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The Elizabeth Stanton inscribed Quaker quilt.

Introduction

In 1991, a brief description of an inscribed Quaker quilt made by a young Quaker girl, Elizabeth Stanton (fig. 1) of Barnesville, Belmont County, Ohio, appeared in the book, Quilts in Community. (1) The authors mentioned painful schisms in Elizabeth's religious community and cite the quilt as an effort to reaffirm a sense of community in the midst of upheaval. It documents far more. It records friends and family members who were also members of the Society of Friends or Quakers and most likely attended the Stillwater Monthly Meeting (Stillwater MM). It documents the arrival and extensive presence of Quakers in the Belmont County, Ohio, area and the turbulence that molded how members of the Stillwater MM conducted their lives. It commemorates her parents, both of whom died before the quilt was completed. It hints at the need for social cohesion in a time when the Civil War tore the country apart. It illustrates the importance of family, friends, and religion to the maker of the quilt and represents her response to the turbulence and tragedy that shaped her early life.

Several key references greatly aided this research. In 1922, William Henry Stanton, Elizabeth Stanton's nephew, published a 713-page book entitled A Book Called Our Ancestors the Stantons, documenting both the genealogy of the family and recollections by a number of family members, including several written by Elizabeth herself, her husband, or her daughter, Anna Bailey Patten. (2) Elizabeth's autograph album, covering a portion of the time the quilt was in construction, and her diary for a slightly later period are also still in existence. (3) Finally, her descendants have kept a trove of photographs, quilts, and ephemera relating to Elizabeth without which this research would have been superficial.

The Quaker Context

Elizabeth's quilt is an inscribed, or signature, quilt in the single-pattern friendship quilt format as defined by quilt scholar Barbara Brackman. (4) Jessica Nicoll's research suggests the years 1841 to 1855 as marking the height of signature quilt popularity in the Delaware Valley, while Linda Otto Lipsett suggests 1840 to 1875 across a larger geographic area. (5) This longer time span likely represents the expansion of the style across the country as documented by Brackman. (6) Elizabeth's quilt is similar to most of the Quaker quilts in Nicoll's study in that it is a single-pattern quilt. Nicoll describes single-pattern quilts as being especially popular with that religious sect, as they express the Quaker religious ideal of a unified and cohesive social fabric made up of equal individuals. (7)

It is important to examine the arrival of the Quakers in Eastern Ohio and the tumultuous development of the religion there preceding Elizabeth Stanton's birth to understand fully the cohesion of the members of the Stillwater MM and the strict approach to their religious practice. Both of these factors had a very strong influence on Elizabeth's quilt.

Starting in 1799, Quakers poured into Belmont County, Ohio, via the Cumberland Trail and the Zane Trace. (8) In most cases, they were leaving southern states in protest of the growing institution of slavery, a practice their religion strongly condemned. Some stayed in Belmont County, and others moved west to other parts of Ohio, Indiana, or even further west. Historian Charles Hanna states "until the year 1806, the pioneers of Warren Township were nearly all Quakers." (9) In 1803, Stephen Hodgin (Hodgen, Hodgins) and his brother William arrived in the Barnesville area from Georgia. (10) Stephen was Elizabeth Stanton's maternal grandfather. Stephen and his growing family became members of the religious community that would become the Stillwater Monthly Meeting. Mary Hodgin, Elizabeth's mother, was born April 10, 1810 to Stephen and Elizabeth Williams Hodgin.

Elizabeth's paternal great-grandmother, Abigail Macy Stanton, left Carteret County, North Carolina, after her husband Benjamin's death. She departed with her six minor children, the oldest who was sixteen-year-old Henry, for Mount Pleasant, Jefferson County, Ohio, in 1800. (11) She was one of the first pioneers in that area. Her son Henry Stanton moved to the Barnesville area in 1812 with his wife Clary and two sons. (12) Joseph, the younger of those sons (born January 19, 1812), would become Elizabeth's father.

In 1828, the controversy between the Hicksites (a group of Quakers following the teachings of Elias Hicks) and the Orthodox Quakers came to the Ohio meetings. Elias Hicks stressed the importance of the "Light Within," over teachings found in the Bible, while the Orthodox Quakers believed the Bible was the primary authority on truth. (13) The Hicksites' beliefs were deemed "not in the order of the society's discipline" and they were disowned by the Stillwater MM, which remained Orthodox. (14) This separation grew more rancorous and led to a violent confrontation. The following quotation vividly reveals the turmoil into which Elizabeth Stanton was born and spent her formative years. The event described no doubt influenced how she viewed her religion and her life, and influenced how she made her quilt. English Quaker Thomas Shillitoe was visiting Stillwater and recorded the following eye-witness account in his diary:

"Third Day, 26th of Eighth month, 18(2)8. Attended the select quarterly meeting held at Stillwater: The meeting was informed before it was fully gathered, that some persons were on their way who had been members of this select meeting, but who had been disowned in consequence of uniting themselves with the Separatists. On their making the attempt to enter the house, and the doorkeepers preventing them, they assembled on the meeting house lot, where they held their meeting, preaching and praying, so much to the annoyance of the friends, that they were obliged to close the windows of meeting house.

Fourth day, 27th of Eighth month, 1828, the day of Stillwater quarterly meeting. My companion (James Emlen) and myself on proceeding towards the meeting house, observed a vast crowd of people assembled; the nearer we approached, the more awful the commotion appeared; the countenances and the action of many manifested a determination to make their way into the house by resorting to violent means, if no other way would effect their designs. By pressing through the crowd we gained admittance.

The tumult increased to an alarming degree; the consequences of keeping the doors fastened any longer were to be dreaded, as the mob were beginning to break the windows to obtain entrance, and to inflict blows on some of the doorkeepers. It was therefore concluded to open the doors. The door of the men's house (room) being opened, to attempt to describe the scene to the full, would be in vain. The feelings awakened in my mind were such as to almost overpower my confidence in the superintending care of a Divine Protector. The countenances of many as they entered the house, seemed to indicate that they were ready to fall upon the little handful of us in the minister's gallery, there being few others in the house. Some of their party forced open the shutters between the men's and women's house (room), as if they would have brought the whole of them to the ground; others ran to the doors which had been made secure, seizing them, tearing them open and some off the hinges. The like outrage they committed in the women's house (room.) The cracking and hammering this occasioned for the short time it lasted, was awful to me, not knowing where or in what this scene of riot and wickedness of temper would end. The house was very soon crowded to an extreme, the separatists taking possession of one end of the men's house (room) and Friends the other." (15)

This level of rancor and violence within a religious sect with a basic tenet of nonviolence must have shaken the very basis of belief for everyone involved. The split divided families, friends, and neighbors. It directly affected the Stanton side of Elizabeth's family as her grandfather, Henry Stanton, along with his immediate family and his sister, Sarah Stanton Williams, and her family remained Orthodox Quakers, while the remainder of their brothers and sisters and their families became Hicksites. (16) It affected both of Elizabeth's parents who were members of the Stillwater MM at that time. Further, the Hicksites who had been expelled from the Stillwater MM continued to hold their own meetings in one end of the meeting house for many years "very much to the discomfort and annoyance of Friends meetings." (17) They remained neighbors of the Orthodox Quakers, and continued to be forced to interact with them. For example, Dr. Carolus Judkins, the first resident physician in Barnesville, was a Hicksite. (18) This economic interdependence and the hard feelings caused by the rift between the two groups must have led to a very difficult and unsettling environment for people on both sides of the issue for many years.

