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The Class of '80 one year after graduation.

Ask college students, "What's your major?" and you'll get a good clue to the kinds of occupations they might enter after graduation. Although graduates with a particular major are not restricted to a single occupation, their field of study is the principal factor used in determining the entry-level jobs they are considered for, at least in the short run, according to a recent survey conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES).

This article describes the labor force status, occupation, and graduate school status in May 1981 of college graduates who received their bachelor's degrees between July 1979 and June 1980. BLS has analyzed these data for all the graduates as a group and for each of 20 major fields of study. The accompanying box, "A Guide to the Sections," explains how the information is presented. An article in the Summer 1982 OOQ provides similar information for 1976-77 graduates as of February 1978.

This information should be helpful to those selecting a major field of study because it indicates the range of job possibilities for graduates with a degree in the major fields that are discussed. However, the reader should keep a number of points in mind.

* The estimates are based on information obtained from a sample of about 9,300 graduates. The results of a survey of all graduates could differ.

* The information was collected only a short time after graduation. People are likely to change occupations as they gain experience or additional education. Occupational mobility is high for all workers, but it is particularly high for young workers. People not only transfer among occupations within a broad occupational group, such as "professional," but they also tend to move form blue-collar, clerical, and service jobs to professional and managerial jobs; and, within, the last category, from professional to managerial positions. Liberal arts graduates, in particular, may not have a clear career objective by graduation and may change occupations often in an attempt to find work that fits their abilities and expectations. Earlier studies indicate that liberal arts graduates are less likely than other to start out in jobs generally requiring a college degree, but tend to catch up later on. It is not clear whether this trend will continue. Also, the data understate the number who might eventually enroll in graduate school, since many people do not enroll until a year or more after graduation.

* The occupational patterns for each major reflect the relation between the number of graduates attracted to certain occupations and the number of graduates with particular qualifications that employers sought to hire in 1980 and 1981. A high proportion of graduates entering an occupation would indicate that many graduates with the major being discussed found the occupation attractive, that sufficient openings existed, an d that employers preferred those graduates to other applicants. Conversely, if no graduates or a low proportion of graduates with a particular major entered an occupation, either those graduates did not seek jobs in the occupation or employers chose not to hire them.

* The major field of study is only one aspect of an individual's job qualifications. Grades, a minor field of study, other courses, extracurricular activities, the quality of the school, work experience, the ability to express oneself, and personality traits such as motivation, self-confidence, and enthusiasm are all factors that employers take into consideration. Not everyone with a particular major is qualified for a job in a given field. Conversely, some graduates enter occupations not mentioned in this article. Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of all graduates: Of the 12 percent of all graduates who worked part time (less than 35 hours a wek), 7 percent did so because they preferred to, and 2 percent had jobs for which the full-time workweek was less than 35 hours. Only 3 percent worked part time because they could not find full-time positions; many of these were elementary and secondary school teachers or clerical workers. Among all graduates, 8 percent were not in the labor force because of school, 1 percent had family responsibilities, 1 percent were in the Armed Forces, and 3 percent did not want to work, were ill or disabled, or could not find the work they wanted.

The rate at which graduates participate in the labor force varied widely from major to major. (See table 1.) Graduates whose majors were closely linked to specific occupations, such as computer and information sciences, nursing, education, agriculture, business administration, and engineering, had a higher than average labor force participation rate. Graduates in arts and science--which includes biological sciences, mathematics, physical sciences, social sciences, humanities, and psychology--generally had lower than average labor force participation rates.

The difference between the two groups is largely explained by the different rate at which the group members attended graduate school full time. Relatively few graduates in occupation-related majors went to graduate school full time. On the other hand, many arts and science graduates had taken preprofessional programs--such as prelaw and premedicine--or planned to enter occupations for which master's or doctorate degrees are usually required. A large proportion, therefore, were enrolled full time in graduate school at the time of the survey. Occupations of Employed Graduates Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-eight percent of the employed graduates in the civilian labor force worked in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales occupations, jobs that generally require a college degree for entry. Fifty-eight percent were in professional occupations, 13 percent, managerial; and 7 percent, nonretail sales.

Despite the decline in the number of job openings in teaching during the 1970's, elementary and secondary school teaching was by far the most common professional, managerial, and nonretail sales occupation, employing 13 percent of graduates. Eight percent of all graduates were accountants; 7 percent, engieers; 4 percent, registered nurses; 3 percent, computer specialists (programmers, systems analysts, and others); 3 percent, part-time teachers and research workers in colleges and universities (most of whom were graduate students); and 2 percent, social workers.

