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The Clay Canyon variscite mine: Fairfield, Utah has been famous among mineral collectors for well over a century as the source of the world's finest specimens of variscite.

The chrome-green nodules, riddled with veins of various other phosphates, make splendid display specimens when slabbed and polished. The mine is also the type locality for the phosphates englishite, gordonite, millisite, montgomeryite, overite and wardite.



Fairfield variscite enjoys a special status in the mineral world. Nearly all specimens are slabbed and polished--a situation that would normally preclude much interest on the part of mineral collectors. Nevertheless, polished slabs are collected and traded among mineral collectors as if they were crystal specimens. They sell for substantial prices and are coveted display items in mineral cabinets that may contain no other polished specimens. Fine variscite nodules and suites of nodules can be found in mineral museums around the world, particularly the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, the Smithsonian Institution, the Seaman Mineral Museum in Michigan, the John Hutchings Museum of Natural History in Lehi, Utah, and the Crater Rock Museum in Oregon. The six micromineral species for which Clay Canyon is the type locality are likewise highly valued by species collectors and by micromounters.


The Clay Canyon variscite occurrence (named the Little Green Monster claim by Montgomery and Over in 1937) is located primarily in the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of Section 22, T6S, R3W, in the Oquirrh Mountains, western Utah County, Utah, about 50 miles south of Salt Lake City. The claim is part of the Camp Floyd mining district about 2 miles south of the Mercur townsite and 5.5 miles northwest of Fairfield, at an altitude of about 5,800 feet. The original adit entrance to the mine (currently buried and reclaimed) is situated near the foot of a hill a short distance north of the south fork of Clay Canyon, near the confluence of the north and south forks. Access is via State Highway 73 west from the town of Lehi, then south through Cedar Fort and Fairfield. The turnoff to Clay Canyon is 1.5 miles past Fairfield, where a dirt road leads northwest into the mountains for another 3 miles to the mine.


The first variscite (1) specimens from the Clay Canyon occurrence were sent for identification to George P. Merrill, Curator of Geology at the Smithsonian, in December 1893 by F. T. Millis of Lehi, Utah. Millis stated that the variscite was found in the form of "nuggets" (nodules) in a vein near "Lewiston," Utah about 20 miles west of Lehi. The present-day town of Lewiston is far to the north in another county; however, the old mining ghost town of Mercur in the Oquirrh Mountains was originally known as Lewiston, and is the place to which Millis was referring.

F. T. Millis himself remains a mystery. There is no one with the surname Millis in the 1870-1900 Federal Censuses for any town in Utah, he is not listed in any Utah city directories of the time, nor is his correspondence preserved at the Smithsonian in the archive of curator George P. Merrill. The lack of knowledge about F. T. Millis is frustrating considering that he is the discoverer of the deposit, and that the mineral millisite was later named in his honor (Larsen and Shannon, 1930) and remains a valid species. At least his existence is confirmed by his registration of other mining claims in the area in 1892 and 1893.

At Merrill's request, a resident chemist in Washington, R. L. Packard, made the actual identification on the 18-cm nodule sent to Merrill and published his results in the American Journal of Science (Packard, 1894). The specimen is made up mostly of yellow material (crandallite) in which are embedded several small nodules of green variscite (Larsen and Shannon, 1930). Unfortunately the original Millis specimen in the Smithsonian cannot now be found (Paul Pohwat, personal communication, 2010).


Millis appears not to have followed up on his discovery. According to Bennion (1967), the first people to actually work the deposit were Frank Butt and his brother--that is, William Francis "Frank" Butt (1857-1940) and his brother, J. Newbern Butt (1862-1939)--who had discovered the Sunshine mine deposit over the ridge to the west in Sunshine Canyon (Kantner, 1896). They were hoping to find gold in Clay Canyon but were unsuccessful and soon gave up.


Shortly thereafter, Dominick "Don" McGuire (or Maguire) (1852-1933) of Ogden, Utah, who was at that time working the Sunshine mine, took an interest in the Clay Canyon locality. Perhaps having heard about it from the Butt brothers, or having read Packard's article about Millis's find in the American Journal of Science's April 1894 issue, McGuire visited the locality and collected specimens which he circulated to potentially interested parties. Kunz's note in the 16th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey (1895) on the mineral resources of the United States for 1894 reads as follows:
  An interesting discovery has been made of compact nodular variscite
  in Cedar Valley, near old Camp Floyd, Utah, by Mr. Don Maguire. The
  rock [matrix] is a crystalline limestone, with layers of black
  pyritiferous siliceous slate. In the latter occur the nodules,
  varying in size from that of a walnut to that of a coconut. They are
  covered with a thin, lamellar, ferruginous crust, beneath which lies
  the compact variscite in various shades of rich green. This is a new
  form of occurrence for this species and has attracted considerable
  attention abroad, both as a novel mineral and as an ornamental stone
  of quaint beauty. The locality, which is a spur of the Oquirrh
  Mountains, has been visited and examined by Mr. Maguire. He finds
  that it [the variscite] is somewhat abundant, but that only careful
  hand work can be used to extract the pieces from the rock. The writer
  [Kunz] suggests that the name utahlite would not be inappropriate
  for it.

In October 1894, McGuire staked a claim on the Clay Canyon deposit and worked it periodically during the following years, reporting production through 1914 (Kunz, 1904, 1906; Sterrett, 1908, 1909, 1911) and again in 1919, perhaps from lessees (Stoddard, 1920); production was said to be intermittent, whenever McGuire's stock needed replenishing. The Salt Lake Mining Review for January 30, 1913, reported:
  Don Maguire of Ogden, one of the noted metallurgists and engineers of
  the West, who was in Salt Lake last week, informs The Mining Review
  that, in Camp Floyd district he has uncovered one of the finest
  bodies of chlor-utahlite [variscite] ever disclosed in the West. This
  is a gem stone, emerald-green in color,  and is used quite
  extensively in the manufacture of jewelry. From this point Mr. Maguire
  has already taken 1,000 to 1,500 ounces.

