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The Elaborative Logico-Semantic Relation of Conjunctions in Ekegusii Texts.


Halliday and Webster (2009) define language as a kind of semiotic system which is based on grammar and characterized by stratal organization and functional diversity - both of which combine to form a semiotic of higher-order consciousness the basis for the human activity of meaning. Such a combination is deemed possible through clause complexing. Clause complexing is a component of the logical metafunction of language, which in turn belongs to the broader ideational metafunction of language. It refers to the relations that exist between clauses in a sentence. These relations are of two types, taxis and logico-semantics (Halliday, 1994, p. 373). This study in particular concerns itself with logico-semantics via the nature of the logical and semantic relationship between clauses.

Halliday (1994) and Gerot & Wignell (1994, p. 21) argue that whereas taxis can be divided into parataxis and hypotaxis, the logico-semantic relationships are of two broad kinds: expansion (comprising extension, enhancement and elaboration) and projection (comprising locution and idea) (cf. Halliday, 2004, pp. 376- 377). Saragih (2008, p. 45) postulates that logical meaning is a part of ideational meanings which is devoted to the clause complex hence logical function occurs in a clause complex.

Several studies have been carried out on logico-semantic relations and clause complexing: Rukmini (2010) analyzed the logico-semantic relation of clauses complexes in the abstracts of the final project reports produced by the English Department Students of Semarang State University. She found that the clause complexes made in the abstracts were of both parataxis and hypotaxis relation. The logico-semantic relations that were prevalent included elaboration, extension, enhancement and idea, while the locution projection was not found at all.

Srinon and White (2011) analysed Thai university students' essays in a longitudinal genre based course at a Thai government university in 2007. In this study, the researchers demonstrated how selected students presented their clause complexity which is related to, for example, inter-clausal relations (logico-semantic relation), coordination (parataxis) and subordination (hypotaxis). The results of the analyses indicated that the selected students showed a positive trend of developments in the use of semantic relations in their later texts. They included rich conjunctive relations and lexical resources in their later texts compared to the pre-test texts.

Brisk and Rosa (2014) did a research on emergence of logico-semantic relations in children's written language focusing on additive extension and enhancement relations. They realised that initially, connected clauses followed a temporal organization following the order of things in the world (cf. Kress, 1982) and that the default connective used was either temporal or causal. Temporal enhancement relations appeared first, followed by reason, condition, place, purpose, manner, and concession. They further found out that in early childhood, written clauses are often singular or joined by additive connectives. Temporal clauses were usually the first dependent clauses to be used and were often in a marked Theme position in the sentence. Brisk and Rosa realised that students made numerous attempts at using clause-complexes in their writing and that the types of relations varied in relation to the particular genres the students were encouraged to write. Performance differed depending on the grade level and genre. They also realised that students were more likely to write paratactic clauses rather than hypotactic clauses and that the conjunction 'and' was the default choice, especially when students wrote their uncoached personal recounts (cf. Christie, 2010, 2012; Christie & Derewianka, 2008).

Sulistyaningrum and Rasyid (2015) investigated the kinds of taxis and logico-semantic relation of students' presentation in Acceleration Program of SMA Labschool Jakarta. They analysed the meanings represented in clause complexes basing on the concept of relationship between clauses suggested by Halliday (1994, p. 373).

In their study, it was observed that the clause complexity in the acceleration students' presentation was varied. In the first group consisting 4 female students, almost all kinds of taxis and logico-semantic relation were found in their presentation, except hypotactic extension. In correspondence with the first group, the second group consisting 4 male students, produced all kinds of relation except locution. From all groups the type of taxis and logico-semantic relation that mostly arose was paratactic elaboration. Their analysis of meaning revealed that the dominant meaning was addition which appeared from extension.

Alaei and Ahangari (2016) carried out a study that aimed at determining how ideology or opinion is expressed in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness and what kind of lexico-grammatical strategies are used in the first part of the novella to convey the author's ideological meaning. They investigated the ideational meaning by focusing on the lexico-grammatical choices in the transitivity system of the structure of the clauses and identified the metafunctional patterns of ideation found in the lexico-grammar of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness.

The studies presented above lay a basis for research on logico-semantic relations. However, this study is concerned with the fact that they generally investigated all relations, taxis and logico-semantic, hence paying little key attention to the elaborative function of the conjunctive form. Moreover, the afore-presented studies majorly investigated and analysed written language. This study departs from the studies above by virtue of it relying on the spoken texts for data. It is also worth noting that this study investigated data from EkeGusii, a Bantu language which, according to the researcher's knowledge, has received little research attention in the area of logico-semantic relations.