At least half of 1 percent of all employed graduates (or about 4,600) reported being in each of the following occupations: Advertising agent; bank officer; buyer; chemist; designer; drafter; editor and reporter; engineering and science technician; insurance agentf manufacturing and wholesale sales worker; manager in manufacturing; edical laboratory technician; pharmacist; public relations worker; retail trade sales manager; therapist; and writer, artist, and entertainer. Many other occupations were also mentioned; these are listed in the articles for specific majors. Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-two percent of the employed graduates worked in clerical (10 percent), service (5 percent), craft (2 percent), or retail sales occupations (2 percent), or as operatives, laborers, or farmers (1 percent each). Few jobs in these groups require a degree for entry, and few in these occupations indicated that a degree was required in order to obtain their job. Most of these graduates, therefore, can be considered underemployed, some by choice. For example, about 21 percent of these graduates were in graduate school; others preferred the job they had to ones that required a degree; still others liked a job they had as under-graduates and didn't apply for a different one.

Graduates of most occupation-related programs were more likely than average to be in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales occupations, (See chart 1.) Arts and science graduates (except for those in chemistry and mathematics) were less likely than average to have entered these occupations.

Overall, about 72 percent of arts and science graduates were in occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. While the proportion is lower than the average for all graduates, the information clearly shows that arts and science graduates were able to enter college-level jobs not only in teaching and other occupations related to their major but also in a range of other professional, managerial, and sales jobs in business and government.

As table 2 shows, the proportion of employed graduates holding jobs in an occupation related to their field of study was higher for graduates of occupation-related majors such as computer and information sciences and nursing. It was lower for many social science and liberal arts fields; in many of these fields, an advanced degree is required for entry. Comparison with the Class of 1977

The results of the two NCES surveys show the same overall patterns. The proportion employed was virtually unchanged. The unemployment rate declined slightly, even though the unemployment rate for all workers increased somewhat between the two periods. The proportion of graduates in occupations generally requiring a degree for entry increased from 72 to 78 percent. This may reflect the increasing proportion of graduates in occupation-specific majors like accounting and engineering, which provide better job prospects, rather than greater overall demand for graduates. Despite the overall increase, the proportion in college-level jobs declined among graduates in some fields of study. Among fields of study with large numbers of graduates, such as business and education, patterns of labor force participation and occupations entered were fairly close in both surveys. Among majors with relatively few graduates--agriculture and art, for example--patterns were quite different in 1981. It is possible that patterns did change radically. However, because of the small size of the sample for these majors (in some cases less than 100 people) much of the difference may actually be due to sampling error. Graduate Study

The following tabulation shows the graduate school status of all graduates: Almost all of the M.D. and law candidates were studying full time. More than half the education degree candidates, however, were studying part time (probably because they were employed full time as teachers); more than half of the business degree candidates also worked part time. Most students in other fields were studying full time.

A lower than average proportion of those with occupation-related degrees were enrolled in graduate school and an even lower proportion enrolled full time, probably because a bachelor's degree in these majors is adequate preparation for most positions in these fields. A much higher than average proportion of arts and science graduates were in graduate school, for reasons cited earlier. (See Table 3.) Job Satisfaction and Usefulness of Major

As table 4 shows, the degree of graduates' satisfaction with their jobs varies by major. In general, major fields where a high proportion of graduates entered occupations which required a degree, such as education and engineering, showed high job satisfaction. Those with a high proportion in jobs not requiring a degree were generally less satisfied.

The frequency with which graduates used the course content of their majors in their jobs also varied by field, as shown in table 5. As would be expected, those with career-related majors used their course content most. Nursing was highest; 89 percent said they frequently or almost always used the course content of their major on their jobs. Some, especially those with social science or liberal arts majors, said they rarely or never used the course content of their majors in their jobs. Sixty-eight percent of history majors and 63 percent of political science majors gave this response. LAbor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of accounting graduates:

Three percent of all the accounting graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school; 1 percent had family responsibilities; and 3 percent had other reasons. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Ninety-one percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs.

Seventy-six percent were accountants. Four percent were in other occupations related to accounting doing work closely related to their major (2 percent were computer speciliasts; 1 percent, credit managers; and 1 percent, graduate students teaching in colleges and universities part time).

Another 11 percent were in occupations not directly related to accounting. Their work was generally only somewhat or not at all related to their major. They were authors, bank officers, engineers, insurance agents, managers, and teachers.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Nine percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. Six percent were clerical workers--including the 4 percent of the employed graduates who were bookkeepers who said a degree was required to obtain their job. Two percent were service workers--1 percent being guards--and 1 percent were blue-collar workers.

Among all the graduates, about equal proportions were not in the labor force because they were waiting for a new job to start, were going to school, or were sick or disabled. Occupation of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-two percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs or were farm owners or managers. Almost all in these jobs said they were doing work closely or somewhat related to agriculture and natural resources.