In 1854, two years before Elizabeth began her quilt, the Stillwater religious community was further rent by the division of the Orthodox Quakers into Wilburites and Gurneyites. Gurneyites advocated an evangelically oriented ministry, participation in social justice activities and politics particularly the abolitionist movement, and a greater importance of the scriptures over the Inward Christ (Inner Light). (19) Wilburites believed in remaining removed from more worldly affairs in order to be more attuned to the Inner Light and saw the Gurneyite movement toward evangelical Christianity and societal activities as coming from self-will rather than from Divine inspiration. (20) Stillwater MM members remained with the Wilburites (also called Conservative Friends), but the separation further affected deeply the religious community and Elizabeth's family, and disputes continued for years. (21)

Elizabeth's Life

Elizabeth Stanton was born December 25, 1846, the last child of Joseph Stanton and Mary Hodgin Stanton. She had two brothers, Eli (born 1835) and William (born 1839), and two sisters, Anna (born 1837) and Eunice (born 1843). (22) Eunice died when Elizabeth was about three years old. (23)

Elizabeth would have learned to sew as a very young child, perhaps as young as three or four years old, as did most children of the time. Besides other chores assigned to her on the family farm, she likely helped her mother and older sister with sewing and repairing clothing for the family. She was an accomplished seamstress by age nine when she started her quilt, as illustrated by the fine quality sewing in the quilt itself. Hand sewing was still an extremely important homemaking skill at the time, as sewing machines did not become common household items until Edward Clark, a partner in I. M. Singer and Company, invented the installment payment plan in 1856. (24) While there were both seamstresses and tailors plying their trades in Barnesville at the time, farm families tended to produce most or all of their own clothing for economic reasons. (25)

Woolen blankets would have been easily available for purchase from a woolen mill in Barnesville, but needlework and quilting was a family tradition that both Elizabeth and her sister Anna learned and practiced all their lives. (26) Their mother, Mary Hodgin Stanton, or her mother, Elizabeth Williams Hodgin, made an intricately quilted woolen strip quilt in about 1835-1850. (27) Mary's quilting frame went to Anna when Joseph Stanton died and was later given to Elizabeth. (28) There were eight quilts, presumably made by family members, among the items auctioned at Joseph's estate sale in 1859.29 Elizabeth attended a quilting party in 1868 and she made an eight-point star quilt from her mother's last dress and the last dress her father bought for her, presumably not long after her parents' deaths. (30) The Ohio History Connection has a silk, machine quilted, wholecloth quilt made by Anna and Elizabeth in 1870 from Mary Hodgin Stanton's wedding dress; a cotton green, brown, and red Double Four Patch made by Elizabeth about 1870-1880; and a cotton blue and white Drunkard's Path made by Anna sometime between 1880-1910. (31) Anna made a quilt from her daughter Mary's dresses about 1890 and Elizabeth pieced a scrap quilt around 1920. (32) These are clearly not all the quilts the two made, but those currently documented to have been made by them. The details of Elizabeth's lifelong quilting and handwork production are not recorded, but Mary Bundy Colpitts, Anna's daughter, said of her mother, "It was her pleasure to have some interesting work to fill the spare moments. Sometimes it was knitting or crochet, and many times piecing quilts. Of late years she pieced many quilts for the Needlework Guild, of which she was a director and very much interested member. She was never so happy as when doing something for someone who needed her help." (33) Both Elizabeth and Anna must have learned young that "to sit with idle hands was a disgrace." (34)

Fabric for Elizabeth's quilt would have been available from dry goods stores in Barnesville at the time of the quilt's construction (1856-1865). (35) Likewise, Elizabeth or a family member may have travelled to a more distant market to purchase it. Travel and transportation of passengers and goods by road was easily possible by the mid-1800s because the National Road (now Route 40) passed within five miles of Barnesville. The National Road followed the old Zane Trace, and after the War of 1812 it became a national priority for improvement to facilitate the flow of trade and settlers. Historian J.A. Caldwell related "this highway was the main artery between the East and the West." (36) Rail travel and transport was possible from Barnesville starting in 1854 via the Central Ohio Railroad as far as Columbus, Ohio, to the west, and Bellaire, Ohio, to the east. Ferries carried passengers and freight to Bellaire across the Ohio River from Benwood, Virginia (now West Virginia), where trains arrived from Baltimore. Also, shipping on the Ohio River was a major means of transport for goods and passengers from the north and south (via the Ohio to the Mississippi River); Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia), was a major port city. By the time Elizabeth started her quilt, she could easily obtain fabric locally.

Bernita Bundy described Elizabeth's family as being "well off," allowing her to purchase the fabric she needed. Several pieces of information support this impression of the family's economic standing. Her father Joseph Stanton listed the value of the real estate he owned in the 1850 Census as $2,500 (equivalent of about $65,170 in 2010 dollars). (38) In comparison, nearby farms were valued at $2,000 (Eli Hodgin), $1,500 (Archibald Cole Jr.), and $1,000 (Benjamin Clendenon). (39) The estate sale of Joseph Stanton's effects on September 29, 1859 netted $1,540.02 (about $37,170 in 2010 dollars) and the list of items sold included a number of what would at the time have been luxury items, including an extensive library, numerous pieces of furniture, rugs, curtains, as well as eight quilts, one bedspread, seven comforts, three coverlets, and twelve blankets. (40) On August 23, 1860, Asa Garretson listed himself as Elizabeth's guardian in the Belmont County probate records and listed her estate as $1,559.68 from the proceeds of the sale of real estate. (41) This amount would be in addition to her share of the proceeds from the estate sale. While this study did not uncover a will for Joseph Stanton, on his deathbed he expressed his wish that the money from his estate not cause friction among his children. He wanted the two younger children (William and Elizabeth) to receive shares equivalent to what he had already given his two older children Eli and Anna on their marriages, with the remainder to be divided evenly among all four children. (42) This was very much in keeping with the Quaker ideals of equality among the sexes. By the 1870 Census, Elizabeth Stanton listed the value of her personal property as $2,400 (about $41,160 in 2010 dollars) a very handsome dowry. (43)

Elizabeth's early childhood was very happy. In 1922, her daughter, Anna Bailey Patten, wrote of her mother, "she loves to tell her children and grandchildren of those happy times when she was a little girl." (44) Shortly after she started her quilt, however, Elizabeth's world changed dramatically with the death of her mother on September 27, 1857, at age forty-seven. (45) Elizabeth's mother's death was followed by the death of her father, also at age forty-seven, on July 26, 1859. (46) Tragic as these deaths were, it was far from uncommon for families of the time period to lose members at young ages. Of Elizabeth's father's five brothers, none lived past the age of forty. In that pre-antibiotic age, epidemics were deadly killers. For example, in 1861 forty people from the nearby Bethel Methodist Church--one-quarter to one-third of the membership--died of diptheria in a nine- month period. (47) Accidents, childbirth, and non-epidemic illnesses took their toll as well.