McGuire led a very industrious and active life, and was famous in Utah mining circles. Born in Vermont to Irish immigrants, he had moved with his family to Utah in the 1870s after his father had become wealthy from livestock and land speculation in the Midwest. A graduate of Franciscan College, he had studied mathematics, engineering, French, Spanish and Arabic, then traveled widely, working as a miner, explorer and surveyor (Topping, 1997). According to various city directories, newspaper accounts and census records, McGuire had lived in Ogden since at least 1890, when he served as vice president of the Catholic Knights of America. In 1893 he was serving as Chief of the Department of Mining and Ethnology for the Utah World's Fair Commission (for the Chicago World's Fair of 1893), and again for the St. Louis Exposition of 1904. He became involved in extensive archeological digs around the state, and his essay "Prehistoric Man in Utah" (1894) is the first overview ever written of Utah archeology. He was also Vice President of the Ogden Chamber of Commerce in 1896. He had worked as a traveling salesman in the 1890s and also as a real estate agent with his partner William Campbell; but he listed himself as a "quartz miner" on the 1900 Ogden census and as a "mine owner" on the 1910 census. According to The Copper Handbook (Stevens, 1907, 1920), he was General Manager of the Napoleon and Maghera Copper Mining and Reduction Company, and owner of the Eldorado Gold Mining and Milling Company, among others.

McGuire excavated a small pit incorporating a shallow inclined shaft at the discovery site, and dug a tunnel into the hillside, though the tunnel appears not to have intersected productive ground. Apparently all of McGuire's variscite production came from the pit. Some of the variscite was sold to local lapidaries who marketed it under Kunz's suggested trade name of "utahlite" and later as "chlor-utahlite."

In the September 1894 issue of The Mineral Collector, field collector and mineral dealer Maynard Bixby (1853-1935) mentioned in his "Utah notes" that "A new mineral of a beautiful green color resembling malachite, but a hydrous phosphate of aluminum containing chromium, has been found near Camp Floyd. It has been named Rosrite" (yet another doomed marketing name for variscite). Nor did other Clay Canyon minerals escape Bixby's notice; he offered variscite cabinet specimens and "fine wardites" for sale in 1897.

Ward's Natural Science Establishment in Rochester, New York purchased a large quantity of the variscite nodules (no doubt from McGuire) in 1895, advertising "Variscite, Utah, polished slices, deep color, $1 to $10" (The Mineral Collector, July 1895). John M. Davison (1840-1915) at the University of Rochester examined the material and from it extracted a new species, which he named wardite after Henry A. Ward (Davison, 1896). By December 1895 George L. English was also advertising specimens in The. Mineral Collector.
  Variscite from Utah, in gorgeous polished slabs, being sections of
  nodules of pure variscite, rich green inside, surrounded by yellow
  agate-like bandings. One of the liveliest minerals now in the market.
  A few extra fine specimens, $4, $5, $6 and $10.





Around 1918-1920 the property was worked by Richard Jackson Hutchings (1875-1937) and his younger brother John Hutchings (1889-1977) of Lehi, Nevada--and a one-armed deputy sheriff from Tooele County. Richard listed himself as a "miner" on the 1920 census, and had probably leased the Clay Canyon mine for a while from Don McGuire. John Hutchings had worked in the Eureka silver mines at the age of 12, and then served as a postman for some years in Lehi, but was primarily a collector. He listed himself as a "miner" in 1918 when he registered for the draft, as did his brother Richard; by that time John had already been building his personal museum in his home. During their time at the mine the Hutchings brothers found one of the largest and finest dark green variscite nodules ever recovered there, a 28-cm (11-inch) boulder which John cut and polished himself. In 1955, John Hutchings and his wife Eunice donated their extensive collection of minerals, fossils, shells, stuffed birds, bird eggs, ethnographic artifacts, guns and Western memorabilia to the town of Lehi to formally establish the John Hutchings Museum of Natural History. The big variscite nodule can be seen there today (and is pictured here). Despite their discoveries, the Hutchings brothers were unable to find anyone who actually wanted to buy the variscite they were mining, so they gave up their claim.

In 1923 George L. English (1864-1944), who was by then managing the mineralogy department at Ward's, supplied specimens of the nodules to Harvard mineralogist Esper S. Larsen, Jr. (1879-1961). Larsen made a visit to the locality himself in 1927 and collected a few poor specimens from the dump. Larsen and Smithsonian curator and chemist Earl V. Shannon (1895-1981) then analyzed the material in detail and described seven new species (Larsen and Shannon, 1930).






Bennion (1967), in his somewhat muddled historical sketch, stated that after McGuire, James Chamberlain (1875-1949) of Cedar Fort, just north of Fairfield, had operated the mine, and took out a number of good variscite nodules. He says Chamberlain had done the assessment work on the claim, but had failed to file proof of labor, so the claim lapsed. However, this assertion was later bitterly disputed (Montgomery, 1970b, 1970a).

The best-known collaboration in the mining of variscite nodules was that of Arthur Montgomery (1909-1999) and Ed Over (Edwin Jenkins Over, Jr.; 1905-1963). Montgomery had graduated from Princeton in 1931, spent a year traveling in Europe, and then worked for a while at Ward's Natural Science Establishment in Rochester, New York, learning the mineral business from George English. Perhaps it was there that he saw the remains of the first great variscite discovery at Fairfield. Ed Over had worked in the Colorado mines and attended the Colorado School of Mines for a couple of years before leaving to become a full-time mineral prospector (perhaps with some mentoring in the mineral specimen market by his friend, Colorado Springs mineral dealer Lazard Calm). Over and Montgomery were introduced to each other by Harvard mineralogist Charles Palache, and immediately became fast friends and collecting partners. By 1934 they were in business together collecting and selling mineral specimens. Sometimes they worked in the field together, but much of the time Over worked alone, shipping specimens back to Montgomery in New York to be marketed. Montgomery's first ad, offering pyrite from Bingham Canyon, Utah appeared in January 1934. Over the next seven years Montgomery and Over were responsible for many spectacular mineral discoveries reaching the market, including red wulfenite from the Red Cloud mine in Arizona, and epidote from the Green Monster mine on Prince of Wales Island in Alaska.