Different terms have been used to refer to elaboration as a logico-semantic relation. They include 'explanation' (Kong, 2006 and van Leeuwen, 2005); 'exposition' (Martinec & Salway, 2005 and Unsworth, 2007); 'exemplification' (Kong, 2006; Martinec & Salway, 2005 and Unsworth, 2007); 'specification' (Djonov, 2005; Kong, 2006 and van Leeuwen, 2005). All these allude to elaboration as a logico-semantic relation; a relation in which a component is used to give more information or detail on a preceding component - a component is shifted in its degree of abstraction to make it more concrete, from more general to more specific. A component is elaborated by detail description, exemplification, clarification, or restating.

It is arguably true that elaboration is enabled in texts through the use of clauses, which create texts, (Halliday, 1981, p. 44; Martin & Rose, 2003). According to Halliday, a clause "has itself evolved by analogy with the text as model, and can thus represent the meanings of a text in a rich variety of different ways". Halliday and Webster argue that a clause is not just a constituent of the text but it is also the actualization of the text, inheriting properties from the text-as-model which is, itself, realized in relation to the context of situation (Halliday & Webster, 2009, p. 6). It is seen as a lexicogrammatical entity whereas a text is seen as a semantic entity (cf. Tam, 2013).

According to Halliday and Matthiessen (2004) and Thompson (2004) the central source for making meaning is the clause. Eggins (2004) argues that the term "clause" itself is called clause complex. Setial, Sutjaja, Saragih, & Putrayadnya (2009, p.1) on their part state that clause or clause simplex equals simple sentence in formal grammar and clause complex equals complex sentences. When two or more clauses are combined they produce a larger unit, called a clause-complex. This corroborates with Tarn (2013) who defines a clause complex as "a logical combination of clauses; it is a logico-semantic unit above the clause." These clauses "are linked to one another by means of some kind of logico-semantic relation" (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004, p. 363). The interdependence among clauses is usually signalled by conjunctions (Eggins, 2004; Thompson, 2004) which in this study are referred to as conjunctive forms or elements. Clause complexing can result to elaboration, extension, or enhancement thus there is need for one to be keen on the exact logico-semantic relation they intend to render.

Clause complexing cannot be achieved with disregard to cohesion - the way sentences, written or spoken, are bound together in forming a text that has meaning (Finch 2000, p. 210; Halliday and Hassan 1976, p. 4). According to Barongo (1996) dependency is the paramount aspect in cohesion. An aspect in a text must depend on another one so as to enable cohesion. Salkie (1995) asserts that reference, contrast, ellipsis and conjunction enable cohesion in texts. Halliday and Hasan (1976) identify reference, representation, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction and lexical ties as constructions that enable cohesion in texts. In this paper the logico-semantics of Ekegusii conjunctive forms is studied in order to show how the conjunctive forms enable cohesion through their elaborative nature. Consider EX2 below:

EX 2.

Moraa takoreti omokia, /ase igo, takoreti buya ase amatemu aye.

Moraa ti-a-kor-et-i omokia, /ase igo, ti-a-kor-et-i buya ase a-ma-temu a-ye

Moraa NEG-3PS-R-T-TV N/ (CF) NEG- 3PS-R- T- TV Adj Prep IV-CL-R 3PS-R

(Moraa did not work hard, because of that she did not do well in her exams)

In EX2 above the element in bold is a conjunctive form (CF). The element has a clause complexing effect and is seen to have an important function of enabling cohesion in the construction it has been used. Apart from cohesion, this element is seen to be performing other functions that need to be investigated.

According to Halliday (2004, p. 538) the cohesive system of conjunction provides the resources for marking logico-semantic relationships that obtain between text spans of varying extent ranging from clauses within clause complexes to long spans of a paragraph or cohesive conjunctions may be used within clause complexes. Halliday further argues that conjunction, reference and ellipsis are all grammatical systems, and are thus all manifestations of what might be called grammatical cohesion.

