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The Canadian Light Source: Progress and Prospects.

The Canadian Light Source (CLS), the national synchrotron facility, is currently under construction on the edge of the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon, SK (see Figure 1). Beginning in 2004, approximately 30 very intense beams of synchrotron light (SL) (which includes far IR, IR, visible, UV, through the soft and hard X-ray regions) will be generated. These beams will be very important research tools for over 400 Canadian researchers who now travel to foreign synchrotron sources to be competitive in many scientific disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, surface science, and biochemistry.

The CLS will also be critical to the development of many industrial sectors, such as pharmaceutical, biotechnology, mining, environmental, agriculture, materials and coatings, petrochemical, medical research and imaging, semiconductors and micromachining.

Indeed, the CLS will have a unique focus among international synchrotron facilities, with a strong commitment to private-public partnerships and services to industrial users, as well as the traditional focus on innovative academic research. The diverse composition of the CLS Inc. Board of Directors and the vision and mission statements reflect the importance of this unique focus (see below).

After a brief history of the development of SL research and its associated community in Canada, I will summarize the progress on the development of the CLS facility in the last 18 months and then highlight some of the scientific and industrial programs that are presently being defined.

Brief History

The construction of the CLS is the culmination of a 25-year effort by a large number of scientists. A Canadian synchrotron facility was first proposed by Bill McGowan, Director of the Centre for Chemical Physics at the University of Western Ontario (UWO) in the early 1970s, using a design from Roger Servranckx of the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) [1]. In 1976, when a National Research Council (NRC) committee, chaired by Paul Redhead of NRC, considered the proposal for this synchrotron facility, the user community was considered too small and the NRC committee rejected the proposal, However, in 1978 an NRC application for a soft X-ray beamline for the Tantalus synchrotron at the University of Wisconsin, Madison was successful, and resulted in the formation of the Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility (CSRF). This beamline commenced operation in 1981, and over the next 18 years, the CSRF was under the direction of Mike Bancroft, FCIC (UWO), and Norman Sherman of NRC. Currently, CSRF is managed by T.K. S ham, MCIC (UWO) and Walter Davidson of NRC. The CSRF has shown significant growth over the last 20 years. It now includes three soft X-ray beamlines (covering the energy range of 20 eV to 4000 eV) leading to about 40 reviewed publications per year over the last decade from a diverse user community from mainly chemistry, geology and physics departments [2,3].

With the formation of the Canadian Institute for Synchrotron Radiation (CISR) in 1990 (initiated by Bruce Bigham, AECL), there began a concentrated scientific and lobbying effort to fund both a Canadian national synchrotron facility and to gain access to dedicated U.S. beamlines. For example, the CISR supported several Canadian initiatives at synchrotrons in the U.S.; Mark Sutton and Darryl Crozier at the APS; Adam Hitchcock at the ALS; and Alice Vrielink and Eastern Canadian protein crystallographers at Brookhaven. After a great deal of effort by many, many people (for the later history, see my CISR President's Report at www.cisr.ca/reports/pres_rep_199906. html), funding of 40% ($56.4 million) of the CLS project ($140.9 million) was announced on March 31, 1999, by the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI). This dream of the CLS would not have been realized if it was not for the major scientific drivers within the chemistry community in Canada [4-6] (i.e., Ron Cavell, FCIC of the University of Alberta, Ada m Hitchcock, FCIC of McMaster University, T.K. Sham, MCIC of UWO, and myself), the strong support from NSERC presidents, staff and committees, and Dennis Skopik and his colleagues at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL). Dennis Skopik and his SAL team, with support from the University of Saskatchewan (such as the former president, Ceorge Ivany), the Province of Saskatchewan, Western Economic Diversification and local Saskatoon politicians, did an incredible job in developing the written final proposals and identifying $65.6 million of the required $84.5 million matching money. As the March 31, 1999, press announcement from Saskatoon said: "The CLS represents an unprecedented level of collaboration among governments, Universities and Industry in Canada." In addition to the U of S, 18 Canadian universities endorsed the CLS project on behalf of the (then) 300 users of synchrotron light in Canada (see www.cls.usask.ca/cls/partners/index.shtml).