Twenty percent of the graduates were managers and administrators who said their work was closely or somewhat related to their major. Eight percent were farm managers, owners, or tenant. Four percent were agriculatural scientists; 3 percent, farm management advisers; 3 percent, agricultural and biological technicians; and 2 percent, foresters and conservationists.

In addition, 18 percent of the employed graduates were managers; 8 percent, nnretail sales workers (including insurance and real estate agents and manufacturer's and wholesale sales workers); 5 percent, clinical laboratory tecnologists and technicians; 4 percent, accountants; and 2 percent, buyers. Fifteen percent of the employed graduates were in a variety of other occupations, such as bank officer, computer specialist, credit worker, construction inspector, dietitian, engineer, social worker, teacher, and urban planner. Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-eight percent of the employed graduates were in jobs not usually requiring a degree. Seven percent were in clerical occupations, 6 percent were nonfarm laborers, 5 percent were farm laborers, 3 percent were craft workers, 3 percent were service workers, 2 percent were operatives, and 2 percent were retail sales workers. Almost all the clerical workers said their work was not related to their major and all of these said they wanted a job related to their major. None said a college degree was necessary for their job. Most of the farm laborers as well as the nonfarm laborers said their work was closely related to their major; but, at the same time, most said a college degree was not necessary for their job. Few in any of the other occupations said a degree was necessary for their job. Most people in these jobs were probably underemployed. Some preferred their job to one requiring a degree; others took their job primarily to earn money while in school or because they couldn't find any other one.

Among all art graduates, 3 percent worked part time because they could not find full-tim work; 11 percent preferred to work part time. Also among all art graduates, 13 percent did not work because of family responsibilities, 10 percent were in school, and 2 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force. Occupation of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Sixty-one percent of the emloyed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales occupations.

Thirty-four percent were in art-related jobs, including 14 percent who were designers, all of whom said their works was closely related to their major, and 13 percent who were in the occupational category of writer, artist or entertainer. Most of the latter probably were artists. Four percent were drafters, who said their work was closely or somewhat related to their major. Two percent were working part time as art teachers in colleges and universities; they were probably graduate students. One percent were photographers.

Twenty-seven percent were in occupations inrelated to art. Twelve percent were managers or administrators. Fifteen percent were in other college-level occupations--agriculatural scientist, clinical laboratory technologist or technician, forester and conservationist, nonretail sales worker, research worker, therapist, and stock broker; few of these felt their work was related to their major. Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirty-nine percent of the employed graduates were in occupations which generally do not require a degree for entry. Twelve percent were craft workers--half said their work was somewhat or closely related to their majors and half said it was not. Nine percent were clerical workers; 8 percent, retail sales workers; 4 percent, laborers; 4 percent, in service occupations; and 2 percent, operatives. Very few in these occupations said a degree was required for entry. Some in these jobs preferred them to those that required a degree or had just kept the job they had before graduation. Many, however, were in them because they could not find a job requiring a degree.

The great majority of those working part time did not want full-time jobs. Among all graduates, about 26 percent were not in the labor force because they were in school, 2 percent did not want to work, and 4 percent had other reasons. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-seven percent of employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs or were farm owners and managers. Three percent were biological scientists, all in jobs closely or somewhat related to their major. That few were biological scientists is understandable, since most professional jobs in biology require an advanced degree. Two percent were agricultural scientists, which is closely related to biological science.

Eighteen percent were in health-related occupations--15 percent were clinical laboratory technologists and technicians or other health technologists and technicians; all reported that their work was closely or somewhat related to their major field of study. Three percent were in other health-related occupations--dental hygienist, health record technician, other health practitioner, radiation technician, and therapy assistant; all said their work was at least somewhat related to their major.

Fourteen percent were college teachers and research workers, most of whom worked part time. Most of these were graduate students. Seven percent were scientific or engineering technicians. Four percent were elementary and secondary school teachers, most of whom were middle, junior high, or senior high school teachers of biology or physical science. Three percent were chemists. And 12 percent were in other professional occupations including accountant, atmospheric and space scientist, other life and physical scientist, physicist, programmer, recreation worker, and social worker.

Six percent were in managerial jobs--public administration (government) inspectors, sales managers, and other managers. Six percent were in nonretail sales jobs--insurance agents and real estate agents, as well as manufacturers' and wholesale trade sales workers. Two percent were farm owners and managers. Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-three percent of the employed graduates were in jobs that do not usually require a college degree.

Twelve percent were in service occupations. Four percent of these were nursing aides and orderlies and others were practical nurses--both of which were somewhat related to biological science. Five percent were in clerical occupations; 4 percent, in blue-collar occupations; and 2 percent, in retail sales occupations. Few in any of these occupations said a degree was necessary for their job. However, many of the clerical workers said their work was somewhat related to their major. Most people in these jobs were probably underemployed. Over a third of those in these occupational groups were enrolled for an advanced degree. Some preferred these jobs to ones requiring a degree for entry, perhaps because they were in school; others could not find a job requiring a degree.