Montgomery and Over returned from their Alaska collecting trip in September of 1936. On the drive back to Colorado Springs they passed through Utah and, taking the advice of Esper Larsen, decided to search out the old Fairfield variscite locality. Montgomery (1970a,b) described their work there as follows:
  We had trouble finding the old mine, for it was hidden away in rather
  inaccessible hilly country a couple of miles northwest of Fairfield,
  a farming village clearly marked on the road map but almost
  unrecognizable as a center of human habitation otherwise. We finally
  found the locality up a small westerly trending canyon (Clay Canyon,
  as we found out later) which we negotiated with our car by following
  old tracks around clumps of sagebrush and along the bed of a sandy
  wash. The small mine dumps lay close to the canyon bottom on its
  northerly side. Close above these in the hillside loomed the square
  opening of a mine tunnel. There was no evidence of anyone having been
  there for a long time.
  We lighted our carbide lamps and began an exploration of the
  underground workings. The tunnel was dry, musty and quite cool, and
  led straight into the hillside for a hundred feet northward. There it
  ended in a large, high chamber, one wall of which exposed a zone of
  brecciated rock. Angular chunks of iron-stained limestone, from small
  fragments up to boulder size, were embedded in a soft, powdery
  grayish matrix. Within the brecciated matrix we noted a scattering
  of round gray shapes something like large potatoes in appearance.
  These were concretionary nodules of highly altered phosphate
  minerals. Their interiors, when broken open, revealed porous, earthy
  masses of whitish material we guessed to be crandallite (known at
  that time as pseudowavellite). This occurrence of abundant
  concretions of altered phosphates suggested an obvious relationship
  to other nodular phosphates such as variscite. However, there was not
  a trace of greenish variscite present in this breccia zone. No wonder
  the miner who drove that long tunnel had stopped here, and
  discontinued his search for variscite in this section of the mine.
  Up on the hillside above there was a small-sized, partly caved-in
  pit, with adjacent waste dumps, some distance up-slope from the
  tunnel entrance. That was probably where the first discovery of
  variscite had been made. It looked as if the tunnel had been run in
  such a way as to try to intersect at depth this phosphate-bearing
  breccia zone cropping out at the surface.
  Thirty or forty feet back from the tunnel's ending at the breccia
  zone there was an opening into a side-drift running off in an
  easterly direction roughly perpendicular to the trend of the tunnel.
  We followed that drift for about 30 feet, at which point it turned
  sharply northward, parallel to the main tunnel. Ten or 15 feet more
  and it ended abruptly in a face of earthy brownish material. The
  soft, broken-up appearance of the material, suggesting fault gouge,
  made it a promising place to start digging.
  We dug with sharp drift picks into that blank wall. After several
  hours of hard pick-and-shovel work, made more difficult by the close
  quarters, insufficient air and increasingly dust-laden atmosphere, we
  had extended the drift face a foot or two farther to the north. All
  at once a pick stroke hit something, and partly exposed in the middle
  of the face a little brownish curving shape. It was a hard, solid
  nodule looking just like a small potato. We pried it out of its
  earthy matrix, examined it, and noted that it felt heavy. One of us
  struck it with a geological hammer and broke it in two. The
  honeycombed interior showed a partial filling of glassy, pale bluish
  material which sparkled with light reflected from the faces of tiny
  crystals lining the walls of small cavities. We had discovered a
  well-crystallized specimen of a quite rare phosphate mineral,
  wardite. I had first seen the mineral on display in the Morgan Hall
  in the American Museum of Natural History, where it stood out as
  bluish veinlets and small, spherical eye-like shapes within two
  beautiful polished slabs of variscite that had come from the original
  mining at Fairfield. But I had never seen a distinctly crystallized
  specimen of wardite until we had broken open that first small nodule.
  Greatly encouraged by our find, we continued vigorous pick-and-shovel
  mining in the north face of the drift. Every once in a while we
  uncovered a small nodule in the soft, ground-up rock material we were
  digging out and throwing behind us. We accumulated a good number of
  them during several days of work while we extended the drift ten or
  more feet farther north. Most of the nodules contained nothing but
  powdery, whitish or yellowish crandallite; but one or two more showed
  wardite, and several, when split open, revealed solid cores of deep
  green variscite. We were on the right track!
  It was too late in our field collecting season that year to try to
  commence any serious mining operation. We decided to return early
  the following summer.
  We returned to the variscite mine and staked our own lode claim there
  on May 27, 1937, naming it the Little Green Monster mine, then
  resumed our pick-and-shovel mining in the face of the side drift. We
  advanced another ten feet or so northward. At first we ran into a
  scattering of small nodules, picking up just enough production of
  deep green variscite, yellow crandallite and associated rare
  phosphates in a few nodules to make it worthwhile. Unfortunately, as
  we dug our way northward, the soft ground became harder and rockier,
  and nodules grew increasingly scarce. Finally they quit on us
  entirely. We seemed to have passed beyond the nodule-bearing zone.
  We went back some feel from the face to that part of our drift
  extension where we had found the largest number of nodules. By
  digging into the side walls we uncovered some more. One of us worked
  to the left (west) and the other to the right (east). Almost at once
  we noticed a difference in the two skies. While on the west side
  nodules kept appearing, in fact began to be more numerous; on the
  east side they gradually petered out after several feet. So we both
  concentrated our efforts on the west side, excavating a considerable
  opening into that wall. Not only were nodules growing more abundant,
  but the ground had become darker brown and extremely soft.
  After a few feet of digging we noticed another change. Nodules of a
  larger size than any we had found before began showing up. By
  chipping off very carefully a small corner on the nodules we were
  usually able to learn whether or not variscite was likely to be
  present in the interior. In the great majority of cases, earthy and
  porous, pale yellow to whitish crandallite made up the whole nodule.
  But now and then an outer rind of wholly different character
  consisting of olive-green to greenish yellow crandallite was exposed.
  This generally meant variscite underneath. These nodules, rich in
  variscite, we sacked unbroken, knowing that their ornamental beauty
  and value would be enhanced through later sawing and polishing.
  We started discovering nodules containing crystal cavities. These
  specimens we could not recognize at first, since they possessed a
  fair heft, intermediate between the really heavy nodules rich in
  variscite and the light-weight ones made up of nothing but highly
  altered porous crandallite. But they broke open rather easily because
  of their honeycombed internal structure. Not uncommonly, a small
  kernel of variscite, covered by a whitish coating and surrounded by
  narrow peripheral openings, was revealed near the center. Glassy,
  colorless prismatic crystals were sometimes observed implanted upon
  the curving variscite surface. Some were made up of clusters of
  sheaf-like sprays of colorless needles (lewistonite). In a few cases
  we spotted glassy blades, colorless to grayish and arranged in
  fan-like clusters perched on variscite. These were undoubtedly
  gordonite crystals, some up to a quarter inch long and of excellent
  transparent quality.
  We enlarged our westerly excavation as we advanced into the wall. We
  were now digging in very soft, earthy, limonitic-stained material and
  nodules of all sizes and descriptions were showing up. They were
  becoming so plentiful, in fact, that we never failed to have a number
  of their curving shapes exposed in the face. We had broken into a
  zone of extraordinarily rich nodule-bearing ground.
  Soon we had so enlarged our new westerly diggings, with nodule-rich
  ground on all sides, that we gradually found ourselves engaged in
  stoping out a large chamber. This stope grew larger until it measured
  more than 15 feet across. We were even mining nodules out of the roof
  and from the floor beneath our feet. How well I recall the excitement
  of those weeks in July and August when we were mining in paydirt!
  Thousands of pounds of nodules were being extracted each week, of
  which perhaps a tenth part seemed likely to consist of good quality
  variscite and could be sacked. The rest were nothing but worthless
  altered crandallite and were discarded. Best of all, we were slowly
  accumulating a number of specimens showing various crystallized
  minerals sparkling within small cavities. Every week we were able to
  ship back east to our business headquarters hundreds of pounds of
  variscite nodules. These went in double gunny sacks and were shipped
  by railway freight from American Fork. The crystallized material,
  carefully labeled and wrapped in newspaper, went in cartons by
  railway express.
  We knew that such phenomenal production could not last forever.
  Finally the nodules began to thin out in our stope and its
  surrounding extension galleries. The high roof went into hard,
  brecciated barren ground; the floor, some feet below tunnel level,
  at last produced nothing but highly altered crandallite. It was time
  to stop mining. We had shipped more than a ton of first-class
  nodules, together with a good number of crystallized specimens.
  The situation looked extremely unpromising for future variscite
  production, but we were not at all sure the deposit was worked out,
  and felt we might come back sooner or later for more exploratory
  mining. So we took special pains to record our assessment work
  covering 1937-1939, in order to maintain our claim.
  Back east, the newly mined Fairfield material proved to surpass our
  highest expectations. Some of the finest specimens, among them
  nodules of solid variscite measuring up to 8 inches across, went to
  several of the larger museums and private collections. The best
  material, as always, ended up at Harvard and the Smithsonian. Ed and
  I made up our minds to return to Fairfield. We could not return the
  following summer, for we had planned a three-month expedition to
  Mount Antero, but the summer after that, of 1939, would be a good
  When we arrived at the mine in June of 1939 we found that our claim
  had been jumped by two locals, Jim Chamberlain and his son.
  [Chamberlain was a South African-born fanner with two sons, William
  and Charles, living in Cedar Fort just north of Fairfield.] We wasted
  most of a day putting up new claim notices and checking the mine
  workings. Fortunately the Chamberlains appeared to have done little
  digging. But prospects for locating fresh occurrences of nodules
  looked poor. For some days we carried on exploratory mining within
  and all around the stoped ground where we had run into the great
  concentration of nodules. Wherever there was soft ground we dug our
  drift picks into it and opened it up for a foot or more. Hardly a
  sign of a nodule anywhere.
  Finally one of us, after digging into the south wall of the old drift
  where it ran eastward just south of our stope, noted some brownish
  earthy gouge in the roof of the drift at that point. Standing on a
  pile of freshly mined material, we excavated a hole upward and above
  the south wall. Suddenly a nodule appeared, then another. We built up
  a platform of waste rubble in the drift so that we could stand upon
  it and more easily get at the ground high above our heads, and
  proceeded to open up the roof area above and south of the drift with
  great excitement and redoubled energy. As we dug our way upward, out
  came the nodules, more and more of them, dropping to the floor of the
  drift with loud thuds. The completely unexpected had happened again!
  We had broken into another phenomenally rich ore zone.
  We followed that ore zone upward at a fairly steep angle from the
  roof of the drift for two months. We were actually running a raise
  up toward the surface at about a 30[degrees] angle, and we were in
  nodules continuously. It was clearly an upward-trending continuation
  of the ore-bearing ground we had stoped out at a deeper level north
  of the drift. It seemed to be a pipe-like zone of intense brecciation
  lying within a major fault. Portions of that same fault were seen in
  the exposures of nodules at the end of the main tunnel and in the
  discovery pit up on the hillside. But only within certain limited
  channelways along that fault, it seemed, had variscite nodules formed
  and been preserved from alteration to crandallite.
  Here we were, producing nodules even faster and in greater quantity
  than in 1937. We followed that rich ore zone in our raise for 70 feet
  all the way to the surface, eventually breaking through into the
  sunlight at a spot several tens of feet downslope from the old
  surface pit on the hillside. A tremendous number of variscite nodules
  up to 12 inches across came out. We were mining nodules by the
  thousands. By the time our raise broke out onto the surface we had
  produced a couple more tons of sacked variscite nodules, most of them
  first-quality. We also produced a considerable number of crystallized
  specimens which we turned over to Professor Larsen's son,
  Esper S. Larsen III, for research.
  When our second summer's mining came to an end, we felt we had been
  responsible for opening up one of the great mineral localities of the
  world, and bringing to light some of the most beautiful, and also
  mineralogically rare and interesting, specimens ever seen.