Grief-stricken, Elizabeth wrote, "After her father's death Elizabeth lived with her brothers and sisters, doing what she could to help them. She very much felt her loneliness, but every one was very kind to her and made her feel less the loss of a father and mother." (48) The 1860 Census reveals that Elizabeth lived at that time with her brother Eli and his wife Mary Bundy Stanton. (49) Family oral tradition related by Bernita Bundy states that Elizabeth was raised by her sister, Anna Stanton Bundy, and Anna's husband Nathan (fig. 2). The 1870 Census concurs, showing Elizabeth living in the Nathan Bundy household. Elizabeth said that she had three homes, with her two brothers and sister and their spouses, after her parents' deaths, but she must have regarded her sister and brother-in-law, Anna and Nathan Bundy, very much as her second set of parents. (50) Nathan's relatives were named on seven of the thirty-six blocks, almost twenty percent of the blocks on her quilt. It is clear she spent a good deal of time socializing with the Bundys.

The trauma at the loss of Elizabeth's parents was followed very quickly by the beginning of the Civil War in 1861. While Quakers were then and remain today pacifists, their strong beliefs in the equality of all people and races, and the number of non-Quaker young men from the area who went off to war must have tested the resolve of some. Some Quakers served in various positions in support of the Union. Elizabeth's first cousin once removed, Dr. Byron Stanton, served as Assistant Surgeon for the First Regiment, Ohio Light Artillery, then as Surgeon of the 120th Ohio Volunteer Infantry until he was captured and incarcerated in a Confederate prison. (51) Another first cousin once removed, Edwin M. Stanton, was Secretary of War under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. (52) Thomas W. Bundy, her "second father's" first cousin enlisted in Company F, 50th Regiment of New York Engineer Volunteers. (53) Each one carefully chose a non-fighting role, yet supported the ideal of ending slavery. Conversely, some Stillwater MM members were drafted but refused to fight or hire substitutes. (54) Clearly, this time produced great moral dilemmas for Quakers in general and Elizabeth's family specifically.

Further, a pass by Morgan's Raiders in July of 1863 in the immediate vicinity of Barnesville brought the war very close to home. Historian Dempsey O. Sheppard stated, "The damage done on this entire raid through Ohio was estimated at about one million dollars, but no estimate was ever placed on the damage done to shattered nerves." (55) The Quakers could not have remained unaffected. It seems likely that Elizabeth's tragic early life and the tumult in which it was lived impressed upon her the importance of having her natal family, her extended family, and all her friends surrounding her on her quilt. The Civil War ended in the spring of 1865 and Elizabeth completed her quilt in the summer of that year. Thus, the local religious environment, the national trauma caused by the Civil War, and her personal tragedies all would have contributed to the environment in which her quilt was created.

Her early life stands in contrast to her rather more peaceful, yet not completely uneventful, adult life. Anna Bailey Patten, Elizabeth's daughter, relates that Elizabeth and her future husband Lindley Patterson Bailey, who was "almost a stranger to her at that time," were paired up as waiters (similar to bridesmaids and groomsmen) at the wedding of Elizabeth's good friend Ruanna Frame to Lindley Bundy on December 7, 1870. (56) They must have become more than strangers quickly--on July 26, 1871 they married. Lindley taught school and farmed, and they lived for the first few years of their marriage in a small house on his father's farm. In 1873 they purchased their own farm but the financial panic of 1873 made it a heavy financial responsibility. Interest rates were at eight to ten percent and prices of farm products were dismally low. (57) Finances forced them to sell the farm in 1878, and then to rent a farm instead. In 1883, Lindley was left with heavy financial burdens as a result of an unfortunate business deal, but they were able to recover financially by 1886, when they again purchased their own farm. During this whole period Elizabeth bore six healthy children and managed to raise them all to adulthood. (58)

Lindley preferred to raise high quality South Down sheep and beef cattle, but Elizabeth was fond of dairy cattle. (59) She eventually talked Lind ley into trading a threshing machine she disliked for three registered Jersey cattle. This was the beginning of the very prosperous Belmont Stock Farm, the Bailey's dairying business, which by 1922 held "more medals and grand prizes for Dairy Products than any other farm in America." (60) Five of their six children remained in close proximity, working in the dairying business. (61) Their grandson, Lester Bailey, continued to be widely known for his prize-winning Jersey cows well into the 1960s.

Lindley and Elizabeth lived to celebrate fifty-six wedding anniversaries. Lindley died January 10, 1928, just a few months shy of his seventy-eighth birthday and Elizabeth passed away on July 15, 1936 at age eighty-nine. (62) Both are buried in Stillwater Cemetery. (63)

The Quilt

Elizabeth's quilt, now owned by the Ohio History Connection, is composed of pieced Ohio Star blocks set on point with plain alternate blocks, a plain six-inch border on the top and bottom of the quilt, and a four-inch border on the two sides (fig. 3, color plate 3). The thirty-six nine-inch pieced blocks are sewn by hand. Each pieced block in the six-by-six arrangement features an off-white star on a calico printed background, and each is inscribed with one or two names. The fabric in the alternate blocks and border is off-white and is uniform in color, weave, and wear; it was likely purchased new for this quilt. The printed fabrics are cotton and some show more deterioration than others. The quilt consists of twenty-two brown blocks of varying shades and prints, two yellow or light gold blocks, four red blocks, one dark blue block, two light blue-green blocks, and five green blocks. The quilting is finely done with ten to twelve stitches to the inch. The quilt has a green applied binding.

Each of the quilt's pieced blocks is inscribed with the names of one or two people. Figure 4 shows the location of each name on the quilt and the Appendix shows the names on the blocks, any date inscribed on the blocks, birth and death dates of named individuals, maiden names where applicable, and their relationship to Elizabeth Stanton or to Nathan Bundy (husband of Anna Stanton, Elizabeth's sister), who served as a second father after Elizabeth's parents' deaths. Determining relationships among the names and to Elizabeth proved to be extremely difficult. The Quaker religion required members to marry within the faith or they would face disownment. Because outside of major cities Quakers tended to settle in close proximity and in relatively small numbers, intermarriage practically guaranteed complicated blood and marriage relationships. This study documents only relatively close relationships. With additional work it might be possible to document a distant familial relationship between Elizabeth and most of the people named on her quilt. (64)

Fifty-two names other than Elizabeth's appear on the quilt. (65) All the names on the quilt appear to have been written by one person, making it an allograph rather than an autograph quilt. Two copies of Elizabeth's signature allowed comparison with the inscribed names, indicating that she wrote all of the names herself. (66) The handwriting in the inscriptions appears to be fairly uniform, suggesting further that they were written at about the same time. When interviewed, Bernita Bundy (Elizabeth's granddaughter) stated that the names on the quilt were Elizabeth's friends or family members, and were Stillwater MM members. (67) People who were not members of either Elizabeth's or Nathan Bundy's family were most likely Elizabeth's friends. Elizabeth would have known most of her friends from Meeting or at the Quaker schools she attended, and they would likely have been near her own age.

