The Engravers of Philadelphia's Port Folio Magazine.
Joseph Dennie (1768-1812) was its first editor, and he wrote much of the material in the initial issues using the pseudonym Oliver Oldschool. (2) In the beginning, Dennie received extensive contributions from President John Adams and his family. The president's youngest son, Thomas Boylston Adams (1777-1832), who was Dennie's classmate at Harvard, wrote material and served briefly as the magazine's business manager. John Quincy Adams (1767-1848), America's sixth president, had served as minister to Prussia during his father's administration and wrote of his experiences for the magazine. This account was entitled Journal of a Tour through Silesia, and Dennie published it serially in fifty-four weekly installments in 1801 and 1802. (3)
Politically, the magazine initially reflected Dennie's reactionary and antidemocratic views and, as a staunch Federalist, he possessed nothing but contempt for Thomas Jefferson and enjoyed attacking the president personally in both prose and verse. In fact, Port Folio reported several times on the rumors of Jefferson's intimacies with his household slave Sally Hemings. (4) Dennie's attacks led to charges of seditious libel, but although he was found to be not guilty, the charge forced him to tone down his reactionary rhetoric. The magazine became nonpartisan with a change in the presidency in 1809, and political topics were completely excluded after Dennie's death in 1812.5
Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844), the future president of the second U.S. National Bank, became the second editor, and he shifted the magazine back to its original mission of publishing literature and literary criticism and essays on biography, travel, the natural sciences, technology, music, fashion, and manners. Dennie had experimented with inserting a copperplate engraving in 1806, but the inclusion of two engraved illustrations for each issue did not become standard until Port Folio became a monthly publication in January 1809. Biddle maintained this practice, and Frank Weitenkampf pointed out that, in nineteenth-century America, there was an expanding pool of practitioners of engraving: "In the new century there came a marked increase in engravers and a noteworthy advance in technical ability. Two important factors in the development of engraving were the demand for magazine and book illustration and the need for well-executed bank-notes." (6) This essay will concentrate on the major engravers who settled in Philadelphia and produced admirable plates for Port Folio during the last eighteen years of the magazine's existence.
When Port Folio made the transition to a monthly magazine in 1809, there were enough engravers in Philadelphia to meet the demand for Port Folio illustrations and the more mundane job printing orders for other customers. From the beginning, portraits were a specialty, and David Edwin (1776-1841), who had arrived from England in the early 1790s, was a master of stipple engraving, the process in which the image is produced by concentrations of dots instead of lines. William Dunlap (1776-1839) (an artist, playwright, and historian) knew Edwin personally and was especially complimentary when he wrote about Edwin in 1834 in his history of the graphic arts in the United States. He had this commentary on him: "This eminent artist was the first engraver of the human countenance, that appeared in this country. His portraits from Stuart, in the stippling style, are unrivaled to this day." (7) Dunlap had already mentioned in his history Edwin's engraving of Edward Shippen (1729-1806), a chief justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Edwin had engraved this portrait after one by Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) as early as 1798 and had shown an actual proof to the artist. It appeared opposite of page one of the January 1810 issue. According to Dunlap, this is Edwin's account: "When I carried him a proof of Judge Shippen's picture, he had a sitter with him, and the print was sent in. He came out to me, and expressed his gratification on seeing the result of my labour. 'You may consider it,' said he, 'the greatest compliment I ever paid you, when I leave my sitter to tell you how much I am pleased with this head.'" (8) Edwin's portrait of Shippen appeared in Port Folio to accompany a biographical sketch about the chief justice.
Although Edwin signed his own name as the engraver of the print of Edward Shippen, his name was not included on some other plates. This was the case on the six portraits that he engraved for the 1809 volume. There is no doubt that Edwin copied these plates from drawings or other impressions; he always acknowledged the artist whose original artwork he had copied, such as that of Gilbert Stuart for the portrait of Chief Justice Shippen. Edwin signed allegorical scenes on engravings such as those seen in volume two of the magazine and continued to do so until failing eyesight forced him to abandon the trade. His last portrait appeared opposite of page one of the January 1815 issue to accompany a short biography entitled "Life of Judge Marshall."
