The Embedding of Smart Digital Technologies within Urban Infrastructures: Governance Networks, Real-Time Data Sustainability, and the Cognitive Internet of Things.
Climate risk and restructurings in practice indicate a distancing from greening endeavors in preparation for sustainable advancement. (Gazzola et al., 2019) The notion of smart cities has matured significantly with the expansion and buildout of the Internet of Things as groundbreaking kind of sustainable advancement. (Sharma and Park, 2018) Smart cities attempt to employ technology and data to enhance the coherence of city services, to tackle societal issues, and to optimize partnership between citizens and government. Handling such social transformation necessitates a massive socio-ecological cutover with both organizations and citizens' ways of life expecting to change. (Hudson et al., 2019)
2. Conceptual Framework and Literature Review
The mingling of greening and smart notions for sustainable advancement may be more thoroughly attained if smart-centric strategies to policy and administration are comprised in the all-encompassing conceptualization of green quality and flexibility, with environmental directions to urban advancement, establishing the route and activating decisions in the direction of a sustainable future. (Gazzola et al., 2019) The Internet of Things represents an essential element of the information and communication technology infrastructure of smart sustainable cities, being a developing urban advancement line of action because of its significant capacity to further environmental sustainability. (Bibri, 2018) The rise of smart cities focuses on moderating the difficult tasks increased as a result of the incessant urbanization expansion (Balica, 2017; Hardingham et al., 2018; Hoffman and Friedman, 2018; Meila, 2018; Popescu et al., 2018; Popescu Ljungholm, 2018a, b; Radulescu, 2018) and growing population density in urban areas. Thus, governments and decision makers should become involved in smart city projects pursuing sustainable economic growth and superior standard of living for citizens. (Osman, 2019)
3. Methodology and Empirical Analysis
Using and replicating data from BI Intelligence, Black & Veatch, Bloomberg Intelligence, ESI ThoughtLab, Frost & Sullivan, and UBS, we performed analyses and made estimates regarding smart city addressable market by segment in 2025 (%), the primary driver for smart city projects in the U.S. (%), the top three most important systems a smart city program should invest in first (%), and digital technologies cities currently actively use to support operations (%). Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the collected data.
4. Results and Discussion
As an established information and communication technology innovation or computing pattern, the Internet of Things is related to big data analytics, which is incontestably on a pervasive route throughout numerous urban spheres for shaping up energy efficiency and moderating environmental consequences, therefore concerning chiefly the adequate use of natural resources, the judicious administration of infrastructures and facilities, and the improved provision of services in the interest of the environment. (Bibri, 2018) The smart city supplies higher quality ways out for urban zones which are booming at an amazing tempo. (Li et al., 2019) (Tables 1-6)
5. Conclusions and Implications
The Internet of Things and associated big data applications are instrumental in bringing on and enhancing the operation of environmentally sustainable advancement. (Bibri, 2018) Smart cities are a fashionable notion as they may catalyze a sustainable and harmonious urban future. (Yigitcanlar and Kamruzzaman, 2019) Sensor-based devices are put into service to an increasing extent for diverse applications to gather a massive quantity of data for grasping the world, thus integrating wide-ranging sensing Internet of Things into smart cities. (Teng et al., 2019) Noticeably escalated societal requirements on the urban services that call in question environmental protection and data processing capability concerned with resource use efficiency are disadvantaged by incompatible simultaneous demands. (Li et al., 2019)
This paper was supported by Grant GE-1785651 from the San Francisco Center for IoT Economy, CA.