Twenty names are listed individually at a rate of one per block. Of the twenty individual names on the quilt, three remain unidentified. All of the unidentified individuals have female first names. The unidentified individuals are Amelia J. Allen (2D), Hannah Lewis (3F), and Aseneth Hyeth (4E). Three possibilities seem the most likely explanations. First, Quaker families were moving into Belmont County and then further west from the area during the period the quilt was made. Elizabeth could have made friends in families who attended Stillwater MM and then moved on between the census dates. Second, Elizabeth was educated first at the Friends' Primary School near the Stillwater MM, then later at the Mount Pleasant Quaker Boarding School, Jefferson County, Ohio (Mount Pleasant). (68) The unidentified young women could easily have been boarding school friends, suggesting they were Quakers, but not Stillwater MM members, slightly correcting Bernita Bundy's statement to that effect. Third, the names may have been misread.

All of the identified individual names are females and close to Elizabeth's age. All have identifiable connections to the Stillwater MM or to Mount Pleasant when Elizabeth attended. Of these, eleven were likely friends; they are not known to have been related to Elizabeth or to Nathan Bundy, or the relation is not proven. Mary Bailey (1B) was likely related to Elizabeth through the Hodgin line of Mary's mother (Nancy Hodgin Bailey), but this could not be documented. Ruanna Frame (1C) was a close friend of Elizabeth's and sister to Tacy Frame (1E). Both were sisters of Thompson Frame (6A) and daughters of Aaron Frame (5B) and his first wife Talitha or Tabitha Thompson. Sarah Bundy (1F) was likely to have been related to Nathan Bundy, but again, documentation proved elusive. Mary Ellen French (2A) married Joel D. Bundy, Nathan Bundy's first cousin, after the quilt was completed. Eliza Jane Strahl (2B) was Mary Ellen French's (2A) first cousin. Hannah Plummer (3A) and Rachel Plummer (3B) were sisters to each other and to Abram Plummer (1A). Mary H. Raley (4F) was a student attending Mount Pleasant in 1860, and a teacher at Mount Pleasant in 1863-1864. (69) Elizabeth was a student at Mount Pleasant during 1861-1862 and presumably met her there. (70) Lizzie (Elizabeth) Francis (6C) was the daughter of Richard and Maranda Francis. They were neighbors of Elizabeth's sister Anna Stanton Bundy, thus Elizabeth would have known her from the time she lived with Anna and Nathan. Eliza Smith (6E) was the niece of Robert and Rebecca Stanton Smith, block 6B. Eliza was the granddaughter of Stillwater MM members Robert H. and Elizabeth Williams Smith, who were the Superintendent and Matron of Mount Pleasant during the time Elizabeth attended. (71) Elizabeth probably met Eliza Smith there or when she visited her grandparents in the Stillwater area.

Three of Elizabeth's single female friends were also her relatives. Sally (Sarah) Dawson (3C) was Elizabeth's first cousin. Rebecca Simpson (3D) was Elizabeth's second cousin. Rebecca's parents Austin E. and Sabilla Fawcett Simpson were married at Stillwater Meeting House, but Rebecca was born and the family lived in Athens County, Ohio. It is unclear how much interaction Elizabeth would have had with her, but they appear to have been close enough for Rebecca's name to appear on Elizabeth's quilt and in her autograph album. Hannah Clendenon (4B), the daughter of Benjamin and Amy Hodgin Clendenon (2C), was Elizabeth's first cousin. While Hannah was older than Elizabeth's other friends, Elizabeth was very close to her Aunt Amy's family, especially her cousin Hannah. (72)

Three of Elizabeth's friends were also closely related to Nathan Bundy. Amanda Bundy (3F) was the daughter of Dempsey and Ann Wood Bundy, and was Nathan Bundy's first cousin. Ann Marie Bundy (5E) and Martha Ann Bundy (6F) were daughters of Ezekiel and Mariah Engle Bundy and were Nathan Bundy's sisters.

Elizabeth's listing of only female single friends contrasts with the names on Philena Cooper Hambleton's quilt, an inscribed Quaker quilt completed in 1854 in Columbiana County, Ohio, two counties north of Belmont County. (73) Of the single people listed on Philena's quilt, there are almost equal numbers of males and females. Philena's quilt was made by her friends and presented before she migrated further west. Philena was thirty years old and had been married for eleven years when her quilt was made.

Elizabeth made her own quilt. She started it as a pre-teen and finished it just as she was reaching young adulthood. Elizabeth attended gender-segregated Meetings, and when she attended school at Mount Pleasant the rules were very strict. A 1922 Stanton family history provides this illustration:

Boys and girls were not allowed to mingle together. One day Elizabeth and one of her girl friends were out in the yard and, seeing some boys on the roof, stopped to see what they were doing. But, alas, a watchful teacher saw this 'misdemeanor' and their registers were 'marked.' She had to explain to her sister Anna that her report was marked for 'looking at boys.' (74)

It seems that Elizabeth would have had few opportunities to socialize casually with boys or young men and become friends with them, so it is not surprising that she listed only female unmarried friends.

Between the end of schooling and marriage, young men and women among the Orthodox Quakers had to meet. Quaker social events organized specifically for young adults combined work and fun, offering opportunities to introduce young people of marriageable age to one another within a controlled environment. (75) Elizabeth completed her quilt at about the time she likely would have started to attend these social events.

Sixteen blocks have two names each, with one male and one female name sharing a surname per block; in all cases the people named proved to be husband and wife. Nicoll described inscribed quilts with blocks containing both the husband's and wife's names (husband-wife blocks) as typical of Quaker quilts in her sample of mid-nineteenth century quilts from the Delaware Valley. In contrast, she found such blocks to be uncommon on non-Quaker quilts. Since Nicoll's study, a number of husband-wife blocks in non-Quaker inscribed quilts have been identified.

