114: 44-51.

Sorrie, B. A. & R. J. LeBlond. 1997. Vascular plants new to the Bahamas and Andros Island. Bahamas Journal of Science 4(2): 14-18.

W. Hardy Eshbaugh (1,2)

(1) Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA

(2) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: eshbauwh@miamioh.edu.
Table 1 New Additions to the Bahama Flora since the publication
of the CorreU's "Flora" by Miami University Researchers. One
earlier publication by Sorrie and Leblond (1997) is included as a
reference point

                No. cited
Island          in Correll   No. new   Total

Andros          807          22        829
Abaco           766          65        830

Cat             463          175       638
Crooked         480          31        511
Eleuthera       932          22        954
Long            482          76        558
San Salvador    5241         22        546

Island          Percent increase    Reference

Andros          2.73 %              Sorrie & Leblond 1997
Abaco           8.49 %              Freid et al. 2006
                                    Vincent & Freid 2006
Cat             37.79 %             Richey & Freid 2001
Crooked         6.45 %              Freid 2004
Eleuthera       2.36 %              Vincent & Kwit 2007
Long            15.76%              Richey & Freid 2001
San Salvador    4.19%               Vincent et al. 2002

(1) Robert Smith's total number of species for San Salvador is
considered a more realistic number

Table 2 Some ingredients of Andros Island, Bahamas, love potions.
After McClure & Eshbaugh (1983)

Scientific name (1)            Part used    Informant

                                            A   B   C   D

Bignoniaceae                   Leafy twig   X   X   X   X
Tabebuia bahamensis
(Northrop) Britt.
Boraginaceae                   Leafy twig   X       X   X
Bourreria ovata Miers
Burseraceae                    Leafy twig           X   X
Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.
Ebenaceae                      Leafy twig   X   X   X   X
Diospyros crassinervis
(Krug. & Urb,) Standi.
Eiythroxylaceae                Leafy twig   X       X   X
Erythroxylon rotundifolia
Lunan
Lauraceae                      Vine         X           X
Cassyrha filiformis L.

Scientific name (1)            Informant

                               E   F   G

Bignoniaceae                   X   X   X
Tabebuia bahamensis
(Northrop) Britt.
Boraginaceae                   X   X   X
Bourreria ovata Miers
Burseraceae                    X   X
Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.
Ebenaceae                      X   X   X
Diospyros crassinervis
(Krug. & Urb,) Standi.
Eiythroxylaceae                X   X
Erythroxylon rotundifolia
Lunan
Lauraceae                      X   X
Cassyrha filiformis L.

Scientific name (1)            Notes

                               Chemical constituents/Countries
                                 using love potions
Bignoniaceae                   Lapachol in genus/Trinidad and
Tabebuia bahamensis              Jamaica
(Northrop) Britt.
Boraginaceae
Bourreria ovata Miers
Burseraceae                    Ethereal oils, tannins
Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.
Ebenaceae
Diospyros crassinervis         Long and Exuma Islands,
(Krug. & Urb,) Standi.
Eiythroxylaceae
Erythroxylon rotundifolia
Lunan
Lauraceae                      Alkaloids/Long & Exuma
Cassyrha filiformis L.           Islands Bahamas

(1) Taxonomy follows Cornell and Cornell (1982)
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