According to Halliday, the systemic environment of conjunction is that of the clause. Halliday (2004, p. 540) further argues that the logico-semantic relations that are manifested in the system of conjunction fall into three types of expansion i.e. conjunctions mark relations where one span of text elaborates, extends or enhances another, earlier span of text. There are two types of the elaboration relation: (a) apposition and (b) clarification. Apposition refers to a type of elaboration in which some element is re-presented, or restated, either (i) by exposition the i.e. relation, or (ii) by example, the e.g. relation. Clarification on the other hand, refers to a type of elaboration in which the elaborated element is not simply restated but reinstated, summarised, made more precise or in some other way clarified for purposes of the discourse. Martin (2009) on his part argues that conjunction focuses on logical relations of addition, comparison, time and cause between figures.

From the argument above, by Halliday and Hassan (1976), Halliday (1985; 2004) and Martin (2009), it is evident that conjunction has been taken to be an element that contributes to and enables cohesion in texts. However it is of importance to realize that apart from this purpose, there seems to be other functions that conjunctions enable. One such function is the elaborative logico-semantic relation which this study intended to investigate. From the afore going arguments, it is suggested that conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific meanings, they are not primarily devices for reaching into the preceding (or following) text but they express certain meanings which presuppose the presence of other components in the discourse. It is thus the focus of this study to investigate such meanings that presuppose the presence of other components in the discourse and to, in particular, investigate and analyse the elaborative logico-semantic relation presented by conjunctive forms in EkeGusii texts.

Theoretical Framework

This study is informed by the Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) theory which was propagated by Halliday in 1961 and has since been modified by Halliday and Hasan (1976), Hatch (1992), Thompson (2004), Olateju (2006) and Young (2011) among others. SFG assumes that language is a network of systems or interrelated sets of options for making meaning. It asserts that language is as it is because of what it has evolved to do. Thus what Halliday refers to as multidimensional architecture of language reflects the multidimensional nature of the human experience and interpersonal relations. The key terms underpinning Halliday's approach to grammar include system, (meta)function, rank and lexicogrammar. In Halliday's view, analysis of language should be taken from three different levels: lexicogrammar, semantics and phonology. Thus grammar gives emphasis on the view from above which is semantics. Halliday describes grammar as systems and not as rules on the basis that every grammatical structure involves a choice from a describable set of options. Language is thus meaning potential.

According to Halliday (2004) grammatical structures play a role in the construction of meanings of different kinds. This is the basis of his claim that language is metafunctionally organized. He argues that the main purpose of language is meaning and for this reason all languages have resources for construing experience (the ideational component) resources for enacting human's diverse and complex social relations (the interpersonal component) and resources for enabling these two kinds of meanings to come together in coherent test (the textual function) each of the grammatical systems proposed by Halliday are related to these metafunctions.

SFG stipulates that in language we make choices. Traditionally the 'choices' are viewed in terms of either the content or the structure of the language used. It presents a view of language in terms of both structure (grammar) and words (lexis) hence the term lexicogrammar. SFG is concerned with both syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations and takes a "functional" orientation on several levels. In general, it means that a focus on what language does is more important than looking at how it does it (its structure). Halliday refers to the functions of language as metafunctions and proposes three general functions: the ideational, the interpersonal and the textual.

Ideational Metafunction:

It is the function for construing human experiences. It is the means by which we make sense of 'reality'. He divides the ideational into the logical and the experiential metafunctions. The logical metafunction refers to the grammatical resources for building up grammatical units into complexes, for instance, for combining two or more clauses into a clause complex. The experiential function refers to the grammatical resources involved in construing the flux of experience through the unit of the clause. It reflects the contextual value of field, that is, the nature of the social process in which the language is implicated.

Interpersonal Metafunction:

This relates to a text's aspects of tenor or interactivity. Like field, tenor comprises three component areas: the speaker/ writer persona, social distance, and relative social status.

Textual Metafunction:

This relates to the Mode; the internal organization and communicative nature of a text. This comprises interactivity, spontaneity and communicative distance. Textual interactivity is examined with reference to disfluencies such as hesitators, pauses and repetitions. Spontaneity is determined through a focus on lexical density, grammatical complexity, coordination and the use of nominal groups. The study of communicative distance involves looking at a text's cohesion--that is how it hangs together, as well as any abstract language it uses.

This study takes a keen focus on both the ideational and the textual metafunctions to analyse how coordination enhances cohesion in EkeGusii spoken texts and how the conjunctive elements enable the elaborative logico-semantic relation in EkeGusii. The study focuses more on the ideational metafunction and specifically on the logical metafunction to investigate how conjunctions are used to build grammatical units into complexes. The ideational metafunction enable the analyses of how the logico-semantic relations of conjunctions enable building of bigger and complex units and as a result enable elaboration in texts. The textual metafunction will also be focused on in realising grammatical complexity of the texts.