For example, Carolyn Ducey in her doctoral dissertation, Chintz Applique Albums: Memory and Meaning in Mid-nineteenth Century Quilts of the Delaware River Valley, described three quilts made by members of the Presbyterian Fish family, all of which have husband-wife blocks, and five quilts made by members of the First Baptist Church of Philadelphia, four of which have husband-wife blocks. Nicoll also stated that the non-Quaker quilts in her sample usually represented smaller communities than did the Quaker quilts. (78) This may not generally be true when applied to a larger, more diverse sample. The four comparable First Baptist Church of Philadelphia quilts contain from fifty-four to 128 names and the Fish family quilts contain from forty-eight names (and one monogram) to seventy names. All appear to represent fairly extensive communities. The number of names on these seven non-Quaker quilts, and thus the community size represented, outnumber the names on Philena's quilt, and all but one outnumber the names on Elizabeth's quilt. Further research is needed to clarify the frequency of husband-wife blocks and community size based on numbers of names on quilts made by members of various religious sects.

Of the sixteen husband-wife blocks on Elizabeth's quilt, four blocks represent Elizabeth's close relatives: her parents, Joseph and Mary Hodgin Stanton (4D), brother Eli and Mary Bundy Stanton (5C), brother William and Jane Davis Stanton (4C), and sister Anna Stanton Bundy and Nathan Bundy (5D). Further, Jane Davis Stanton was the same age as Elizabeth and was likely a good friend as she attended Mount Pleasant Boarding School at the same time as Elizabeth, was a neighbor of Elizabeth's in Barnesville, and was a member of Stillwater MM. (79)

Five blocks represent couples related by blood to Elizabeth. These are Elizabeth's aunt Amy Hodgin Clendenon and spouse (2C), Elizabeth's first cousin Tabitha Stanton Davis and spouse (2E), Elizabeth's uncle Eli Hodgin and spouse (4A), Elizabeth's first cousin Stephen Hodgin and spouse (5F), and Elizabeth's first cousin Rebecca Stanton Smith and spouse (6B). Elizabeth's parents' farm was located directly between her Aunt Amy's and Uncle Eli's farms before her parents' deaths, and she was extremely close to both of these relatives and their respective children. (80) Rebecca Smith and Tabitha Davis were also close to Elizabeth's age and could have been friends as well as relatives; however both Eli and Sarah Hodgin were about twenty years older than Elizabeth and probably were listed for their close family ties.

Three blocks represent relatives of Nathan Bundy. Elizabeth would have engaged in family events with these people when she was living with Nathan and her sister Anna. Block 1D lists Ezekiel and Sarah Hoyle Bundy, Nathan's father and step-mother. The remaining two are inscribed with the names of Nathan's sister Mary Jane Bundy Starbuck and her husband Jesse (5A), and Nathan's first cousin Emily Bundy Frame and her husband Thompson (6A). In the case of these last two blocks, the wives named are of the right age to also have been Elizabeth's friends as well as social contacts in the Nathan Bundy household context.

One block represents a couple related by blood to both Elizabeth and to Nathan Bundy. Block 6 D lists Elizabeth's first cousin once removed, Rebecca Doudna Bundy and Nathan Bundy's brother William. The remaining three blocks represent married couples whose relationship to Elizabeth does not fit any of the previous categories. Block 1A lists Abram (Abraham) and Miriam Crew Plummer. Miriam was the right age to have been a friend of Elizabeth's from school, Meeting, or both. Block 5B represents Aaron and Achsah Smith Frame. Achsah was most likely Elizabeth's family's housekeeper and good friend after Elizabeth's mother died and before her father died. (81) Block 2E lists Francis and Mary Smith Davis, parents of both Jane Davis, Elizabeth's brother William's wife (4C), and of John F. Davis, Elizabeth's cousin Tabitha Stanton Davis's husband (2E).

Elizabeth's name, community (Barnesville, Ohio), and the date she presumably finished the quilt (1865) are inscribed on an alternate block, roughly in the center of the quilt surrounded by pieced blocks 4C, 4D, 5C, and 5D. The 1856 date, when she presumably started the quilt, is inscribed on the block listing her parents' names. Because the date does not appear to indicate a specific memorable family event (such as her mother's death which occurred the following year), it appears to indicate that this is the first block of her quilt. The 1865 date appears to be the completion date for the quilt because it also does not appear to indicate a specific memorable family event. Miriam Crew and Abram Plummer were married on March 29, 1865, and were listed on the quilt as being married. All other married couples indicated on the quilt married before this date. Thus the quilt, or the inscription of the top, was completed after March 29, 1865. Amanda Bundy, listed as single on the quilt, married Samuel French on October 19, 1865. All other single women named on the quilt married after this date, indicating the quilt (or at least the inscription of the top) was completed before that date. This gives a time frame of approximately seven months for the completion of the quilt, or for the inscriptions. While there is no way to determine exactly when the top construction, quilting, and binding of the quilt were completed, it is reasonable to suspect that it was completed in 1865. Excerpts from Elizabeth's diary from March of 1869 suggest she quilted one quilt in five days (with one day's help from three friends) and a second quilt in four days, apparently working alone. From February 19 to April 10, 1869, Elizabeth reported "putting quilts in" (presumably in a quilt frame), finishing three different quilts, and working on two others.

Three other dates appear on the quilt, all in blocks containing the names of Elizabeth's siblings living at the time the quilt was being made. They are: "1860" inscribed on the Eli and Mary P. Stanton block (a year not known to be associated with a family event, thus likely the date the block was inscribed); "1864" on the Will(iam) and Jennie (Jane) Stanton block (the year they were married and probably the date the block was inscribed); and "1865" on the Nathan and Anna S(tanton) Bundy block (also not known to be the date of a family event, thus likely the date the block was inscribed).

Quilt scholar Lynda Chenoweth describes a clearly recognizable pattern based on family affiliation to the distribution of the blocks in Philena's quilt, and Ricky Clark and her associates state in Quilts in Community that the blocks on Elizabeth's quilt were arranged by families. (82) This study did not reveal a clear arrangement of blocks by families on Elizabeth's quilt, with the exception of the four blocks representing her natal family that surround Elizabeth's signature block. There were loose aggregations in some cases, but in other cases parents' and children's blocks were spread across the quilt (color plate 4).

How Elizabeth's Life Influenced Her Quilt

Elizabeth started her quilt when friendship quilts were widely popular, her family's economic situation was well above average, the prices of fabrics had fallen, and her family was intact. The block containing her parents' names may have been the first block of the quilt as it is dated 1856. The quilt evolved over time as she experienced the deaths of her mother in

1857 and her father in 1859. By then, the first block she had made must have become very precious to her as a remembrance of them. Her siblings and their spouses became her substitute parents and she clearly indicated the importance of their protection and guidance when she surrounded her name block with theirs. She surrounded this nucleus of her family with aunts, uncles, cousins, Bundy relatives of her foster father, as well as friends. While there appears to be few discernible patterns in the distribution of the blocks in the quilt, the fact that they are all Quakers and most were members of the Stillwater MM reinforced her deep commitment to her religious ideals--her family and friends were all Wilburites. No known Hicksites or Guernyites were named on her quilt even though she had numerous Hicksite relatives on the Stanton side of her family. In her study of Delaware Valley friendship quilts, Jessica Nicoll describes signature quilts, and by extension, inscribed quilts as a symbolic effort for a community to stay together. (83) Whether Elizabeth planned it, or it was subconscious, being surrounded on the quilt by the names of friends and family members and wrapped in the quilt as she slept must have been an incredible comfort in the face of a world where parents died young, in a religion rent by differences of practice, and in a country that had been torn apart over slavery. The quilt and its symbolism were obviously very dear to her and her family, because the quilt has survived in very good condition for 150 years.