Ten years later in 1825, an Edwin engraving appeared opposite of page 185 of the September 1825 issue of Port Folio. It was a portrait of the country's first chief justice, Oliver Ellsworth (1745-1807), after the artwork of John Trumbull and was used to illustrate an article entitled "Memoir of Oliver Ellsworth Abridged from an Article in the Analectic Magazine." Obviously, Edwin's original engraving plate of the former chief justice was purchased from its Philadelphia competitor, the Analectic Magazine, and reused. The purchasing and reutilization of old plates became a standard practice in nineteenth-century publishing.
After 1815, Edwin's workshop, if it remained in existence, was probably operated by his apprentices Charles Goodman (1796-1835) and Robert Piggott (1795-1887). As partners, Goodman and Piggott did a few engravings for Port Folio, including an engraved silhouette of the magazine's founder, Joseph Dennie, that appeared opposite of page 361 in the May 1816 issue. Port Folio had already published an unsigned engraving illustrating his tombstone in February 1812. This plate must have been hurriedly completed because Dennie had only died on 7 January 1812. It is, of course, possible that the publisher sent the engraving to the subscribers with the instruction to bind it with the February issue. Goodman and Piggott also did a considerable amount of work for other periodicals and annuals until the early 1820s before Goodman abandoned engraving for the law and Piggott became an Episcopal priest.
Alexander Lawson (1773-1846) was an immigrant who arrived from England via Holland in 1794 and went to work initially for the Philadelphia engravers James Thackara (1767-1848) and John Vallance (1770-1823). Although Thackara never engraved for Port Folio, Vallance contributed two plates, a July 1812 engraving after the artwork of Gideon Fairman, who will be mentioned later, and one of Fort Erie drawn by an army engineer for the February 1816 issue.
By 1800, Lawson was working on his own, engraving primarily for the Philadelphia Monthly Museum, which was published between 1804 and 1811. (9) Lawson had some association with David Edwin because he engraved a portrait for the first issue of Port Folio while one by Edwin appeared in the second issue. Later in June, Lawson and Edwin collaborated on engraving a picture of a gold medal presented by Congress to Commodore Edward Preble (1761-1807). It had been authorized in 1805 for his bravery in the war with Tripoli in 1803 and 1804. Lawson's final contribution was in 1817; it was an engraving of a mountain in China done after other artwork. Otherwise, he devoted his talent to engraving plates for Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology (1808-14), the undertaking for which he achieved international fame.
George Murray (d. 1822), an immigrant from Scotland, proved his competence when he etched Buttermilk Falls for the February 1809 issue of Port Folio utilizing an engraving process in which the lines are drawn with an etching needle through a coating of varnish or wax on the copper engraving plate before placing the plate into an acid bath that will cut the image into the plate. Murray's engraving appeared as the magazine's first entry in the series entitled Sketches of American Scenery. Murray's engraving, accompanied by its description, began a tradition that the editors chose to follow and, as Karol Ann Peard Lawson stressed in her interesting article on landscapes, Port Folio "was at its zenith profusely illustrated with scenic plates." (10) The following year, Murray produced a plate by line engraving, in which the image is created by direct linear cuts into a copper plate with a burin and without the use of resin, wax, or acid baths. Line engraving was probably the most common engraving technique in the early nineteenth century. Murray's plate entitled The Trapper's Return appeared opposite of page 158 in the February 1810 issue. It was done after a drawing by John James Barralet (ca. 1747-1814) to illustrate The Foresters, a lengthy poem written by the American ornithologist Alexander Wilson (1766-1813). The poem commemorated Wilson's sojourn to Niagara Falls, and Port Folio published it serially beginning in March 1809. Other illustrations for The Foresters were engraved by George Cooke (1793-1849). Cooke was relatively unknown as an engraver, but he had a reputation as a portraitist and painter of historical scenes and landscapes.