Data for this study was elicited fom EkeGusii a Bantu language whose speakers are called AbaGusii. AbaGusii are among the forty two peoples ethnic groups of Kenya. In Kenya the original habitat of the AbaGusii is Western Nyanza. Going by the The 2010 Kenya's national census 2,205,669 AbaGusii, Since then there has been continuous growth in the number of people speaking the language.

Data Sample and Data Collection

Purposeful sampling was relied on for the data in this study. The researcher sampled contexts of casual interractive discussions among the community members. A total of twenty four monologues were collected from which twelve were sampled for anaysis. Data was recorded using a recorder and later transcribed before four EkeGusii native speakers, who were also purposefully sampled, were engaged in doing grammaticality judgement (cf. Vaux and Cooper, 1999, p. 110). Constructions with conjunctive forms from the recorded texts were purposefully sampled basing on the F-unit concept; a concept propagated by Lieber (1981, pp. 93-96). Lieber contends that an F-unit involves clauses and some compliments that have similar functions as clauses. According to Lieber, F-unit can be taken to be:

a) Compound sentences that have two clauses having the same status and that are joined with conjunctions:

Nigo akana/ na gosoka isiko

Nigo a-kan-a/ na go-sok-a isiko


(He rejected/and went out)

b) Compound sentences in which the subject in the first clause is different from the agent in the second clause:

Omwarimu nigo abwatete ekaramu, / na omongina ekeranya

O-mw-arimu nigo a-bwat-et-e e-karamu, / na o-mo-ngina e-ke-ranya


(The teacher picked a pen / and mother a cane)

c) Sentences that have conjunctive structures of verbs:

Nigo ambwatete okoboko, / na gontamboki oroche

Nigo a-m-bwat-et-e o-ko-boko, / na go-n-tambok-i o-ro-che


(He held me by the hand / and helped me cross the river)

d) Clauses joined by subordinates that have no verb:

Kera omonto natambogete, / otatiga Moraa

Kera o-mo-nto ni-a-tambok-et-e, / otatiga Moraa


(Everyone crossed / except Moraa)

The F-unit was seen to have conjunctive forms and a sign (/) was used to determine F-unit and to show where conjunctive forms had been used. Conjunctive forms determined in the various F--units are the ones that were analysed in order to determine their various elaborative logico-semantic relations. They were put in bold to make them easily identifiable.


For purposes of analysis, the context in which the data was collected was presented and a table presented for the EkeGusii texts and their translation in English. The constructions with conjunctive forms were extracted and were morphologically transcribed to enable identification of the F-unit (the conjunctive form). The conjunctive forms (CF) were put in bold and were analysed to show their elaborative functions.

This study found out that EkeGusii speakers make choices of the conjunctive forms to use depending on the meaning they intend to elicit in the listener and also depending on their judgement of the listener's understanding. From this study it was evident that speakers use particular conjunctive forms inorder to guide their listener's understanding of the subject matter and to enable them achieve their communicative goals. Conjunctive forms in this regard are used to guide the cognitive process.

This study confirmed the argument by Eggins (2004) and Thompson (2004), that the interdependence among clauses is usually signalled by conjunctions. Moreover, the study realized that apart from cohesion, conjunctive forms in EkeGusii spoken texts enable different elaborative logico-semantic relations. These include corrective, distractive, particularizing, summative, verificative and resumptive functions (cf. Halliday, 1994. and Gerot & Wignell, 1994).

a) Corrective

EX 3.

(Context: Social context. Two people G and H are discussing about a particular woman who was married to a man from a different ethnic group)
EkeGusii                            English

  G: Aberi nigo abwatete akanywoma  G: Aberi married a woman from a
  omokungu ekabira                  different tribe
  H: Aa! Mokungu ori                H: Aa! That woman is not a kisii?
  oye tari mogusii?
  G: Yaya tari mogusii!             G: No she is not a kisii!
  H: Igo n'ekabira?                 H: So she is from a different tribe?
  G: Nigo are omomaragori           G: She is a maragori but when she
  korende akwane
  EkeGusii tokomanya nga            speaks EkeGusii you cannot know that
  tari mogusii. Nigo
  arakwane nonya n'amangana         she is not a kisii. She is able to
  amakongu                          even say
  y'EkeGusii. Nonya                 difficult EkeGusii words. She even
  n'echimbachero chionsi
  nachimanyete.                     understands all proverbs.