All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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The Digital Dynamics Laboratory
at CSA, Adelaide, Australia
Faculty of Operation and Economics
of Transport and Communications, Department of Economics, University of Zilina, Zilina, Slovak Republic
Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, Department of Economics, University of Zilina, Zilina, Slovak Republic
The Institute of Technology and Business in Ceske Budejovice, The School of Expertness and Valuation, Czech Republic
How to cite: Kearney, Harvey, Tomas Kliestik, Maria Kovacova, and Marek Vochozka (2019). "The Embedding of Smart Digital Technologies within Urban Infrastructures: Governance Networks, Real-Time Data Sustainability, and the Cognitive Internet of Things," Geopolitics, History, and International Relations 11(1): 98-103. doi:10.22381/GHIR11120195
Received 14 December 2018 * Received in revised form 22 May 2019
Accepted 24 May 2019 * Available online 1 June 2019
Table 1 The top three most important systems a smart city program should invest in first (%, Select three choices.) Government/ Smart Services Municipality Provider High-speed data network 34.7 26.4 Smart transportation 26.4 38.2 Smart water systems 33.8 26.7 Smart electric grid, including 36.2 40.1 smart metering Renewable/Distributed 14.1 32.1 generation/Microgrids Smart street lighting 19.4 17.4 Smart buildings 34.7 53.2 Smart sensors 17.2 8.1 Sources: Black & Veatch; our survey among 4,700 individuals conducted November 2018. Table 2 What are the top three hurdles that your city/utility has had to address to enable utility, city/community or campus systems to be managed in a smarter, more integrated way? (Select three choices.) Government/ Smart Services Municipality, % Provider, % Policy hurdles 29.4 30.4 Lack of resources 36.3 54.8 or expertise Technology availability 21.1 42.1 Budget constraints 64.5 56.7 Gaining stakeholder support 24.2 32.8 Ownership across 24.3 25.7 departments Time constraints/ 30.7 32.6 Other priorities Short-term mindset 28.6 28.1 Other 2.7 2.4 Don't know 12.1 0.2 Sources: Black & Veatch; our survey among 4,700 individuals conducted November 2018. Table 3 What level of attention should your city put on the following areas of city governance? (%) The areas of governance Beginner Transitioning requiring attention Involving local business executives 54 48 in planning decisions Minimizing bribery and corruption 49 41 Reducing the burden of complying with 50 42 local government regulations Offering open data platforms across 44 41 government, business, and citizens Updating regulations in response to new, 44 42 innovative business models Providing channels for real time 46 41 information and resource sharing Making it easy to find, access, and 47 43 bid on procurement opportunities Quickly resolving city issues 42 43 that affect my business Ensuring a stable fiscal environment 46 42 Using advanced data and technologies to 41 37 improve urban decision making Making it easy to access information and 50 36 data to manage our business Developing a long-term vision for the city 48 32 Ensuring a stable policy environment 40 29 for doing business Decreasing city inefficiencies 25 20 The areas of governance Leader requiring attention Involving local business executives 47 in planning decisions Minimizing bribery and corruption 42 Reducing the burden of complying with 45 local government regulations Offering open data platforms across 50 government, business, and citizens Updating regulations in response to new, 45 innovative business models Providing channels for real time 47 information and resource sharing Making it easy to find, access, and 43 bid on procurement opportunities Quickly resolving city issues 44 that affect my business Ensuring a stable fiscal environment 43 Using advanced data and technologies to 48 improve urban decision making Making it easy to access information and 41 data to manage our business Developing a long-term vision for the city 35 Ensuring a stable policy environment 36 for doing business Decreasing city inefficiencies 28 Sources: Frost & Sullivan; Bloomberg Intelligence; UBS; our estimates. Table 5 The primary driver for smart city projects in the U.S. (%) Operational efficiency/Cost reduction 28 Environmental sustainability 26 Improved city management 22 Infrastructure resilience 13 Attract businesses 11 Sources: BI Intelligence; Black & Veatch; our survey among 4,700 individuals conducted November 2018. Table 6 Digital technologies cities currently actively use to support operations (%) Beginner Transitioning Leader IoT/Sensors/Wearables 18 77 97 Biometrics/facial 52 57 87 recognition Geospatial technology 36 59 90 Chatbots/Natural 4 27 56 language processing Smart beacons/Near- 3 19 38 field communication Artificial intelligence 5 13 30 and virtual reality Augmented and 2 11 22 virtual reality Drones and robots 1 9 16 Blockchain 2 6 13 Sources: ESI ThoughtLab; our survey among 4,700 individuals conducted November 2018.