George Murray continued to engrave occasional landscapes and allegorical scenes, although he was also engraving bank notes for his firm of Murray, Draper and Fairman. His last engraving for Port Folio was in the July 1819 issue and done after the artwork of the great American artist Thomas Sully (1783-1872). According to William Dunlap, Sully came to despise Murray as did his colleagues Alexander Lawson and Benjamin Trott (ca. 1770-1843), and it had to do with problems at the Pennsylvania Academy of Art. (11)
Although John Draper (d. 1851?) never engraved for Port Folio, Gideon Fairman (1774-1827) of Murray, Draper and Fairman, made some distinguished contributions to it. Before he arrived in Philadelphia from Albany, his print entitled The Providence had won an honorable mention in an 1807 New York contest to choose the best engravings to appear in a Bible that was published in 1808 by Collins, Perkins, and Company. Fairman was definitely in Philadelphia by December 1810 when his drawing entitled Tomb of Washington and engraved by George Murray appeared in Port Folio. Although Fairman became an excellent bank note engraver, it is known that he drew allegorical illustrations for engravings on notes and that he used this talent to draw several scenes for Port Folio that were engraved by Philadelphians John Vallance and William Kneass (1740-1840). Fairman sailed to England in 1818 with bank note experts, but returned to America in 1822 and spent his final five years in Philadelphia. One of his last known works for Port Folio was entitled Departure of Leatherstocking, and it appeared opposite of page one of the January 1824 issue. He engraved it with Cephas Grier Childs (1793-1871), a former apprentice of his. It was drawn by Henry Inman (1801-46), a portrait and landscape painter, who was working in Philadelphia at the time. His theme was taken from page 327 of volume two of The Pioneers, a novel by James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) published the previous year and one that quickly became extremely popular. Fairman was a frequent exhibitor at the Society of Artists and the Pennsylvania Academy and was known among his contemporaries as "a man of uncommon physical powers, beauty of person, and elegance of deportment. He and the late George Murray contributed more than any other persons to elevate the beautiful art of engraving in this country." (12)
Cephas Childs had finished his apprenticeship with Fairman shortly before Fairman sailed for England in 1818, and he had a signed engraving for the July issue of Port Folio for that year. However, the first plate of genuine interest by Cephas Childs did not appear in Port Folio until December 1818, where it was positioned opposite of page 399. It was Falls on Connecticut River, at Gill, Mass., engraved from a drawing by Orra White (1796-1863), a landscape painter and illustrator.
In 1821, Orra White married Edward Hitchcock, the president of Amherst College. After her marriage, she devoted herself to illustrating her husband's scientific works. The short description of this location on the Connecticut River that accompanied the drawing was signed "E. H. Deerfield [Mass.] 1818." The initials stood for Miss White's future husband, Edward Hitchcock.
It may have been through Orra White's interest in science that she was able to persuade the Port Folio editor the previous July to publish a hand-colored plate from Jacob Bigelow's American Medical Botany, a three-volume set with six thousand colored engravings and published in Boston between 1817 and 1820. Although the plate appeared opposite of the contents page, the review appeared on page forty-six with this concluding remark: "This is by far the most elegant and useful book on the science of Medical Botany, which has been published in the United States."
Orra White's drawing was not the first one by a woman to appear in Port Folio. In November 1812, an etching entitled View of the Sweeds [Swedes] Ford near Norristown after a drawing by Mrs. Mary Ann Potts appeared opposite of page 439. Mrs. Potts is unknown in the literature, but she was probably the mother of the engraver William S. Potts (1802-52). The engraver Hewitt is known only from his few signed engravings in Port Folio between 1813 and 1814.
Another early engraver in Philadelphia was Cornelius Tiebout (ca. 1773-1832) who arrived from New York City in 1799. According to David McNeeley Stauffer, "This engraver ... has the distinction of having been the first American-born professional engraver to produce really meritorious work." (13) Like Murray, he provided plates on numerous subjects, including his engraving entitled Cottage Scene that appeared opposite of page 265 of the April 1810 issue. It had no accompanying article. The engraving was done after artwork by the artist William Bigg (1755-1828) who was known in England for his genre paintings. Tiebout had already made his reputation in New York before studying for three years in London and, upon returning, became another winner of an honorable mention for his plate St. Paul. He also did other plates for an 1808 New York edition of the Bible.
John Boyd (fl. 1810-27) of Philadelphia, who may have apprenticed under Cornelius Tiebout, also produced plates for that same 1808 edition of the Bible. Boyd also contributed engravings for Port Folio until the magazine's demise in 1827, and probably his best was an etching of a specimen of a little known breed of large dogs that appeared opposite of page 441 of the June 1824 issue. It was noted in the article that "the annexed plate--... is a copy by Boyd from an original by Howit, an English artist who is remarkably successful in delineations of animals" (page 512).