Elizabeth Stanton's grandfather Henry Stanton in his last written words on February 25, 1853 wrote, "I have this day accomplished the 69th year of my voyage over a sea of glass mingled with fire." (84) These words could as easily have described Elizabeth's life. But Elizabeth's quilt, which she treasured, symbolizes the three pillars of family, friends, and religion that sustained her through it all. We are fortunate that her descendants cared for the quilt for so many years and presented it to the Ohio History Connection, so that we can know this quilter and understand her life and times today.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Ohio History Connection volunteer Leslie Floyd for her assistance in transcribing names from Elizabeth's quilt and her willingness to answer questions. I am also grateful to Cliff Eckle, Curator at the Ohio History Connection for allowing me access to the Stanton quilts for the purposes of this study. I sincerely thank also Mary Robare and Marie Bundy, who advised me regarding Quaker practices; Mary also graciously mentored me through the process of producing a publishable paper.

Notes and References

(1.) Ricky Clark, George W. Knepper, and Ellice Ronsheim, Quilts in Community: Ohio's Traditions (Nashville, TN: Rutledge Hill Press, 1991), 132-133. Elizabeth Stanton is no relation to famed women's rights advocate, Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

(2.) William Henry Stanton, A Book Called Our Ancestors the Stantons (Philadelphia, PA: Privately Published by Innes & Sons Press, 1922).

(3.) Elizabeth Stanton's unpublished autograph album covers the period from about 1860 to 1863, and is owned by Marie Bundy, Elizabeth's great-granddaughter. Marie Bundy also owns excerpts from Elizabeth Stanton's diary, which were transcribed by Bernita Bundy, Elizabeth's granddaughter. The transcription is undated.

(4.) Barbara Brackman, "Signature Quilts: Nineteenth Century Trends," Quiltmaking in America: Beyond the Myths: Selected Writings from the American Quilt Study Group, ed. Laurel Horton (Nashville, TN: Rutledge Hill Press, 1994), 20-29.

(5.) Jessica Nicoll, Quilted for Friends: Delaware Valley Signature Quilts 1840-1855 (Winterthur, DE: Winterthur Museum, 1986), 5; Linda Otto Lipsett, Remember Me: Women and Their Friendship and Album Quilts (San Francisco, CA: Quilt Digest Press, 1985), 19.

(6.) Brackman, 26.

(7.) Nicoll, 32.

(8.) Charles A. Hanna, Ohio Valley Genealogies (Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1998), xxv-xxxvi. This is a reprint of the original published in New York in 1900.

(9.) J.A. Caldwell, History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties, Ohio (Wheeling, WV: Historical Publishing Co., 1880), 336.

(10.) Ibid., 342.

(11.) Stanton, A Book Called Our Ancestors, 78.

(12.) Caldwell, History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties, 342.

(13.) Melanie Scheller, "Hicksite Quaker Beliefs," Opposing Views, http://people. opposingviews.com/hicksite-quaker-beliefs-3160.html; accessed September 8, 2013.

(14.) Caldwell, History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties, 345.

(15.) Ibid., 346.

(16.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 93.

(17.) Caldwell, History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties, 345.

(18.) Ibid., 317.

(19.) William P. Taber, Jr., A History of Ohio Yearly Meeting, Conservative (Barnesville, OH: Ohio Yearly Meeting, 1985), 55-61.

(20.) Taber, 55-61.

(21.) Clark et al., Quilts in Community, 132.

(22.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 570-572.

(23.) Ibid., 178.

(24.) Suellen Meyer, "The Sewing Machine and Visible Machine Stitching on Nineteenth-Century Quilts" Uncoverings 10, 1989, 38-53.

(25.) Dempsey O. Sheppard, The Story of Barnesville, Ohio 1808-1940 (Columbus, OH: F.J. Heer Printing Co., 1942), 70-71, 329.

(26.) Ibid., 62-64.

(27.) Ohio Historical Society, acc. no. H74635.

(28.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 249.

(29.) Belmont County, Ohio Probate Court, Probate Court Records, Inventories 1857-1860, Vol. G (St. Clairsville, OH: Belmont County Courthouse handwritten records, 1857-1860), 544.

(30.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 249, 252.

(31.) Ohio Historical Society, acc. nos. H74641, H74640, and H74632.

(32.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 317, 248.

(33.) Ibid., 318.

(34.) Ibid., 249.

(35.) Caldwell, History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties, 325.

(36.) Sheppard, The Story of Barnesville, 54-55.

(37.) Ibid., 229.

(38.) 1850 U.S. Census, Warren Township, Belmont County, Ohio; National Archives Microfilm M432, Roll 661, 374B. The adjustment factors for all monetary conversions are from mykindred.com/cloud/TX/Documents/dollar/index.php?cyear=2010.

(39.) 1850 Census, 374B-375A.

(40.) Belmont Co., Ohio Probate Court Records, 544.

(41.) Belmont Co., Ohio Probate Court Records, 649.

(42.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 591.

(43.) 1870 U.S. Census, Town of Barnesville, Belmont County, Ohio; National Archives Microfilm M593, Roll 1174, 14.

(44.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 362.

(45.) Ibid., 570.

(46.) Ibid., 589.

(47.) Terry T. Terrell, "Diphtheria Epidemic" in Gateway to the West, Belmont County Chapter of the Ohio Genealogical Society, 33, no.3 (2010): 40-44.

(48.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 180.

(49.) 1860 U.S. Census, Warren Township, Belmont County, Ohio: National Archives Microfilm M653, Roll 937, 357B.

(50.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 362.

(51.) Ibid., 132-133.

(52.) Ibid., 81.

(53.) Ibid., 421.

(54.) Morlan, A Brief History of Ohio Yearly Meeting, 81-84.

(55.) Sheppard, The Story of Barnesville, 256-258.

(56.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 362.

(57.) Ibid., 364.

(58.) Ibid., 364-366.

(59.) Caldwell, History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties, 360.

(60.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 367.

(61.) Ibid., 367.

(62.) State of Ohio, Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics. Certificate of Death for Lindley P Bailey, Registration District No. 101, File No. 379, Primary Registration District No. 4164, Registered No. 2; State of Ohio, Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics. Certificate of Death for Elizabeth S. Bailey, Registration District No. 101, File No. 42199, Primary Registration District No. 4164, Registered No. 68.

(63.) Esther Weygant Powell, Tombstone Inscriptions & Family Records of Belmont County, Ohio (Apollo, PA: Closson Press, 2000), 199.