Montgomery advertised his "Christmas Exhibition Sale" for December 23-28, 1937 in New York, offering "the most beautiful variscites ever seen," and "magnificent crystallized specimens of the rare Fairfield, Utah phosphates." Again, in December 1939, he held another sale featuring "notable specimens from a new Utah find." (See Martin Plotkin's 1991 account of attending that sale as a college student.) Although Montgomery's sales included some modestly priced specimens, he really had no interest in selling good minerals at affordable prices or making them available to the most collectors. On October 27, 1937, he wrote as follows to his friend Sam Gordon (namesake of gordonite) at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia (quoted by Conklin, 2002):
  None of these minerals will be sold indiscriminately or cheaply
  enough to flood the market and make them appear as common in the eyes
  of anyone. Although I have a very great number of superbly
  crystallized gordonites, for example, it is likely that only a number
  of the best ones will be sold at all, only as much as for which there
  is a real demand by the important museums and private collectors. I
  would rather keep the prices extremely high, and only sell a handful
  of the finest specimens to places where their excellence and rarity
  will be fully appreciated, than sell a hundred times as many at low
  prices [even though] the latter way may be the most successful
  financially. That is my personal philosophy, as applied to mineral

Conklin wonders (as might we all) whether Montgomery destroyed or discarded many Fairfield specimens in order to create artificial rarity--or perhaps sold them for processing as bulk scandium ore, just to keep them off the specimen market. We will never know, but his expressed attitude may explain the rarity of good gordonite specimens today.