Among all the graduates, 5 percent were not in the labor force because they were in school, 1 percent did not want to work, 3 percent were in the military, and 1 percent had other reasons. Occupations of Employed Graduates Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-six percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs. Almost half were in jobs closely related to their major; most of the rest were in jobs somewhat related to their major.

Twenty-three percent were professional workers. Seven percent were accountants, most doing work closely related to their major. Four percent were computer specialists, and 2 percent were engineers. The other 2 percent were engineers. The other 10 percent reported a wide variety of occupations: College teacher, elementary and secondary school teacher, engineering and science technician, graduate teaching or research assistant in colleges and universities, operations research analyst, personnel worker, and public relations worker.

Thirty-three percent were managers. Five percent were sales managers or other managers in wholesale and retail trade. Two percent each were bank officers, buyers, or restaurant managers. The rest--22 percent--were managers in a wide variety of industries as well as assessors, building managers, credit officers, inspectors, public administration (government) officers, postmasters, and purchasing agents. Twenty percent were nonretail sales workers. (Among marketing and purchasing graduates--a subgroups of the business majors--32 percent were nonretail sales workers.) About 5 percent were wholesale trade sales workers; 4 percent, insurance agents; 3 percent, manufacturers' sales workers; and 8 percent, real estate, securities, and other sales workers. Occupations and generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-four percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a degree. Fourteen percent were clerical workers; however, in contrast to other graduates, most business graduates who were clerical workers said their work was closely or somewhat related to their major. Although a college degree is an entry requirement for only a very small prportion of all clerical jobs, more than a quarter of the business graduates in clerical jobs said a degree was required to obtain the job they held. Two percent were secretaries and about 2 percent were bookkeepers. Others were in the following occupations: bank teller, bill collector, cashier, clerical supervisor, computer operator, dispatcher, expediter and production controller, keypunch operator, mail handler, payroll and timekeeping clerk, receptionist, shipping and receiving clerk, and typist.

Five percent were blue-collar workers--craft workers, operatives, and laborers. A large proportion of these said a degree was reqired to obtain their job and many said their work was related to their major. Manay probably were in trainee positions for recent college graduates. The others were in jobs generally unrelated to their major that did not require a degree for entrance. Three percent were retail sales workers, and 2 percent were service workers.

Twenty-five percent of all chemistry graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school. Two percent were in the military, and 2 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force. None of the graduates working part time wanted full-time jobs; most were graduate students. Occupations of Employed Graduates Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Ninety-three percent of the employed graduates were in professional and managerial occupations.

Seventy-two percent were in chemistry -related jobs. Thiry-one percent were chemists; 29 percent were teachers and researchers in colleges and universities, mostly part-time, employed graduate students; 10 percent were engineering and science technicians; and 2 percent were chemical engineers.

Eleven percent were programmers, two-thirds of whom said their work was somewhat related to their major. Four percent were operations research analysts; 4 percent, clinical and other health technicians; and 2 percent, college administrators. Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Seven percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. Three percent were clerical workers; 2 percent were craft workers; and 2 percent were retail sales workers. All of the craft workers were blue-collar wokers supervisors who were doing work somewhat related to their major. Many were probably in trainee positions for recent college graduates. The other were not in jobs requiring a degree nor doing work related to their major; they probably were underemployed. Some took these jobs primarily to earn money while in school; others could not find a job requiring a degree. Communications Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of communications graduates:

About half the part-time workers wanted full-time jobs but could not find them. Among all communications graduates, 3 percent were not in the labor force because they were in school, 1 percent could not find work they desired, 1 percent were in the Armed Forces, and 3 percent had other reasons. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Sixty-seven percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, or nonretail sales occupations.

Twenty-nine percent were in communications-related occupations. Most reported doing work closely related to their major field of study. Nine percent were editors and reporters; 7 percent were advertising agents; 6 percent were public relations workers; 4 percent were classified as writers, artists, or entertainers (most of these probably were writers); 2 percent were photographers and 1 percent were radio announcers. Thirty-eight percent were in other professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs. Eight percent were managers, some of whom were in communications-related industries; most said their work was closely or somewhat related to their major. Six percent were nonretail sales workers, including manufacturers' sales workers; 3 percent, retail sales managers; 3 percent, designers; 2 percent, research workers; 2 percent, accountants; and 14 percent, in other professional and managerial occupations, such as airplane pilot, bank officer, coach and physical education teacher, dancer, and programmer.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Thirty-three percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. About 14 percent were in clerical jobs; the largest number were billing clerks, computer operators, expeditors and production controllers, and secretaries. Ten percent were in retail trade occupations; 5 percent were service workers, mostly waiters and waitresses; and 4 percent were in blue-collar jobs.