Nigo are omomaragori / korende akwane EkeGusii tokomanya nga tari mogusii

Nigo a-r-e o-mo-maragori / korende a-kwan-e e-kegusii ti-o-ko-many-a nga ti-a-r-i mogusii


(She is a maragoli but when she speaks EkeGusii you will not know she is not a kisii)

The conjunctive form 'korende' has been used in EX3 with the aim of rectifying some expectation. In EX3, it is expected that because the referent is a maragoli her EkeGusii would have been poor. Contrary to that the referent has good mastery of EkeGusii. Speaker G in EX3 makes an assumption that H would conclude erroneously that the referent does not have mastery of EkeGusii because she is from a different ethnic group.

G makes a choice to guide the cognition process of H by correcting H's assumed conclusion. The ideation metafunction in this example is brought out as a result of using a CF 'korende' to join the two clauses. This as a result brings out cohesion and brings out the speakers intended meaning.

b) Distractive

EX 4.

(Context: Social. Two speakers James and Mikuro are discussing about a friend of theirs who bought a piece of land)
EkeGusii                        English

    Mikuro: Oranyore            Mikuro: You may find
    natatagete omanye           he did not want you to
    ase bamenyete.              know where they are living.
    James: Ninki bono           James: Now what would
    narenge kobakorera          I have done to them
    nimanya ase bamenyete.      even if I knew where
                                they are living.
    Mikuro: Mmmm.               Mikuro: Mmmm. He is
    Nere okonya                 the one troubling himself
    gwechanda bosa.             for nothing
    James: Tari gotaka          James: He does not want
    gotebi monto keene.         to tell any one the
    Neba ninche                 truth. Even me.
                                Mikuro: Even me. You
                                know I wanted to buy?
    Mikuro: Nonya               James: Where did you buy?
    ninche. Omanyete
    nagani kogora?              Mikuro: Down there
                                James: Why didn't you
                                come and buy near here?
    James: Ngai kwagora?
    Mikuro: Gochi maate ari     Mikuro: It your place I
                                wanted to buy but that
    James: Nkwarenge            lady friend of yours
    gocha ogore angaa           adviced me not to.
    Mikiuo: Mbwoo
    naganeti kogora
    korende omosubati ori
    omosani oo igo

Mbwoo naganeti kogora /korende omosubati ori omosani oo igo ankania.

M-bwoo n-a-gan-eti ko-gor-a korende o-mo-subati o-ri o-mo-sani oo igo a-n-kania.


(It is your place I wanted to buy but that lady friend of your adviced me not to)

Apart from it being used as being used as a corrective, it was realized that the CF 'korende' also could be used to perform a distractive function as is evident in EX4. Here, the CF distracts the thoughts started in the earlier constructions that the speaker had wanted to buy a piece of land belonging to the person he is speaking with; He would have done so but he did not because he was advised against. In EX4 the CF 'korende' has been chosen by the speaker Mikuro as a way of distracting the listener from drawing an assumed conclusion. Mikuro may not have bought the land tdue to many reasons. He however does not want his listener to get to those conclusions and it is for thus reason that he distracts the listener's thinking and 'guides' him into understanding the real reason why he did not buy the poece of land. The CF 'korende' in this example fulfills the ideational metafunction by bringing the two clauses: 'Mbwoo naganeti kogora' and 'Omosubati ori omosani oo igo ankania'. By bringing these two clauses together not only cohesion is enabled but also the elaborative function which is diatractive in nature.

c) Verificative

EX 5:

(Context: Social. Two respondents are discussing about a particular teacher whom they claim used not to teach them when they were in school)
EkeGusii                        English

    K: Tiga kongainereri        K: Stop cheating man!
    tata! Mwarimu oyu           That teacher did not
    tatosometi. Ase ekeene,     teach us actually he only
    igo asoete ekerasi          came to class thrice.
    gatato rioka. Bono          Now is that a person you
    oyn n'omonto oratebe        would say he taught
    nga natosometi. Omonto      us. That fellow is very lazy
    ori n'omworo
    J: Ebe nasoete rimo         J: Where he entered only
    gose gatato buna            once or thrice as you
    ogoteba igo                 are saying so he
    nga tatosometi?             did not teach us?

a) Mwarimu oyu tatosometi /Ase ekeene, igo asoete ekerasi gatato rioka.