The U of S had allotted design money for the $173 million CLS project in 1998 and hired an excellent project management team from Underwood, MeLellan & Associates Limited (UMA) to work with the SAL staff. This strategic planning enabled the project to get off to a very quick start.

The purpose of this article is to give a progress report on the CLS, with an emphasis on what types of science will be conducted in the future. More details on the CLS can be found in my report to the 3rd CLS Users' Meeting on November 18, 2000 (see www.cls.usdsk.ca/cls/media/meeting2.shtml).

Progress at CLS

This is the largest scientific project (both in size of the facility and cost) in Canada in at least the last 30 years. CLS Inc. (CLSI) has been incorporated as a not-for-profit corporation, wholly owned by the U of S, to carry out the national mandates in synchrotron research and development.

Partly because of the strategic planning by the U of S mentioned above, the progress in the last 18 months has been quite remarkable. The immense new building (84 m x 83 m in area and 20 m high at the centre, see Figures 1 and 2) is nearing completion: the roofing, siding, 730 concrete piles, 30 cm thick concrete floor, heating and ventilation, and offices will be finished by January 2001. The CLS project is on time and on budget as I write this article.

What goes into this building? A scale drawing is shown in Figure 2. 250 MeV electrons from the existing refurbished linac (Figure 2, pink) are transferred to the booster ring (Figure 2, green) in which the electron energy is increased to 2.9 GeV. These high-energy electrons are then transferred to the storage ring (Figure 2, blue). This storage ring [170 meteres in circumference and designed by Les Dallin and the SAL staff, who also designed and built the EROS (Electron Ring of Saskatchewan) ring in the 1980s] has 12-fold symmetry, with two large dipole bending magnets (and other focusing magnets) and one straight section in each of the 12 "cells". Bending of the electrons by each of the 24 bending magnets (and up to 10 insertion devices in 10 of the 12 straight sections) results in emission of over 30 intense beams of synchrotron light (SL) with remarkable properties. The two most important properties are: SL covers the whole upper half of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the far IR to the hard X-ray; and all energies have incredibly high intensity and brightness (Figure 3). These laser-like beams will be monochromatized and focused by beamlines (Figure 2, red) to over 30 experimental stations at the end of the beamlines.

All of the required new money ($84.5 million to match the CFI $56.4 million) has now been identified (and contracts have been signed in most cases) from federal and provincial organizations, universities and industry. This money enables the CLS to build at least six beamlines mandated by the CFI, and provides capitalized salaries until January 2004. The existing linac is being refurbished and will be operating by spring of next year. The booster ring has been ordered, will be installed next fall, and is due to he turned on by the end of 2001. The dipole magnets for the main storage ring have already been ordered, and will be delivered in less than a year. The storage ring is scheduled to turn on in early 2003. The beamlines are in the early planning stages (see below), and at least six beamlines are due to begin operation by January 2004.

Obviously, the quality of the CLS staff is critical in a large multi-faceted project such as the CLS. The 25 staff from the old Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL) were, and still are, critical for the design and construction of the booster ring, storage ring and the transfer lines shown in Figure 2. In addition, this staff includes an excellent core group with expertise in electronics, mechanical and electrical engineering, beamlines, and ultra-high vacuum (UHV) fabrication. In the last 15 months, over 20 talented staff have been hired in other critical areas: beamline design, insertion devices, administration, marketing and industrial liaison. For example, six beamline scientists have been hired to coordinate the design and construction of the first seven beamlines: three Canadians who have worked many years on beamline development in the U.S., and one U.S. citizen and one Russian citizen working in the U.S., both of whom have many years of synchrotron experience (see Table 1).