Some in clerical jobs reported that their work was somewhat related to their field of study, but most indicated no relationship and no need for a degree. Many said they took their job because they couldn't find one requiring a degree. Some took it primarily to earn money while in school or because they preferred it to jobs requiring a degree. Class of '80 Computer and Information Sciences Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of computer and information sciences graduates:

All computer and information sciences graduates who were not in the labor force were in the Armed Forces. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Ninety-seven percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales occupations, the highest proportion of the majors covered in this article. Furthermore, 86 percent were in jobs directly related to their majors; 42 percent, programmers; 17 percent, systems analysts; 14 percent, other computer specialists; 13 percent, engineers -- 6 percent were electrical engineers and 7 percent were other engineers, many of whom probably were computer engineers. Most of these graduates said their work was directly related to their majors. In addition, 2 percent were accountants; and 9 percent were in other professional, managerial, and nonretail sales occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Only 3 percent of the employed graduates were in occupations which do not usually require a college degree; all had clerical jobs. However, half of these said a college degree was required for their job and that their work was related to their major. Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of economics graduates:

Among all economics graduates, 16 percent were not in labor force because they were in school, 3 percent were in the Armed Forces, and 6 percent gave other reasons for not being in the labor force. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-four percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales occupations. Three percent were economists; this relatively small percentage is understandable because an advanced degree is required for most economist jobs. Another 2 percent were graduate students teaching economics part time in colleges and universities.

Sixty-nine percent were in other jobs, mostly business related, most of whose work was somewhat related to their major. Seven percent were computer specialists, 5 percent were local government assessors or financial officers, 4 percent each were insurance agents and restaurant managers, and 3 percent each were retail trade sales managers, real estate agents, and buyers. Nineteen percent were in a number of other occupations, including accountant, credit manager, nonretail sales worker, political scientist, public administration (government) official, recreation worker, research worker, and statistician. Sixteen percent were managers other than those listed above.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-six percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. Seventeen percent were clerical workers--bank tellers, cashiers, file clerks, secretaries, and teacher aides. Some were doing work they said was somewhat related to their major but almost all were in jobs they said did not require a degree for entry. Six percent were retail sales workers and 3 percent were operatives.

Most graduates in jobs that did not require a degree for entry probably took them primarily to earn money while in school. Class of '80

Education

(Except Physical Education) Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of education (except physical education) graduates:

More than one-third of those working part time (less than 35 hours a week) said their job was full time. Most of the others wanted a full-time position but could not find one. Three percent of all education (except physical education) graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, 2 percent had family responsibilities, and 2 percent had other reasons. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Eighty-six percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs.

Seventy percent were elementary and secondary school teachers--over half, preschool and elementary; one-fourth, secondary; and the rest, at both levels. (Six percent of the employed graduates were part-time teachers, two-thirds of whom could not find satisfactory full-time work.) Almost all were doing work closely related to their major. Three percent taught at other levels--2 percent were college and university teachers (mostly graduate students working part time), and 1 percent were adult education and other teachers.

Three percent were managers and 10 percent were in a great number of other occupations, such as the following: Accountant, bank officer, computer specialist, engineer, engineering and science technician, health administrator, insurance agent, manufacturers' sales worker, personnel worker, public relations worker, registered nurse, retail trade sales manager, school administrator, social worker, and therapist.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Fourteen percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a degree.

Eight percent were clerical workers. Two percent were teacher aides who reported doing work closely related to their major, although a degree was not needed to obtain their job. Two percent were secretaries. Four percent were in other occupations, including bank teller, bookkeeper, cashier, duplicating machine operator, and receptionist.

Three percent were service workers; 2 percent, blue-collar workers; and 1 percent, retail sales workers.

Few of these jobs required a degree; most of these workers were underemployed. About a quarter of the education graduates employed in these occupational groups were enrolled for an advanced degree. Some of the underemployed graduates preferred their jobs to ones requiring a degree; many others, however, could not find a job requiring a degree. Engineering Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of engineering graduates:

Most of those with part-time jobs did not want full-time work. Almost half of the graduates not in the labor force were in school. Others were waiting to begin a new job or had other reasons for not being in the labor force. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Ninety-six percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs; of the college majors discussed in this article, only computer and information sciences had a higher proportion of graduates in these occupations. Seventy-seven percent were engineers; about three-fourths of them said their work was closely related to their major field of study, and one-fourth said it was somewhat related.

Nineteen percent of the employed graduates were in other professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs. Of these, half said their work was closely related to their major field of study; most of the rest said it was somewhat related. Four percent were managers in the manufacturing and construction industries. Three percent were computer specialists, and 2 percent were engineering technicians. Ten percent were in a variety of other occupations--airplane pilot, chemist, college teacher and research worker (mostly graduate students), nonretail salesworker, radiation technician, stock broker, and therapist.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. About 4 percent of the employed graduates were clerical or blue-collar workers or were farmers. Although the majority of jobs in these groups do not require a degree for entry, many said their jobs were somewhat related to their major.