After that second summer at the mine, Montgomery and Over enlisted a local man, James William Gough (1897-1986) of Lehi, to continue the assessment work and keep their claim valid; in exchange he could keep whatever minerals he found (Montgomery, 1971b). Ball (1945) reported that the Clay Canyon deposit had been worked for a short time in 1944 and some good variscite nodules were shipped "to the east," possibly to Schortmann's Minerals in Massachusetts--they advertised specimens again that year, including a 9 1/2-inch polished nodule for $30. Warner and Grieger in Pasadena also offered "full complete sawed nodules" of variscite at $2 to $7 per pound in 1944. These may have been mined by Gough, but more likely they all came from Dr. George Bernard Robbe (1884-1963); the vast majority of the 30 fine variscite specimens in the Seaman Mineral Museum came as a bequest from Robbe, a Michigan Tech graduate (1913) who had moved west and worked for the Utah Copper Company's Bingham Canyon mine, where he helped develop techniques for the chemical extraction of copper from ores. According to Seaman Museum records (George Robinson, personal communication). Robbe paid miners to mine variscite for him at Clay Canyon in the 1940s, probably under a lease from Montgomery and Over.








Through much of the 1940s the claim was plagued by claim jumpers and unauthorized collectors, including the Chamberlains who continued their efforts to gain control of the property by accusing Gough of not having done the proper assessment work. In 1941 James Chamberlain staked his own claim, calling it the "Green Gem" claim, over Montgomery's claim. Finally, in 1948, Montgomery, Over and Gough applied for a patent on the claim in order to settle the issue once and for all. The Chamberlains were unable to support their case, and the judge granted the patent request in 1952 (patent #1144484, survey 7207). Nevertheless, trespassing and unauthorized collecting continued, as is liable to happen when a famous property is left unguarded for years.


Commercial interest in the property was renewed when Mrose and Wappner (1959) discovered that sterrettite (kolbeckite) found there was actually a phosphate of the strategically important element scandium. Kawecki Chemical Company of Boyertown, Pennsylvania backed new exploration, which was carried out by Ed Over and Louis Schoenberger. A shipment of 330 pounds of crandallite nodules averaging 0.14 weight % [Sc.sub.2][O.sub.3] was shipped to Boyertown in 1959 so that a refining technique could be developed. A second shipment followed, consisting of 4,000 pounds of crandallite, variscite, chert and limonitic clay averaging 0.1 weight % [Sc.sub.2][O.sub.3]. This ore was all mined from the crandallite breccia zone at the end of the main adit (Montgomery, 1997). The results were disappointing, however, and efforts ceased when major scandium deposits were discovered in Australia (Frondel et al., 1968).

By the mid-1970s (Modreski, 1976) the underground workings had deteriorated and the adits had partially caved and become filled with rubble. Clifford Frondel (who took Over's part of the ownership during the brief scandium investigations) and Arthur Montgomery sold the patented claim to Archie Rae McFarland (1913-1980) of Beehive Machinery, Inc. in Sandy, Utah. Under the terms of the transfer, McFarland agreed to clean out the mine and improve accessibility for the benefit of collectors and students, and he was allowed to carry out small-scale mining. That doesn't seem to have happened, though, and the mine sat idle until it was eventually bulldozed shut as part of a reclamation effort. McFarland passed away, and the ownership of the patented claim was still held by Beehive Machinery, Inc. when that company was acquired by Katy Industries many years later. Having no interest in small-scale mining, Katy Industries sold the claim in 2001 to Reno, Nevada mineral dealer Alan Day of Mineral Exploration Services (formerly a partner with Scott Werschky in the Miner's Lunchbox dealership). Alan is confident that variscite can still be found there, and plans to reopen the mine.


The country rock exposed in the workings is a shattered and altered black limestone (the "Great Blue" limestone of Upper Mississippian age), the bedding of which strikes N50[degrees]W and dips 22[degrees]N. The variscite deposit is in a highly altered limonitic breccia zone along a fault dipping roughly 45[degrees]N. Sterrett (1908) described the deposit thus:
  Practically everything in this zone has a nodular shape, including
  the blocks of limestone breccia, etc. Chert forms a prominent part of
  the filling of the mineralized zone, and has been fractured and
  cemented by calcite seams and limonite. The nodules of variscite
  range from one-fourth of an inch to over four inches [actually over
  24 inches] in thickness. The nodules have been more or less
  fractured, and the cracks have been filled in with yellow and white
  phosphate minerals. Some of the larger nodules contain two or more of
  the smaller nodules, or irregular masses of variscite, enclosed in
  yellow or white matrix or shells. Most of the nodules are surrounded
  by banded layers of the yellow phosphate and some have white coatings
  as well The color of the variscite ranges from deep grass-green or
  emerald-green to paler shades and nearly white.

Larsen (1942c) proposed that the variscite originally formed by the action of descending phosphatic groundwaters produced by surface weathering of phosphorite beds in the overlying Phosphoria Formation, acting on aluminous material. Thomssen (1991) suggested instead that the phosphate was more likely derived from the nearby shale beds in the Great Blue limestone, a much closer source. Groundwater heated by a nearby rhyolite intrusion may have leached phosphate from the shales and circulated it through the breccia zone of the Clay Canyon deposit. After the rhyolite had cooled, the groundwaters were no longer being enriched in phosphates, and the change in chemistry caused alteration of the variscite into other phosphates with relict nodules of variscite remaining. The original vein, consisting almost entirely of pure green variscite, must have been quite spectacular before it was altered.



Larsen (1942b) made a detailed study of the paragenetic relationships in the evolution of variscite nodules in the Clay Canyon deposit, identifying six stages: (1) variscite formation, followed by fracturing and the introduction of thin black quartz veinlets; (2) banded minerals, primarily crandallite, millisite and wardite, replacing and enclosing variscite while opening up cavities through shrinkage (some variscite nodules were entirely replaced by crandallite); (3) formation of free-growing crystals of gordonite, englishite, montgomeryite and probably overite and kolbeckite in cavities; (4) a minor reversion to crandallite formation from solution as isolated oolites; (5) apatite-group minerals; and finally (6) the limonitic phase (limonite is not present inside any of the nodules). Alunite probably preceded variscite formation. There must have been a time interval at the end of stage 1 during which the variscite was fractured and brecciated by tectonic movements. These movements must have continued periodically during stage 2, as shown by spherules and bands which are cut by fractures and offset, although paradoxically the crandallite shells around the variscite nodules are unbroken by these fractures.