It is also important to note that the well-known engineering firm, UMA, has several employees (three full-time) handling the project management, (e.g., coordinating the building construction, as well as the detailed schedules and budgets for all project functions.)

A number of external committees (in addition to several internal CLS design, technical and management committees) were formed by September 1999 to advise, monitor and oversee the project: the CLSI Board chaired by the president of NRC, Arthur Carty; the President's Committee, chaired by the U of S president, Peter MacKinnon; the Partnership Committee chaired by U of S vice-president research, Michael Corcoran; the CLS Business Committee, chaired by U of S vice-president administration, Tony Whitworth; the Beamline Planning and Advisory Committee (BPAC) (members from the CLSI staff and the beamline teams) chaired by Mike Bancroft; the Users' Advisory Committee (UAC) (currently chaired by Don Baker, McGill University and as of January 1, 2001, Kathy Cough, University of Manitoba); the Review Oversight Committee (ROC) chaired by John Tse of NRC; and the Facility Advisory Committee (FAC) chaired by Alex McAuley, University of Victoria. Obviously, the University of Saskatchewan is taking its role of owner of CLS Inc. very seriously; and the ROC and FAC, with many international experts, have been critical to monitor and evaluate the technical progress of the facility, and to evaluate beamline proposals. The BPAC and UAC are important to help define many user policies and to maintain good communication between the CLS and the many users.

Development of the Scientific and Industrial Program

Because of the very high intensity of SL in the IR, UV and X-ray region, almost every experiment or process using these energies can be dramatically enhanced using SL compared to any traditional laboratory source. The chemistry community in Canada, in particular, realized the importance of SL by the early 1990s and many beamline groups began to form after several workshops in the 1990s.

The $140.9 million budget for the CLS project includes $45.6 million for beamlines and endstations. A call for beamline proposals was made in the summer of 1999, with letters of intent due October 1, 1999. Proposals for nine beamlines were submitted by February 2000, and these were reviewed by the FAC in April 2000. The FAC recommended that two new beamlines be built (an extra IR beamline, and a dedicated EXAFS line); and recommended that the seven beamlines 1-7 (Table 1) be built. These beamlines span the entire useful energy range of SL - the far IR (#1, Table 1), the IR (#2, 3), the soft X-ray region (beamlines #4, 5 from CSRF in Madison) and the hard X-ray region (beamlines #6, 7). A diagnostic line (#8) will also be built to monitor the electron beam characteristics in the storage ring. Four beamlines (#9, 10, 11, 12) were not recommended to go forward in the April 2000 FAC meeting; but it is likely that the first three of these will go forward after the November 2000 meeting of the FAC committee. It is expected that the X-ray microprobe line (#12) and two new beamlines (small molecule crystallography, coordinated by Jim Britten, MCIC, and soft X-ray emission spectroscopy coordinated by Alex Moewes) will be reviewed by the FAC in the next year (see footnote to Table 1). Over 150 scientists (mostly academics) from all across Canada are involved in these beamline proposals, along with CLS beamline scientists to coordinate the design and construction. The majority of the project leaders are chemists from Universities or NRC laboratories. More technical details of these beamlines are available on the CLS website (see www.cls.usask.ca/cls/research/beamline.shtml). Please contact me or the project leader(s) to find out more about the beamline projects and/or to get involved.

SL is essential for all these studies. For example, IR imaging on biological and industrial samples can be performed now at synchrotrons with 3 to 5 [micro]m resolution compared to 30 [micro]m available with a laboratory source. Single crystal diffraction can be obtained on much smaller crystals, and at much better atomic resolution than with laboratory sources. Indeed, all protein crystallographers (over 30 groups in Canada now) must go to a synchrotron source in order to be competitive, and a significant fraction (10% to 20%) of small crystals from all chemistry and geology departments will probably require the CLS for structure determination. Soft X-ray surface science techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are enhanced dramatically (e.g., the surface sensitivity can be enhanced by an order of magnitude from [sim]50 A to [sim]5 A), and other resonance techniques are being developed which are not possible with single or double energy laboratory sources. The X-ray imaging techniques, with scann ing transmission and photoemission X-ray microscopes and the X-ray microprobe, are simply not available in the laboratory because they require intense continuous X-ray sources. These techniques are becoming essential for many surface, polymer, mineralogical and high pressure investigations.