Two percent of the employed graduates were in blue-collar occupations--operative, craft worker, or laborer. One percent were farmers, and 1 percent were clerical workers--estimators and investigators or expediters and production controllers, jobs likely to be trainee positions for recently hired graduates.

Of those who took jobs not requiring a degree, some did so to earn money while in school, some because the experience was good. In contrast to graduates in many other fields, hardly any engineering graduates reported that they were unable to find a job requiring a degree. Class of '80 English Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of English graduates:

Over two-thirds of the graduates working part time preferred part-time employment. Ten percent gave school as their reason for not being in the labor force, 3 percent had family responsibilities, and 5 percent had other reasons. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-four percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs.

Forty percent were in occupations related to English, and most graduates in these occupations said their work was closely related to their major. Twenty-six percent were elementary and secondary school teachers. Most were secondary school English teachers; some were reading, foreign langauge, or social science teachers. Five percent were college teachers of research workers; most were graduate students working part time. Four percent each were advertising agents and public relations workers, and 1 percent were writers and editors.

Thirty-four percent were in occupations generally only somewhat or not related to their major. Four percent were school administrators, 3 percent were in various writer, artist, and entertainer positions; and 2 percent were insurange agents. The remaining twenty-five percent were in a variety of other occupations, such as accountant, advertising agent, archivist, clergy, computer programmer, engineer, engineering and science technician, insurance agent, photographer, and radio announcer.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-six percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. However, about a quarter of those surveyed said a degree was required to obtain their job; and some said they were doing work somewhat related to English. Twenty-two percent were clerical workers--9 percent were secretaries; others were bookkeepers, cashiers, insurance adjusters, stock clerks, and teacher aides. Three percent were in service occupations--practical nurses, sheriffs, and bailiffs--and 1 percent were retail sales workers.

Most in these jobs probably were underemployed. Some were enrolled in graduate school and probably took their job primarily to earn money while in school. About half said they took their job because they preferred it to one requiring a degree; the other half couldn't find a job requiring a degree. History Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of history graduates:

None of those working part time wanted a full-time job; most were in school. Among all graduates, 17 percent were not in the labor force because they were in school, 3 percent did not want to work, 4 percent were in the military, and 5 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Fifty-eight percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs. None were historians, which is understandable since an advanced degree is required to enter most jobs in the occupation.

Elementary and secondary school teaching was the largest single occupation entered, with 11 percent of the employed graduates. Many taught social studies; most teachers said their work was closely related to their major. Six percent were employed graduate students, teaching or doing research related to their history major in colleges and universities part time.

The rest of the employed graduates said their work was only somewhat or not at all related to their major. Six percent were law clerks, legal researchers, or lawyers, 6 percent, real estate agents; and 3 percent, insurance agents. Twenty-six percent were in a variet of other college-level occupations, including accountant, bank officer, chemical technician, college and university administrator, manager, manufacturers' sales worker, wholesale trade sales worker, public administration (government) official, restaurant manager, retail trade sales manager, and social worker.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Forty-two percent of the employed graduates were in jobs that do not usually require a college degree. Few in these jobs said they were doing work at all related to their major, and few needed a degree to obtain their job.

Twenty-two percent were clerical workers, including bank tellers, bookkeepers, clerical supervisors, secretaries, and miscellaneous clerical workers.

Ten percent were in service occupations. Five percent were waiters and waitresses, and the rest were cooks, recreation and amusement attendants, and school monitors. Four percent were operatives, 3 percent were in retail sales occupations, 2 percent were farmers, and 1 percent were laborers.

Almost half of history graduates in these occupational groups were enrolled for an advanced degree. Most of the rest were not in school and were in these occupations because they could not find a job requiring a degree. Home Economics Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of home economics graduates:

Among home economics graduates who worked part time, almost three-fourths did so because they could not find full-time work. Among all the graduates, 5 percent were not in the labor force because of family responsibilities, 5 percent were in school, and 6 percent had other reasons for not being in the labor force. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Seventy-eight percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales occupations.

Forty-five percent were in occupations related to home economics; almost all reported doing work closely related to their major. Fourteen percent were buyers, and 13 percent were dietitians. Six percent were preschool teachers; 6 percent, home economics teachers; 4 percent, retail trade managers; 4 percent, restaurant managers; and 4 percent, designers.