(64.) The author compiled a database on 487 people (submitted to Familysearch.org, Pedigree Resource File MMD8-8SM) in order to identify and elucidate the relationships among the people named on the quilt.

(65.) Leslie Floyd, Ohio Historical Society Volunteer, transcribed the names and the author identified them based on the genealogical and historical evidence. Sources included, but were not limited to Familysearch.org; Ancestry.com; U.S. Census records for 1850, 1860, 1870; Esther Weygandt Powell's Tombstone Inscriptions & Family Records of Belmont County, Ohio; William Wade Hinshaw's Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy; Belmont Co., Ohio Birth, Marriage, and Death Books; interviews with Elizabeth's descendants and other sources directly cited elsewhere in this paper. To be clearly identified, named individuals had to be known Quakers, preferably Stillwater MM members. In addition, they had to have one or more of the following characteristics: have some blood or marriage relationship to the Stanton family or Nathan Bundy; have attended or been associated with Mount Pleasant Quaker Boarding School at the same time as Elizabeth; be mentioned in some document as having an association with Elizabeth or her family; or lived nearby Elizabeth and close to the same age.

(66.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 180, 361.

(67.) Unsigned, undated Curator's notes, Ohio Historical Society files.

(68.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 362.

(69.) Handwritten list of "Girl Students at Mount Pleasant Boarding School 1860," Stillwater MM Heritage room files; Charles P. Morlan, A Brief History of Ohio Yearly Meeting of The Religious Society of Friends (Conservative), (Salem, OH: Lyle Printing & Publishing Co., 1959), 150.

(70.) Handwritten list of "Girl Students at Mount Pleasant Boarding School 1861-62", Stillwater MM Heritage room files.

(71.) Morlan, A Brief History of Ohio Yearly Meeting, 150.

(72.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 362.

(73.) Lynda Salter Chenoweth, Philena's Friendship Quilt: A Quaker Farewell to Ohio (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2009), 4-5.

(74.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 362.

(75.) Ibid., 384-386.

(76.) Jessica F. Nicoll, "Signature Quilts and the Quaker Community, 1840-1860" Uncoverings 7, 1986, 29.

(77.) Carolyn K. Ducey, Chintz Applique Albums: Memory and Meaning in Mid-nineteenth Century Quilts of the Delaware River Valley (January 1, 2010). ETD collection for University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Paper AAI3412907, 148-150, 174-177; digitalcommons.unl.edu/ dissertations/AAI3412907. A fifth quilt is a small piece thought to have been made of a few leftover blocks and thus not comparable.

(78.) Nicoll, "Signature Quilts and the Quaker Community," 33.

(79.) Handwritten list of "Girl Students at Mount Pleasant Boarding School."

(80.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, 361.

(81.) Ibid., 180, 591.

(82.) Chenoweth, Philena's Friendship Quilt, 38-41; Clark et al., Quilts in Community, 132.

(83.) Nicoll, "Signature Quilts and the Quaker Community," 28.

(84.) Stanton, Book Called Our Ancestors, facing 145.

Appendix
Relationships Among the Names on the Elizabeth Stanton Quilt

Block   Surname        Given            Nee
                       Name

1A      Plummer        Miriam           Crew

1A      Plummer        Abram

1B      Bailey         Mary

1C      Frame          Ruanna E.        E.
                       or Rouanna

1D      Bundy          Ezekiel

1D      Bundy          Sarah            Hoyle

1E      Frame Tacy

1F      Bundy          Sarah

2A      French         Mary Ellen

2B      Strahl         Eliza Jane

2C      Clendenon      Benjamen

2C      Clendenon      Amy              Hodgin

2D      Allen          Amelia           Unidentified

2E      Davis          John F.

2E      Davis          Tabitha S.       Stanton

2F      Davis          Francis

2F      Davis          Mary             Smith

3A      Plummer        Hannah

3B      Plummer        Rachel

3C      Dawson         Sallie (Sarah)

3D      Simpson        Rebecca M.

3E      Bundy          Amanda

3F      Lewis          Hannah

4A      Hodgin         Eli

4A      Hodgin         Sarah            Vernon

4B      Clendenon      Hannah

4C      Stanton        Will (William)

4C      Stanton        Jennie (Jane)    Davis

4D      Stanton        Joseph

4D      Stanton        Mary             Hodgin

4E      Hyeth          Aseneth or
        (or Hyett)     Asenath

4F      Railey         Mary H.
        (Raley)

5A      Starbuck       Jesse

5A      Starbuck       Mary             Bundy
                       Jane

5B      Frame          Aaron

5B      Frame          Achsah           Smith

5C      Stanton        Eli

5C      Stanton        Mary P.          Bundy

5D      Bundy          Nathan

5D      Bundy          Anna S.          Stanton

5E      Bundy          Annie
                       Maria

5F      Hodgen         Stephen

5F      Hodgen         Sarah            Milhous

6A      Frame          Thompson

6A      Frame          Emily B.         Bundy

6B      Smith          Robert

6B      Smith          Rebecca S.       Stanton

6C      Francis        Lizzie
        (I, J, or S)

6D      Bundy          William E.

6D      Bundy          Rebecca D.       Doudna

6E      Smith          Eliza

6F      Bundy          Martha Ann

Block   Date on   Bom-Died    Relationships
        Block

1A                b. 1844     Elizabeth's friend and
                  d. 1881     daughter of John and
                              Anna Doudna Crew.

1A                b. 1839     Lindley P. Bailey's
                  d. 1918     second cousin, and son
                              of Robert and Jane
                              Bailey Plummer Jr. and
                              brother ofHannah (3A)
                              and Rachel (3B)
                              Plummer.

1B                b. 1843     Elizabeth's friend and
                  d. 1916     daughter of Jesse and
                              Nancy Hodgin Bailey.
                              Lindley Bailey's second
                              cousin. Possibly
                              related to Elizabeth
                              through her Hodgin
                              line.

1C                b. 1845     Elizabeth's friend,
                  d. 1933     sibling of Tacy (1E)
                              and Thompson Frame(6A),
                              and daughter of Aaron
                              (5B) and Talitha
                              Thompson Frame.

1D                b. 1807     Nathan Bundy's father
                  d. 1866     and son of William and
                              Sarah Overman Bundy Sr.

1D                b. 1821     Nathan Bundy's step-
                  d. 1885     mother and daughter of
                              Benjamin and Tabitha
                              Grimshaw Hoyle.

1E                b. 1848     Elizabeth's friend,
                  d. 1927     sibling of Ruanna (1C)
                              and Thompson Frame
                              (6A), and daughter of
                              Aaron (5B) and Talitha
                              Thompson Frame.

1F                b. 1840     Elizabeth's friend and
                  d. 1869     daughter of Exum and
                              Sally Williams Bundy.

2A                b. 1847     Elizabeth's friend and
                  d. 1883     daughter of Otho and
                              Rebecca Leeke French.