Mw-arimu o-yu ti-a-nya-go-to-som-i. Ase e-ke-ene igo a-so-ete e-ke-rasi ga-tato ri-oka. QfS-RT CL-RT NEG-3PS-T-Inf-OBJ-RT-TV. CF (Prep-NV-CL-RT) STAB 3PS-RT-Md NV-Qf-RT CL-RT CL-RT

(That teacher did not teach us actually he only came to class thrice.)

In EX5 there has been used a conjunctive form that plays a verificative function. The CF 'Ase ekeene' has been used to give assurance of the claim given in the preceeding construction that the referent did not teach. The next part after this CF gives assurance or certainity about this claim by asserting that the referred teacher only went to class thrice. EX5 indicates how CF 'ase ekeene' is ideationaly used to link the two respective clauses and in due course fulfilling the textual metafunction.

The resultant construction is cohesive and portrays verification of the fact that the referent in this construction (the teacher) did not teach. Speaker K foresees that his listener may make a contrary conclusion from his first clause 'Mwarimu oyu tatosometi' (that teacher did not teach us). He hastens to verify his assertion before his speaker makes a conclusion.

d) Summative

EX 6:

(Context: Social. Development group members are encouraging one another about what they are supposed to do to prosper their group)
EkeGusii                         English

    Omobwatani: Ninki            Group member: Why do
    moroche omonto               you think a grown up
    omonene aranya               should trouble us every time.
    gotochandera. Chingaki       That every time we
    chionsi nga nere             are thinking about him.
    torengerereti. Morora buya   Watch out that our
    ekeombe keri giato           group should not split.
    tikegu. Timonya              Stop nonsense. In short,
    gotokorera ebinto bitari     stop contempt.
    na ngencho. Ase              Please stop joking.
    obwenge, tiga obochai.
    Gaki ancha motige
    egosori pi.

Timonya gotokorera ebinto bitari na ngencho. /Ase obwenge, tiga obochai

Ti-mo-nya go-to-kor-era e-bi-nto bi-ti-a-r-i na e-ngencho. Ase obwenge, tig-a o-bo-chai NEG-QfP-CL Inf-QfP-RT-Md NV-QfP-RT QfP-NEG-CL-RT-Md Conj NV-RT. CF(Prep-N) RT-TV Inf-CL-RT

(Don't be doing nonsense to us. In short stop contempt)

Conjunctive forms in EkeGusii spoken texts also have a conclusive function. In EX6 there has been used a CF 'ase obwenge' which means in short. In this example, the CF has been used to give a conclusion. The first construction in this text is seen to be lengthy and one that does not clearly focus on the intended message: 'Timonyagotokorera ebinto bitari na ngencho' (Do not be doing nonsense to us). The second construction that has been preceded by the CF 'ase obwenge' concludes the idea presented in the first construction. This second construction gives a summary that the referents should stop being contemptuous. The speaker in EX6 makes a judgment that the listener may not have understood him in his first statement. He therefore uses a CF 'ase obwenge' (in short) as a way of summarizing his earlier statement and directing his listener to his exact point.

e) Particularizing

EX 7:

(Context: Social. James is explaining to Mikuro about his future plans)
EkeGusii                  Kiswahili

James: Nche tingokorera   James: I cannot do that
banto nchera eywo.        to people. I need to help
Ninganeti gokonya         widows. Much more i
ababoraka. Kobua mono     will be helping old
nindabe ginkobakonya      women together
abangina amo na           with the poor.........
abataka.....              Mikuro: That is good. I
                          am praying for you. Let
Mikuro: Igo mbuya.        God hear your prayers.
Nche igo nkogosabera.
Nyasae aigu amasabo ao.

Ninganeti gokonya ababoraka. /Kobua mono nindabe ginkobakonya abangina amo na abataka.

Ni-n-gan-eti go-kony-a a-ba-boraka. Kobua mono ni-n-ra-be gi-n-ko-ba-kony-a a-bangina amo na a-ba-taka.