Cornelius Tiebout turned to bank note engraving sometime in 1815 when he went into business with Benjamin Tanner (1775-1848), Henry Schenck Tanner (1786-1858), and Francis Kearney or Kearny (1785-1837). This relationship was revealed in the October 1815 issue when Henry Schenck Tanner published his article entitled "Improved Method of Engraving Bank Notes" illustrated by a front plate of a bank note with the imprint of Tanner, Kearney and Tiebout. Benjamin Tanner was born in New York City and, according to Dunlap, moved to Philadelphia in 1799, the same year that Tiebout did, and served under him as an apprentice. Henry Schenck Tanner followed his brother to Philadelphia in 1811 and learned to engrave there. Henry Schenck Tanner is known chiefly in Port Folio for his bank note plates, while Benjamin Tanner contributed engravings frequently in the first few years of the magazine's existence. Benjamin Tanner's first plate appeared opposite of page 365 of the May 1809 issue. It was entitled McBrides Machine for Ginning, Carding, & Spinning Cotton at One Operation and was after a drawing by Jacob Cist (1782-1825), an amateur artist who also drew landscape scenes for Port Folio. Cist was also a businessman with an interest in innovative machines and entomological subjects.
Francis Kearney, also a member of Tanner, Kearney and Tiebout, was another engraver who contributed engravings to Port Folio in the 1820s. Several were after drawings by the English artist Richard Westall (1765-1836) to illustrate Sir Walter Scott's novel Ivanhoe. Published in 1819, the book was an immediate success in England as well as in America, especially after it was serialized in Port Folio starting in 1820. Kearney's most original work, however, was after a drawing by the French artist Charles-Alexandre Lesueur (1778-1846), who at the time was serving as the curator of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. Kearney's engraving of bison appeared opposite of page 177 of the March 1825 issue.
Tanner, Kearney and Tiebout was moderately successful as a bank note engraving firm, but the partnership broke up in 1824 when Tiebout moved to a utopian community in New Harmony, Indiana. He taught engraving in New Harmony and engraved many illustrations for Thomas Say (1787-1834), an American naturalist who wrote his multivolume Conchology there. Another union had already been formed in 1817 without Tiebout; this was Tanner, Vallance, Kearny and Company. Their first and only engraving for Port Folio appeared opposite of the contents page of the May 1819 issue and was after a drawing by the French architect and landscape painter Maximilian Godefroy (ca. 1765-1840). Vallance left the firm sometime in 1819, and the company then changed its name to Tanner, Kearny and Company.
As Philadelphia publishers turned for illustrations to New York City engravers, the publishers of Port Folio had to do the same. They had the opportunity to choose the best engravers from the 1807 Bible contest in New York City. William Satchwell Leney (1769-1831) won first prize for his engraving entitled Finding of Moses, which may have been the reason why he was selected to contribute six plates over the next two years. His last, On the East River, was done after a painting by John Wesley Jarvis (1780-1840) and appeared opposite of page 213 of the March 1813 issue along with an article of the same title. Leney probably severed his Port Folio connection when he formed a partnership with William Rollinson (1762-1842) in the more lucrative business of bank note engraving.
Peter Maverick (1780-1832) had also won an honorable mention in the 1807 Bible competition for his engraving The Holy Family, which may have prompted the editor of Port Folio to select for the September 1809 issue his engraving entitled Near Berthier on the St. Lawrence after a drawing by Alexander Robertson (1772-1841), a miniaturist and landscape painter. It appeared opposite of page 265. Inserted along with the print was the following short introduction: "The annexed view, which by the favour of a friend, we are enabled to present to the readers of The Port Folio, exhibits the appearance of the river near Berthier, or Barthier, a small place on the northern shore between Montreal and Quebec; and only a few miles below the head of the remarkable expansion of the river, usually called Lac St. Pierre" (page 265).