Alunite [KAI.sub.3]([[SO.sub.4])sub.2][(OH)sub.6]

Larsen (1942a) reported the presence of alunite in the Clay Canyon deposit, as rounded, creamy white to dark gray nodules up to 20 cm in diameter, incorporating about one third of their weight in quartz. The alunite nodules were originally thought to be chert until they were tested.

Calcite Ca[CO.sub.3]

Calcite occurs as aggregates of coarse, corroded crystals on the surface of some variscite nodules. Many crystals are darkened by inclusions of limonite. One specimen (john C. Ebner collection) shows a brilliantly lustrous druse of calcite crystals coating limonite in a void inside a variscite nodule.

Carbonate-fluorapatite (see Fluorapatite)

Crandallite Ca[Al.sub.3][([PO.sub.4])sub.2][(OH,[H.sub.2]O).sub.6]

Crandallite was originally described from Germany by Loughlin and Schaller (1917). Larsen and Shannon (1930) described two minerals from the Clay Canyon variscite nodules which they described as pseudowavellite and the new species "lehiite" (they named the latter after the nearby town of Lehi), but both were later discredited as crandallite (Palache et al., 1951; Dunn and Francis, 1986).

Crandallite is prominent in most nodules as dense, yellow to yellow-green crusts forming successive concentric layers of varying shades and textures. Pinkish spherulitic growths and white powdery crusts are also present. In fact, crandallite is the most abundant phosphate at the site, and most nodules found in the Clay Canyon deposit were composed entirely of crandallite (Larsen, 1942b). No distinct crystalline texture is visible in hand specimen, but under magnification the crandallite layers are seen to consist of felted masses of subparallel acicular crystals which appear coarser in some layers and very fine in others. Frondel et al. (1968) found that Clay Canyon crandallite contains up to 0.8 weight % scandium oxide; trace amounts of vanadium and chromium probably account for the color.

Davisonite (see Fluorapatite)

Dehrnite (see Fluorapatite)

Dennisonite (see Fluorapatite)

Deltaite (see Hydroxylapatite)

Englishite [K.sub.3][Na.sub.2][Ca.sub.10][Al.sub.15][([PO.sub.4])sub.21][(OH)sub.7] * 26[H.sub.2]O

Englishite was described as a new species in the variscite nodules from the Clay Canyon deposit by Larsen and Shannon (1930), who named it after the prominent American mineral dealer George L. English, it occurs in l-mm layers of transparent, colorless, glassy material in contact (or nearly so) with the variscite cores.

Englishite shows a perfect micaceous cleavage with a pearly luster on the cleavage face. It occurs in cavities with wardite, replacing both wardite and variscite, and resembles gordonite, but is more platy, and the cleavage surfaces tend to be larger and curved. Englishite generally occurs in association with montgomeryite and is the earlier-formed of the two.

Fluorapatite (2) [Ca.sub.5][([PO.sub.4]).sub.3](F,[CO.sub.3])




Larsen and Shannon (1930) described the two new species "dehrnite" and "lewistonite" (after the town of Lewiston, later known as Camp Floyd and Mercur), as colorless, transparent microcrystals of stout hexagonal prismatic to acicular habit in cavities in variscite nodules. Botryoidal crusts about 1 mm thick line cavities in the nodules and cement fragments of crandallite in some specimens; some cavities are entirely filled, like amygdules. Dehrnite and lewistonite, however, were later discredited as being identical to carbonate-fluorapatite (Dunn, 1978). Thirty years later, carbonate-fluorapatite was deemed not to be known in nature with sufficient carbonate to qualify as a distinct species (Burke, 2008), and thus species status was rescinded in favor of fluorapatite until such time as natural specimens are discovered.


Davisonite was also described as a new species from Clay Canyon by Larsen and Shannon (1930), who at first named it "dennisonite," with the intention of honoring the author of the 1896 wardite description. Embarrassingly, this was in error, as the author's name was actually John M. Davison; the error was eventually corrected (more than ten years later!) and davisonite became the mineral name (Palache et al., 1951). However, davisonite was ultimately discredited as a mixture of fluorapatite and crandallite by Dunn and Francis (1986). Thus poor Davison lost out twice in having the mineral named after him.



Dunn (1980) illustrated a number of excellent microcrystals via scanning electron micrography; they vary in habit from hexagonal prismatic to hexagonal tabular.

Gordonite [MgAl.sub.2][([PO.sub.4]).sub.2][(OH).sub.2] 8[H.sub.2]O

Gordonite, a triclinic mineral related to paravauxite, was described as a new species from the Clay Canyon variscite deposit by Larsen and Shannon (1930). They named it in honor of Philadelphia mineralogist Samuel G. Gordon (1897-1952), who first described paravauxite. Gordonite occurs there as layers less than 1 mm thick of clear, glassy, cleavable crystals encrusting variscite or very near to it.

Gordonite is among the rarer but better crystallized phosphates in the variscite nodules. The best crystals are lath-shaped, with a perfect cleavage parallel to the axis of elongation, on (100). Forms recognized include {001}, {010}, {100}, {110}, {490} and {211}. Pough (1937b), having obtained better crystallized specimens of gordonite from material collected by Montgomery and Over in late 1936, was able to provide a better description of the crystal morphology.

Like the other phosphates, gordonite formed by alteration of the original variscite. Cavities which opened up between the variscite core and layers of crandallite were sometimes found to contain gordonite crystals growing on both surfaces (the crandallite and the variscite). Gordonite has only been found in nodules that still contain some variscite, and it crystallizes on or near the variscite. Yellow crandallite pseudomorphs after gordonite are known (Larsen, 1942b).



In its purest form gordonite is gemmy and colorless, but it can appear gray when attached to crandallite or variscite; terminations of the gray crystals are in some cases pale pink or lavender. Most crystals occur in bundles or radiating sheaf-like aggregates. A few individual crystals perched on other crystals are doubly terminated. Crystals vary in size from 0.5 to 6 mm, and clusters can reach 5 mm or more. Nineteen crystal forms were identified by Pough (1937b), dominated by {010} (showing a pearly luster as in paravauxite) and lesser striated {100} and {110}. Many crystals are terminated solely by {011). Pough recognized the isostructural relationship between gordonite and paravauxite. The crystals are all heavily striated and show a prominent cleavage on {010}, a fair cleavage on {100}, and a poor but distinct cleavage on {001}.