Thirty-three percent were in occupations not directly related to home economics, although some said their work was somewhat related to their major. Twelve percent were managers and administrators; 4 percent were wholesale trade sales workers. Seventeen percent were in a number of other occupations, including accountant, social scientist, insurance agent, research worker, and stock broker.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-two percent of the employed graduates were in other occupations, few of which require a degree for entry; only a few of these graduates were doing work related to home economics. Twelve percent were clerical workers--8 percent were secretaries, and others were receptionists and statistical clerks. Eight percent were service workers--6 percent, cooks and 2 percent, child care workers. Two percent were in retail sales occupations. Many were in these occupations because they could not find a job requiring a degree; others preferred them to ones requiring a degree.

Mathematics Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of mathematics graduates:

The great majority of those working part time preferred to do so. Fourteen percent of all mathematics graduates not in the labor force were in school, 8 percent were in the military and 3 percent had other reasons. Occupations at Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Ninety-three percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs.

Sixty-one percent were in mathematics-related occupations. Twenty-six percent were computer specialists--programmers, systems analysts, and other computer specialists. Over half reported that their work was closely related to their major field of study, and the rest reported that it was somewhat related. Eighteen percent were graduate students teaching mathematics or doing research in colleges and universities part time. Eleven percent were secondary school mathematics teachers; and 6 percent were mathematicians, statisticians, or actuaries, all doing work closely related to their major.

Thirty-two percent were in occupations not directly related to mathematics. However, many said there was some relationship between their work and their major. Sixteen percent were engineers, most reporting that their work was somewhat related to mathematics. Four percent each were accountants or managers. Eight percent were in a variety of other occupations, including engineering and science technician, nonretail sales worker, teacher other than those listed above, and writer, artist, or entertainer.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Only 7 percent of the employed graduates were in jobs that do not usually require a college degree. Five percent were clerical workers, mostly cashiers and computer operators, and two percent were operatives.

Nursing Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of nursing graduates:

All of those working part time preferred part-time work. Among all nursing graduates, 3 percent were not in the labor force because of family responsibilities, and 2 percent were in school. Occupations of Employed Graudates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Ninety-four percent of the employed graduates were in professional and managerial occupations. Eighty-six percent were in health-related occupations; and the large majority, 83 percent, were registered nurses. Two percent were health technologists, technicians, and therapists, and 1 percent were health administrators.

Eight percent were in other occupations, most of whom also reported doing work closely related to their major. Two percent were accountants, and 6 percent were in other professional, managerial, and nonretail sales occupations.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Six percent of all graduates were in occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. However, 2 percent were nursing aides and orderlies, all of whom said their work was closely related to their major. Two percent were practical nurses. In addition, 2 percent were clerical workers--mostly secretaries--who said their work was not related to their major.

Physical Education Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of physical education graduates:

Over half of the physical education graduates working part time (less than 35 hours a week) did so because they could not find full-time work, and almost a quarter were in jobs classified as full time even though they worked less than 35 hours a week. Most of these probably were teachers. Four percent of the graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, and 5 percent had other reasons for not working. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree of entry. Seventy-seven percent of employed physical education graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs.

Fifty-three percent were school teachers. Most taught physical education; many taught health; and some taught biological sciences, social sciences, physical sciences, or one of several other subjects. In some cases, more than one subject was taught.

Six percent were in other occupations closely related to their major. Three percent were college coaches and physical education teachers, 2 percent were recreation workers, and 1 percent were athletes.

Eighteen percent were in occupations only somewhat or not at all related to their major, including accountant, bank officer, elementary and secondary school administrator, engineer, engineering and science technician, insurance agent, manager in retail trade, nonretail sales worker, personnel worker, psychologist, real estate agent, sociologist, social worker, therapist, and vocational and educational counselor.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Twenty-three percent of the employed graduates were in occupations for which a degree is not generally required. Eight percent were clerical workers--bank tellers, cashiers, messengers, secretaries, teacher aides, and others. Five percent were service workers, including nursing aides and orderlies, personal service attendants, police officers, and waiters and waitresses. Four percent were craft workers; 3 percent, laborers; 2 percent, operatives; and 1 percent, retail sales workers.

Only about half said they were in these jobs because they could not find ones requiring a degree; some took them primarily to earn money while in school, and others preferred them to ones requiring a degree.

Political Science Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of political science graduates:

More than half the part-time workers did not seek full-time work. School was the major reason for not being in the labor force, it being the explanation given by 20 percent graduates. Four percent of the graduates were waiting to start a new job, and 3 percent had a variety of other reasons for not being in the labor force. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree of entry. Fifty-four percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs. Over half said their jobs were not related to their major. None of the graduates were political scientists, which is understanble since an advanced degree is usually required to enter this occupation. Seven percent were research workers, most of whom said their work was related to their major; about a third of these were employed graduate students. Another 7 percent were managers; about half of these were in wholesale and retail trade. Five percent were elementary and secondary school teachers, although more than half were substitute teachers. Four percent were restaurant managers; 4 percent, stock brokers; 3 percent, wholesale trade sales workers; 3 percent, buyers; 3 percent, credit managers; 2 percent, engineers; and 2 percent, social workers. Fourteen percent were in a variety of other professional, managerial and nonretail trade occupations including accountant, college and university administrator, insurance agent, librarian, nonretail sales worker, public relations worker, real estate agent, recreation worker, retail trade sales manager, and vocational and educational counselor.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Forty-six percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that usually do not require a college degree. In fact, very few in these jobs reported that a degree was required to obtian their job, and few said there was any relationship between their work and their major.