2B                b.1848      Elizabeth's friend and
                  d. 1926     daughter of Phillip and

                              Rhoda Ann French Strahl
                              Jr.

2C                b. 1795     Elizabeth's uncle by
                  d. 1859     marriage, son of Isaac
                              and Hannah Clendenon.

2C                b. 1800     Elizabeth's maternal
                  d. 1868     aunt and daughter of
                              Stephen and Elizabeth
                              Williams Hodgin.

2D

2E                b. 1842     Husband of Elizabeth's
                  d. 1899     first cousin, son of
                              Francis and Mary Smith
                              Davis (2F).

2E                b. 1845     Elizabeth's friend,
                  d. 1920     first cousin, and
                              daughter of Edmund and
                              Sarah Hoyle Stanton.

2F                b. 1819     Father of Elizabeth's
                  d. 1889     brother William's wife
                              Jane and son of John
                              and Anne Sparrow Davis.

2F                b. 1820     Mother of Elizabeth's
                  d. 1875     brother William's wife
                              Jane and daughter
                              ofAmos and Ann Beeson
                              Smith.

3A                b. 1848     Elizabeth's friend,
                  d. 1928     Lindley's second
                              cousin, daughter of
                              Robert and Jane Bailey
                              Plummer Jr., and sister
                              of of Abram (1A) and
                              Rachel (3B) Plummer.

3B                b. 1842     Elizabeth's friend,
                  d. 1930     Lindley's second
                              cousin, daughter of
                              Robert and Jane Bailey
                              Plummer Jr., and sister
                              ofAbram (1A) and Hannah
                              (3A) Plummer.

3C                b. 1844     Elizabeth's friend,
                  d. 1906     first cousin, and
                              daughter of Joel and
                              Mary Patterson Stanton
                              Dawson.

3D                b.ca.1843   Elizabeth's friend,
                  d. ?        second cousin, and
                              daughter of Austin E.
                              and Sabilla Fawcett
                              Simpson.

3E                b. 1846     Nathan Bundy's first
                  d. 1880     cousin and daughter of
                              Dempsey and Ann Wood
                              Bundy.

3F                            Possibly Hannah Emaline
                              Lewis, daughter of
                              Lorenzo Dow and
                              Elizabeth Haines Lewis.

4A                b. 1798     Elizabeth maternal
                  d. 1885     uncle and son of
                              Stephen and Elizabeth
                              Williams Hodgin.

4A                b.1811      Wife of Elizabeth's
                  d. after    maternal uncle and
                  1885        daughter of Amos and
                              Mary Vernon.

4B                b. 1836     Elizabeth's first
                  d. 1868     cousin and daughter of
                              Benjamen and Amy Hodgin
                              Clendenon (2C).

4C      1864      b. 1839     Elizabeth's brother and
                  d. 1918     son of Joseph and Mary
                              Hodgin Stanton (4D).

4C      1864      b. 1846     Elizabeth's sister-in-
                  d. 1910     law and daughter of
                              Francis and Mary Smith
                              Davis (2F).

4D      1856      b. 1812     Elizabeth's father and
                  d. 1859     son of Henry and Clary
                              Patterson Stanton.

4D      1856      b. 1810     Elizabeth's mother and
                  d. 1857     daughter of Stephen and
                              Elizabeth Williams
                              Hodgin.

4E                            Unidentified.

4F                b. 1834     Friend and/or teacher
                  d. 1916     at Mt. Pleasant Quaker
                              Boarding School.

5A                b. 1841     Married to Nathan
                  d. 1918     Bundy's sister, son of
                              George and Lydia Bailey
                              Starbuck Jr., and first
                              cousin once removed to
                              Lindley P. Bailey.

5A                b. 1845     Nathan Bundy's sister
                  d. 1911     and daughter of Ezekiel
                              (1D) and Maria Engle
                              Bundy.

5B                b. 1815     Father of Ruanna (1C),
                  d. 1896     Tacy (1E), and Thompson
                              Frame (6A).

5B                b. 1822     Step-mother of Aaron
                  d. 1875     Frame's children and
                              likely Elizabeth's
                              family's housekeeper
                              after Elizabeth's
                              mother died.

5C      1860      b. 1835     Elizabeth's brother and
                  d. 1885     son of Joseph and Mary
                              Hodgin Stanton (4D).

5C      1860      b. 1837     Elizabeth's sister-in-
                  d. 1871     law, daughter of John
                              and Ruth Patten Bundy,
                              and Nathan Bundy's
                              first cousin.

5D      1865      b. 1837     Elizabeth's brother-
                  d. 1874     in-law and son of
                              Ezekiel (1D) and Maria
                              Engle Bundy.

5D      1865      b. 1837     Elizabeth's sister and
                  d. 1917     daughter of Joseph and
                              Mary Hodgin Stanton
                              (4D).

5E                b. 1850     Nathan Bundy's sister
                  d. 1920     and daughter of Ezekiel
                              (1D) and Maria Engle
                              Bundy.

5F                b. 1826     Elizabeth's 1st cousin
                  d. 1910     and son of Eli (4A) and
                              Mary Engle Hodgin.

5F                b. 1828     Married to Elizabeth's
                  d. 1899     1st cousin and daughter
                              of Daniel and Esther
                              Clendenon Milhous.

6A                b. 1841     Married to Nathan
                  d. 1901     Bundy's first cousin,
                              brother of Ruanna (1C)
                              and Tacy Frame (1E),
                              and son of Aaron (5B)
                              and Talitha Thompson
                              Frame.

6A                b. 1844     Nathan Bundy's 1st
                  d. 1878     cousin and daughter of
                              Dempsey and Ann Wood
                              Bundy.

6B                b. 1838     Married to Elizabeth's
                  d. 1930     1st cousin and son of
                              Robert H. and Elizabeth
                              Williams Smith.

6B                b. 1842     Elizabeth's 1st cousin
                  d. 1904     and daughter of Edmund
                              and Sarah Hoyle
                              Stanton.

6C                b. 1846     Elizabeth's friend,
                  d. 1911     neighbor of Elizabeth's
                              sister Anna Stanton
                              Bundy, and daughter of
                              Richard and Maranda
                              Francis.

6D                b. 1843     Nathan Bundy's brother
                  d. 1920     and son of Ezekiel (1D)
                              and Maria Engle Bundy.

6D                b. 1844     Elizabeth's first
                  d. 1911     cousin once removed,
                              Nathan Bundy's sister-
                              in-law, and daughter
                              ofJoel and Rebecca
                              Hodgin Doudna.

6E                b. 1850     Elizabeth's friend and
                  d. 1871     daughter of John W. and
                              Edith Thomas Smith.

6F                b. 1848     Nathan Bundy's sister
                  d. after    and daughter of Ezekiel
                  1880        (1D) and Maria Engle
                              Bundy.

                  b. 1846     Her signature block
                  d. 1936     reads "Lizzie Stanton/
                              Barnesville/Ohio/
                              1865".

* Stanton Elizabet


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