Thomas Gimbrede (1781-1832), a portrait and miniature painter in New York City, was not in the 1807 Bible contest because he did not take up engraving until around 1810. Once he achieved competence with the burin, Gimbrede engraved three portraits of military heroes after artwork by Joseph Wood, the first being published in February 1815, the month after David Edwin's last engraving for the magazine. In 1819, Gimbrede was appointed drawing master at West Point and, in September of that year, Port Folio published his portrait of Major General Israel Putnam opposite of page 177. As noted on the print, it was after a drawing by the portrait and miniature painter Ann Hall (1792-1863) from Connecticut. This artist had made her drawing from the original painting by John Trumbull (1756-1843). Obviously, Port Folio purchased the plate and printed impressions without changing the title.
The architect William Strickland (1788-1854) began his career in Philadelphia in 1809, but until he was given the commission to design the Bank of the United States in Philadelphia in 1819, he had to rely for his income on surveying, painting, and engraving. He started his work with Port Folio in November 1809 with drawings engraved by George Murray, Benjamin Tanner, and his friend William Kneass. A good example was his view of Quebec City that Kneass engraved for the April 1813 issue. It appeared opposite of page 327 and accompanied a description of the city and the adjoining area.
After William Kneass engraved Strickland's view of Quebec, Strickland himself engraved other War of 1812 scenes. He probably received encouragement to compete with the editor of the Analectic Magazine, Washington Irving, who wrote several biographies of American naval heroes and published engravings to accompany his articles. In fact, in August 1814, Strickland experimented with aquatinting, an engraving process in which the gradation of tones is achieved through a fine network of dots created by the repeated application of resin to the copper plate that is then heated and etched to various depths by the action of nitric acid. Aquatinting is ideal for landscapes, and Strickland used the process successfully in his engraving of Queenstown opposite of page 198. Queenstown was the sight of a battle during the War of 1812 in which the British commander, Major General Isaac Brock (1769-1812), was killed.
In July 1814, Strickland returned to line engraving opposite of page one to record an event that must have caused a sensation in Philadelphia. It was the news of an American naval victory fought shortly before 29 April off the coast of Florida. The battle was of only forty-five minutes in duration when the American sloop-of-war Peacock captured through superior gunnery the British brig L'Epervier. Strickland engraved the scene after a drawing by Thomas Birch (1779-1851), an artist who became famous for his maritime scenes, and especially naval battles during the War of 1812.
A few months later in January 1815, Port Folio printed the following announcement: "Notice of Recent Publications. Journal of a Cruise made to the Pacific Ocean, by Captain David Porter, in the United States' frigate Essex, in the years 1812, 1813, and 1814." This notice was probably printed at the urging of William Strickland in support of Captain David Porter (1780-1843). Porter had recently published a book on his travels with his own drawings that were engraved by Strickland, and four of these scenes appeared in Port Folio, including the one entitled Mouina, Chief Warrior of the Tayehs. This appeared opposite of page 104 of the January 1815 issue.
William Strickland's younger brother George (1797-1851) had been an understudy in architecture, but lacking commissions, he was in need of work during this period. He was probably also a friend of William Kneass because they collaborated on an allegorical scene for a July 1815 engraving. In February 1817, George Strickland's drawing by an unknown engraver entitled Washington Hall Philadelphia was published. George Strickland never did become successful as an architect and taught drawing before becoming a patent office clerk in Washington, D.C.
William Strickland ended his engraving activities once he started obtaining architectural commissions in the last portion of the second decade of the nineteenth century. His crowning achievement was the design and construction of the Bank of the United States in Philadelphia, and many other projects followed during the next two decades. He did return to Port Folio, however, in September 1821 to promote his masterpiece with an engraving opposite of the contents page, along with an article: "Art. XIX--New Bank of the United States in Philadelphia" in which it was noted that "[t]he description is from the pen of the ingenious architect, Mr. William Strickland, by whom the plan was designed."
In January 1816, Harrison Hall (1787-1866), the new publisher of Port Folio, printed an "Advertisement" announcing his lofty goals for the magazine and that it could be ordered for "four dollars per annum." He was forced only six months later to increase the price to six dollars to cover expenses. Then, in January 1820, Hall made his final change, announcing that "[n]ow it will be published quarterly and still at $6.00 per annum." Obviously, the price remained the same because he could not obtain subscriptions higher than that rate and was now forced to reduce the magazine to a quarterly format.