Goyazite Sr[Al.sub.3][([PO.sub.4]).sub.2][(OH,[H.sub.2]O).sub.6]

Goyazite was reported from the Clay Canyon variscite locality by Frondel et al. (1968) as part of their investigation of the scandium content of the phosphates. The physical properties were not described, other than to say that a "bulk sample of crystallized goyazite" proved to contain 0.3 weight % [Sc.sub.2][O.sub.3]. Microcrystals may exist but they are impossible to distinguish from crandallite without optical or chemical tests.

Hydroxylapatite (3) [Ca.sub.5][(PO4).sub.3](OH)

Hydroxylapatite crystals in crandallite were described (as a new species, "deltaite") from the Clay Canyon variscite nodules by Larsen and Shannon (1930). The name was in allusion to the triangular ([DELTA] delta-shaped) habit of the crystals. Deltaite was discredited as a mixture of hydroxylapatite and varying amounts of crandallite and by Elberty and Greenberg (1960).

Individual crystals are very small, generally no larger than 0.05 mm, as fibers and stout prisms with a triangular cross-section. Some crystals taper at one end and are terminated by steep rhombohedron faces on the other. Crystals were observed in parallel growth with their prism edges touching to form an hour-glass cross-section; in others four prisms are arranged with their c-axes parallel and prism edges meeting at one point, with a thin layer of crandallite between them.



Hydroxylapatite in matted fibers constitutes the principal component of dirty gray, dense, cherty looking crusts up to 1 cm thick separating yellow crandallite layers from the variscite cores. Larsen (1942a) described sugary aggregates of canary-yellow microcrystals to 0.02 mm lining the surfaces of lenticular openings between crandallite shells. And lavender-colored trigonal prisms to 0.2 mm and massive lavender to pale blue bands occur in some nodules. The lavender crystals are simple, elongated trigonal prisms {1010} capped by {0001}.

Kolbeckite Sc[PO.sub.4] 2[H.sub.2]O

Larsen and Montgomery (1940) described what they thought to be a new species from the Clay Canyon variscite nodules, naming it "sterrettite" in honor of geologist Douglas B. Sterrett. Based on chemical analyses, Larsen and Montgomery (1940) derived the formula for sterrettite from Clay Canyon as [Al.sub.6]([[PO.sub.4]).sub.4][(OH).sub.6] * 5[H.sub.2]O. Unfortunately their analyst, Forest A. Gonyer, misidentified an element, mistaking scandium for aluminum, hence the discreditation of the name sterrettite in favor of kolbeckite (Mrose and Wappner, 1969).

Kolbeckite occurs rarely in cavities in tan-colored crandallite from only one small area of the deposit, separated horizontally from the main zone of mineralization. The colorless, orthorhombic, simple prismatic crystals are slightly elongated along [100] and normally reach no more than 1 mm in size, though a few larger crystals up to 8 mm have been reported (Thomssen, 1991). The kolbeckite crystals are beautifully formed, and are the only species at Clay Canyon occurring in crystals that are free of subparallel growths and vicinal faces. The (011} prism and the {100} pinacoid are the only important forms, but {110}, {010}, {031} and {101) are also present. All crystals are twinned, as evidenced by clear sutures across the terminations. There is a fail cleavage on {110}.

Lehiite (see Crandallite)

Lewistonite (see Fluorapatite)

Millisite (NaK)Ca[Al.sub.6][([PO.sub.4]).sub.4][(OH).sub.9] 3[H.sub.2]O

Millisite was described as a new species from Clay Canyon by Larsen and Shannon (1930); they named it after F. T. Millis, the apparent discoverer of the locality, who first supplied specimens for analysis. Millisite forms white felted layers and irregular crusts resembling chalcedony, interlayered with green wardite. Spherules in the variscite nodules often show a white core of millisite surrounded by layers of green, granular wardite.




Montgomeryite [Ca.sub.4]Mg[Al.sub.4][([PO.sub.4]).sub.6][(OH)sub.4] * [H.sub.2]O

Montgomeryite was named after Arthur Montgomery by Larsen (1940) based on crystals from variscite nodules collected by Montgomery and Over at Clay Canyon in 1936 and 1937. The formula was originally determined to be [Ca.sub.4][Al.sub.5][([PO.sub.4]).sub.6][(OH).sub.5] * 11 [H.sub.2]O but has since been refined to that shown above.

The monoclinic, lath-shaped crystals up to several millimeters long are found in cavities in variscite nodules. They are usually bright green to blue-green (rarely pale green to colorless) and, like overite, are flattened on {010} with perfect cleavage on {010}, elongation parallel to [001 J, and a tendency toward parallel growth. Massive green montgomeryite also occurs in layers surrounding and replacing green variscite cores. Englishite is a common association. Crystals commonly have {111} pyramidal terminations and dominant {010} faces with striations parallel to [001]. Minor forms include {100}, {170}, (150), {290}, {140}, {270}, {130}, {120}, {110}, {131}, {021} and {041}.

Overite CaMgAl[([PO.sub.4]).sub.2](OH) * [4H.sub.2]O

Overite is among the rarest of the crystallized minerals in the Clay Canyon variscite nodules, a fact that hindered initial descriptions. Larsen and Shannon (1930) made a preliminary description of the physical and optical properties of a new species from the nodules but did not have enough material for a full characterization; they called it "unknown no. 8" The mineral was finally described and named after Ed Over by Larsen (1940) on the basis of new specimens collected by Over and Montgomery at Clay Canyon in 1936 and 1937. The formula was originally determined to be [[Ca.sub.3][Al.sub.8][(POsub.4)].sub.8][(OH)sub.6] * [15H.sub.2]O] but has since been refined to that shown above.




The orthorhombic prismatic crystals, up to 4 mm in size, are pale apple-green to colorless and somewhat flattened on {010} and elongated parallel to [001], with a perfect cleavage on {010}. They occur in the cavities in the margin surrounding relict lumps of variscite. The crystals are generally well-formed and there is a marked tendency toward parallel growth. Dominant forms are (010}, {121} and {110}; minor forms include {100}, {150}, {130}, {250}, {120}, {350}, {430}, {320}, {310}, {410} and {021}.

Pseudowavellite (see Crandallite)

Quartz Si[O.sub.2]

Thin black quartz veinlets penetrate many of the nodules. Much of the matrix in which the nodules are embedded is brecciated quartz or chert, along with calcite, alunite and limonite.