(I need to help widows. Much more I will be helping old women together with the poor)

The CF 'kobua mono' has been used in EX7. In this example, the CF has been used to enable particularization. It enables emphasis of some kind in the text in which it has been used. The first part of the construction in EX7 gives a general assertion of what the speaker intends to do. He intends to help widows. The CF is employed here to draw and focus the listener's attention to the very particular activity the speaker wants him to understand. It is this CF that now particularizes the very activity that the speaker intends to do; that of helping women together with the poor.

f) Resumptive

EX 8:

(Context: Social. The researcher is in a discussion with his friends about a particular politician. One friend explains how the politician is not humane)
EkeGusii                  English

  Mtafiti: Gose nkoigu    Researcher: I always
  omonto ori noyoseino.   hear that that person is
  Tokomotebi agokonye?    from your place?
  Ondimu: Tiga egosori    Ondimu: Stop joking pal!
  tata! Oyu tari monto    That is not a good
  moronge mono. Buna      person. As I was saying,
  narenge goteba, tari    he is not a person you
  monto oraegene          can trust that he
  nga nagokonye.          will help you.

a) Oyu tari monto moronge mono. /Buna narenge goteba, tari monto oraegene nga nagokonye.

Oyu ti-a-r-i monto mo-ronge mono. Buna ni-a-re-nge go-teb-a, ti-a-ri monto o-ra-egene nga ni-a-go-kony-e.


(That one is not a very good person. As I was saying, he is not a person you can trust that he will help you.)

(Context: Social. Two speakers L and M are in some dialogue. A particular woman (P) appears who L owes some money. The woman reprimands L bitterly and claims she will never come again to ask for the money)
EkeGusii                      English

  L: Nnaki bono               L: How are you sister?
  omosubati? Karibu!          Welcome!
  P: Nche tinganeti           P: I do not want issues
  mangana mange n'ebesa       I have come for my
  yane nacha!                 money!
  L: Gaki baba bono iga       L: For sure sister right
  timbwati naende             now I do not have and I
  nimbwate abageni.           have visitors. Why don't
  Tikwarenge gwancha          you come tomorrow?
  oche mambi?                 P: You listen. I have
                              asked for my money for
  P: Aye tegerera.            about a whole year
  Nagosabire chibesa chiane   (bitterly) I have stopped
  ange omwaka omogima.        coing here. Again i will
  (kwa ghadhabu)              never do a mistake of
  Natigire gocha igaa.        sending my child here.
  Naende tingokora
  imocha ryogotoma
  mwana one igaa.
  L: Igo nnaki?               L: What do you mean?
  P: Narosire n'amangana      P: I am tired of your words;
  ao; igo ngoteba nga         I am saying i do not
  tintageti gosori yao.       want your jokes. I am not
  Tindi mwana                 a child to be played
  okanyagokoreru gosori       with: come tomorrow,
  ninchu mambia,              come I don't know
  ninchu gose ndiriri.....    when.......

b) Narosire n'amangana ao; igo ngoteba nga tintageti gosori yao Ni-a-ros-ire na-a-ma-ngana ao; igo n-go-teb-a nga ti-n-tag-eti gosori yao STAB:3PS-T-RT-Md Prep CL-QfP-RT Adj; CF(STAB 1PS-Inf-RT-TV STAB) NEG-1PS-RT-Md N Adj

(I am tired with your issues; I am saying I don't want your jokes)

Conjunctive forms also have a resumptive function. This is evident where conjunctive forms are used to refer the listener to a topic or thought presented earlier on. For example in EX8a the CF 'buna narenge goteba' (as I was saying) has been used to refer the listener to a preceding topic or thought that the speaker was talking about on how bad the referent is.

This state is also evident in EX8b where the conjunctive form 'igo ngoteba nga' (I am saying that) is used to refer the thoughts of the listener to a preceding thought that the speaker has been bored by her issues.


This study deduced that apart from enabling cohesion in EkeGusii spoken texts, conjunctive forms have other important functions that evince their elaborative logico-semantic relation. The functions of the conjunctive forms are both semantic and contextual; Conjunctive forms in EkeGusii spoken texts perform various elaborative functions. These include: the corrective, distractive, verificative, summative, particularizing and resumptive functions. Moreover, conjunctive forms have been realized to be cohesive not in themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific meanings, they are not primarily devices for reaching into the preceding (or following) text but they express certain meanings which presuppose the presence of other components in the discourse and constructions in which they have been used.


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Opande Nilson Isaac, Ph.D.

Department of Language, Linguistics & Literature

Kisii University, Republic of Kenya
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