The cost of engravings was probably a primary factor and, in the magazine's final years, the editor relied on older engravers such as Cephas Childs, Francis Kearney, and Gideon Fairman. There were some newcomers, as well as such engravers as James Barton Longacre (1794-1869) and Young and Delleker (fl. 1822-23), a partnership of short duration. Helen E. Lawson (fl. 1826-42), daughter of Alexander Lawson, apparently tried to revive interest in the magazine with her hand-colored prints of birds taken from Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology. Appearing in 1827, the magazine's final year, were the colored engravings of the female rice bunting (opposite of page one of the July 1827 issue), the male rice bunting, and the passenger pigeon.
In 1827, Port Folio ceased publication for unknown reasons, but the problem of collecting subscriptions was never overcome, and production expenses were ever increasing. Copperplate engravings for magazine illustration were no longer efficient because steel engravings that could print more impressions were being used by publishers. New competition may also have been a factor. The Casket, founded in 1826 and that later became Graham's Lady's and Gentlemen's Magazine, used numerous steel engravings and became immediately popular. Graham's was just one of the many competitors that arose in the 1820s. Whatever the reason for its demise, Frank Luther Mott aptly described the magazine when he stated that "[t]he Port Folio had a longer life than any previous American magazine; and although it was never very remunerative financially, it commanded a certain measure of respect from its contemporaries throughout most of its life. It is an invaluable repository of social and political comment upon its times." (14)
(1.) Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines, 1741--1850 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957), 1:223-46.
(2.) American National Biography, 6:438-39. This supplies a biographical sketch of Joseph Dennie.
(3.) Linda K. Kerber and Walter John Morris, "Politics and Literature: The Adams Family and the Port Folio" William and Mary Quarterly 23 (July 1966): 450-66.
(4.) Port Folio 2 (30 October 1802): 355.
(5.) William C. Dowling, Literary Federalism in the Age of Jefferson: Joseph Dennie and the "Port Folio," 1801-1812 (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1999), 64.
(6.) Frank Weitenkampf, American Graphic Art (New York: Macmillan, 1924), 61.
(7.) William Dunlap, History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States (New York: Dover, 1969), 2:66.
(8.) Ibid., 1:206.
(9.) Benjamin M. Lewis, A Guide to Engravings in American Magazines, 1741-1810 (New York: New York Public Library, 1959), 16-17.
(10.) Karol Ann Peard Lawson, "'An Inexhaustible Abundance': The National Landscape Depicted in American Magazines, 1780-1820," Journal of the Early Republic 12 (fall 1992): 307.
(11.) Dunlap, History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States, 1:416. Dunlap explained it in this fashion: "I believe George Murray, the engraver, was the ringleader of mischief, in the early history of our [Pennsylvania] academy, but this was long before my time; he died before I entered as an artist. Mr. Sully can say very much of the early history, and he will not say a great deal, I think, in favour of Murray."
(12.) Henry Simpson, The Lives of Eminent Philadelphians, Now Deceased (Philadelphia: William Brotherhead, 1859), 358.
(13.) David McNeeley Stauffer, American Engravers upon Copper and Steel (New York: Burt Franklin, [1966?]), 1:271.
(14.) Mott, A History of American Magazines, 1741-1850, 1:245-46.
Donald C. O'Brien is a member of the American Printing History Association, and his article entitled "The Early Nineteenth-Century Boston Engraving Trade and the Engravers Who Developed It" appeared in issue forty-five of Printing History. To complete the research for this essay, O'Brien examined the complete series of engravings in Port Folio at the American Antiquarian Society and discovered that the early volumes contain the second bookplate of the society's founder, Isaiah Thomas (1750-1831), a Boston and Worcester printer and publisher. The plate was engraved by Paul Revere (1735-1818), Thomas's associate in the printing trade. Thomas had joined Revere in warning the countryside of a British expedition searching for stored munitions on 18 April 1775 and then participated in the fighting the next day at Lexington and Concord. Two days before, he had dismantled and moved his printing press to Worcester to evade the British. Thomas remained in Worcester and founded the American Antiquarian Society. The author also went through the complete set of Port Folio at the William L. Clements Library at the University of Michigan, where a few insignificant differences were found. He also consulted an incomplete set at the Burton Historical Collection at the Detroit Public Library, where one significant difference was found and noted.
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|Author:||O'Brien, Donald C.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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