Sterrettite (see Kolbeckite)

Variscite [Al[PO.sub.4] * 2[H.sub.2]O]

Variscite occurs primarily as microcrystalline masses forming the relict cores of the nodules, and it is obviously the original mineral from which the other phosphates developed by alteration. The color ranges from deep green to slightly yellowish green, bluish green, pale green and white--the white powdery crystals having recrystallized in bands around the margins of the green cores, alone or in a mixture with crandallite (Larsen and Shannon, 1930).

Many nodules show the palest color near the fractures where alteration has been taking place, and the darkest color in the unfractured interior portions, suggesting that the darkest color represents the original unaltered appearance. However, some (comparatively very rare) nodules show the reverse pattern, being darkest near the fractures. Some nodules are pale green throughout, whereas others are almost entirely dark green.




Calas et al. (2005) have concluded that the green color of Utah variscite is due solely to trace amounts of chromium. As yet no one has conducted any analyses to determine the nature of the change that takes place when dark green variscite alters to pale green variscite. But it is possible that chromium is leached away during alteration, resulting in paler shades of green.

The end product of the alteration process appears to be a complete conversion to yellow crandallite and other phosphates. In some, but not all, cases this alteration is accompanied by a volume reduction, leaving open voids in the nodules.

Wardite [Na[Al.sub.3][(PO.sub.4)].sub.2][(OH).sub.4] * 2[H.sub.2]O]

Wardite was described as a new mineral species from the Clay Canyon variscite nodules by Davison (1896), based on material purchased by Ward's Natural Science Establishment in Rochester, New York. Davison, a professor at the University of Rochester, named the mineral for Henry A. Ward, the founder of Ward's.

Davison observed that in the variscite nodules wardite forms cavity linings of a pale green to bluish green color and a vitreous luster. Its concentric habit also manifests itself as oolitic structure, that is, small spherules "resembling clusters of fine shot with rough surfaces." Larsen and Shannon (1930) expanded the description, noting that wardite also forms nearly colorless thin layers within and on the surface of dirty gray, chalcedonic nodules of millisite and also forms as scattered crystals and thin crusts within the yellow crandallite. The wardite is nearly always distinctly crystalline and granular, in individual grains up to 1 mm across. In a few of the specimens studied by Larsen and Shannon it occurs as poorly developed, drusy crystal aggregates. Some fairly well-formed crystals that were found embedded in the crandallite and millisite appear to show a roughly octahedral habit.





Pough (1937a), having obtained better crystallized specimens of wardite from material collected by Montgomery and Over in late 1936, was able to describe the crystal morphology. Wardite, like the other phosphates, formed by alteration of the original variscite. Wardite appears to be one of the later-formed minerals and is relatively common, especially in comparison to the much rarer gordonite. It forms crusts of varying thickness, with well-developed pale blue to blue-green crystals to 1 mm visible in open vugs. The crystals are tetragonal bipyramids and are, perhaps, the most easily recognized of the various crystallized species in the nodules. Crystal forms noted include {001}, {100}, {112}, {13.0.12} and {201}. (See also Larsen, 1940a.)




Variscite nodules are normally sawn in half or slabbed and polished for display; very rarely are they shown as broken nodules, except occasionally where prominent, open crystal-lined cavities are present. Dietrich (2007) provides three observations regarding specimen preparation: (1) Sawing should never be done using oil as a blade lubricant or coolant because variscite and some of the other minerals in the nodules may absorb oil and become discolored. (2) When polishing nodules, a perfectly flat surface may be difficult to obtain because the various constituent minerals vary in hardness and friability. (3) Cleaning any variscite that has not first been treated with a stabilizing agent should be done with caution. Ultrasonic cleaning may cause crumbling of softer layers. Common cleaning agents and other chemicals such as alcohol, acetone, steam, or even hot water should be avoided. Use only a clean, soft, absorbent, lightly moistened cloth, and leave the specimen to dry on an absorbent cloth; never let it soak in water.


The Clay Canyon deposit has yielded thousands of pounds of the world's finest variscite specimens, though by now many of them have been chopped up and converted into jewelry items. The remaining specimen material is highly coveted by mineral collectors, and examples still appear on the mineral market from time to time. It remains possible that more variscite will be recovered from the Clay Canyon mine in the future, as exploration continues.


The following people all contributed materially to the preparation of this article: Dan Powell efficiently researched the early claim records for this study in the office of the Utah County Recorder in Provo. Dr. George Robinson of the Seaman Mineral Museum kindly photographed (via scanning) many of the variscite specimens in the Museum collection, provided the photo of George Robbe, and reviewed the manuscript. Dr. Anthony Kampf of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County provided photos of variscite slabs, loaned micromount specimens from the Museum's collection for mutifocus photomicrography by Paul Adams, and reviewed the manuscript. Jim Hurlbut loaned us specimens to photograph from the collection of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. Debra Thurgood of the John Hutchings Museum of Natural History also provided photography and information, as did John Hutchings' granddaughter, Esther Hutchings Sumsion. Paul Pohwat of the U.S. National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) searched museum records for information on the Millis specimens and provided specimen photography. John Ebner, Terry Szenics, and Dan Behnke loaned specimens from their private collections for photography. Martin Anne gave us permission to scan and reproduce slide copies (made by Jay Lininger, now in the collection of Joseph Dague, who loaned them to us) of the remarkable color photos of Arthur Montgomery and Edwin Over at the mine in 1937-1939. Alan Day and Rock Currier shared documents and information on the mine. Robert Downs at the University of Arizona provided RAMAN analyses and made photographic equipment available; Alex Halpern took multifocus photomicrographs of a number of specimens. And Kevin Downey and Jeff Scovil also provided excellent photos. To all of these kind people we owe our sincere thanks for their willingness to help.


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(1) Variscite was originally described from Vogtland (ancient name: Variscia) in Saxony by Breithaupt in 1837.

(2) Fluorapatite was renamed apatite-(CaF) by Burke (2008), but this change was rescinded, with IMA approval, by Pasero et al. (2010).

(3) Hydroxylapatite was renamed apatite-(CaOH) by Burke (2008), but this change was rescinded, with IMA approval, by Pasero et al. (2010).


Wendell E. Wilson

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Author:Wilson, Wendell E.
Publication:The Mineralogical Record
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U8UT
Date:Jul 1, 2010
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