Thirty percent were clerical workers, including bookkeepers, cashiers, clerical assistants, computer operators, file clerks, library attendants and assistants, mail handlers, secretaries, and telephone operators. Eight percent were service workers--4 percent were waiters and waitresses, 2 percent were janitors, and others were bartenders, food counter workers, and guards. Three percent were retail sales workers, 2 percent were operatives, and 1 percent each were craft workers, laborers, and farmers.

Most people in these jobs probably were underemployed. About a quarter of all political science graduates in these occupational groups were enrolled for an advanced degree; and a substantial proportion of those in these occupations--especially service workers--did not want a job requiring a degree. Some, however, took these jobs because they couldn't find jobs requiring a college degree.

Psychology Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of psychology graduates:

About one-third of the part-time workers wanted full-time jobs but could not find them. Eleven percent of all psychology graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, 4 percent had family responsibilities, and 5 percent had a variety of other reasons. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Sixty-seven percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs.

Only 2 percent reported being psychologists. This is not surprising, since an advanced degree is required for almost all jobs in the occupation. However, about 13 percent were college teachers and researchers--most of these were graduate students teaching and doing research part time. Eight percent were social workers, and 7 percent were managers and administrators in health and welfare services, retail trade, and other industries.

Five percent were elementary and secondary school teachers. Most were secondary school teachers and over a quarter were substitute teachers. Three percent were computer specialists; 3 percent were retail sales managers; and 2 percent each were therapists, editors and reporters, and photographers.

About 20 percent were in a wide variety of other occupations. Most were only somewhat or not related to psychology. The following were among the occupations mentioned by responsdents: Advertising agent; college and university administrator; engineering and science technician; librarian; personnel worker; pharmacist; physicist; public relations worker; registered nurse; religious worker; vocational and educational counselor; writer, artist or entertainer; and insurance, manufacturers', or wholesale trade sales worker.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. The remaining employed graduates, about 33 percent, were in occupations that do not usually require a degree degree. And, in fact, the great majority in them reported that a degree was not required for entry; most indicated that their work was unrelated to psychology.

Twenty percent were clerical workers--5 percnet were secretaries; 4 percent, teacher aides; 2 percent, cashiers; 2 percent computer operators, and 7 percent in other clerical occupations.

Eight percent were service workers including hairdressers and cosmetologists, waiter and waitresses, and others. Three percent were retail sales workers, and 2 percent were blue-collar workers. Most people in these jobs were probably underemployed.

About 30 percent of psychology graduates in these occupational groups were enrolled for an advanced degree, and many said they did not want a job requiring a degree, probably because they were earning money while in school. However, many others could not find a job requiring a degree.

Sociology Labor Force Status

The following tabulation summarizes the labor force status of sociology graduates:

Eight percent of all sociology graduates were not in the labor force because they were in school, 2 percent were in the Armed Forces, and 7 percent gave a variety of other reasons for not being in the labor force. Occupations of Employed Graduates

Occupations generally requiring a degree for entry. Fifty-five percent of the employed graduates were in professional, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs. None were sociologists, which is understandable since an advanced degree is usually required to enter the occupation.

However, about 15 percent were social workers, and 4 percent were part-time college teachers or research workers attending graduate school. Most in these occupations said their work was closely related to their major. Three percent were computer programmers, and 3 percent were college and university administrators.

Thirty percent were in a variety of other college-level jobs, all only somewhat or not related to their major, including accountant, clergy, elementary and secondary school teacher, forester and conservationist, manager, nonretail sales worker, and registered nurse.

Occupations not generally requiring a degree for entry. Forty-five percent of the employed graduates were in occupations that do not usually require a college degree. Twenty-nine percent were clerical workers, including bank tellers, bookkeepers, expediters and production controllers, secretaries, and teacher aides. Nine percent were service workers--including child care workers, cooks, police officers, and waiters and waitresses. Four percent were craft workers, and 3 percent were retail sales workers. Most people in these jobs were probably underemployed.

About a quarter of all sociology graduates in these occupational groups were enrolled for an advanced degree, and about half said they did not want a job requiring a degree. However, the rest in these jobs couldn't find a job requiring a degree.
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Author:Braddock, Douglas; Hecker, Daniel E.
Publication:Occupational Outlook Quarterly
Date:Jun 22, 1984
Words:8589
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