In addition to the above areas, groups are now forming to initiate a medical research and imaging beamline and a MEMS (micro-electrical mechanical systems)/lithography beamline. At recent workshops in Saskatoon, Professor J. Chikawa from Spring-8 in Japan, and Professor W. Thomlinson from ESRF in Grenoble, France, showed remarkable improvements in imaging techniques for angiography, mammography and bronchography. The latter two techniques show great promise for early detection of breast cancer and lung cancer, respectively.

The mission and vision statements (Table 2) show that industrial use and development is an important part of the mandate of the CLS. Already, the CLS has hired a marketing leader and an industrial research scientist. A senior financial and administrative officer has been seconded from the U of S to develop a detailed business plan and to handle contracts. The industrial business must begin now at foreign SL sources to build the business toward the opening of CLS in 2004. Already, exciting results have been obtained with mining companies (e.g., Cameco, Cogema, Cominco) and oil companies (such as Esso and Chevron). Contracts are being negotiated with several companies for future work in the mine tailings, oil additive, and protein crystallography areas. The beamline teams are also running many applied and industrial samples at U.S. synchrotrons. For example, biological and industrial IR samples are being examined by several of the IR groups at an IR beamline at Brookhaven; at least ten Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) scientists have gone to U.S. synchrotrons to examine a wide range of geological and environmental samples of interest to clients; Adam Hitchcock (FCIC) has done a good deal of spectroscopic and spectromicroscopy work on pesticide proteins with the Canadian Forestry Institute in Sault Ste. Marie; and several of the protein crystallographers are obtaining protein crystal structures for Canadian industries.

The 3rd Annual CLS Users' meeting and three associated workshops were held in Saskatoon on November 17 and 18, 2000. The UAC committee organized all of the sessions, and they should be congratulated for an outstanding program. Over 170 scientists attended (over 140 from outside Saskatoon, and close to 30 industrial participants). The very large attendance, more than double compared to last year, certainly demonstrated the great Canadian scientific interest in the CLS. The sight of the almost completed building, and the exciting proposed research certainly raised the enthusiasm level of the attendees. The three workshops were entitled: 1) 'Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy' organized by Adam Hitchcock; 2) 'Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy' organized by Tom Ellis; and 3) 'Femtosecond Lasers at the CLS: X-ray Diffraction' organized by Paul Corkum and Dwayne Miller. The programs for the Users' Meeting and all three workshops are on the CLS website, www.cls.usask.ca/cls/media/meeting.2.shtml, and the overheads of the talks can be found on the above site and at http://unicom.mcmaster.ca/beamlines/SMW4-report/SMW4report-web.html.

Over the last few months, the CLS has been pleased to host visits by prominent politicians and scientists (e.g., Jean Chretien; Preston Manning; Alan Bernstein, president of Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR); Tom Brzustowski, president of NSERC; and Arthur Carty, FCIC, president of NRC). All visitors are really quite amazed by the immensity of the facility, but more importantly they are excited by the scientific and industrial potential of the CLS.

G.M. Bancroft, FCIC, is the director of the Canadian Light Source at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.

References

(1.) Bancroft, G.M., and P.W.M. Jacobs, 'Some Reasons Why Canadian Scientists Should Have Their Own Synchrotron', Science Forum, Dec. 1975, pp. 21-23.

(2.) Bancroft, G.M., K.H. Tan and J.D. Bozek, 'The Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility - A Powerful UV-Soft X-ray Source', Physics in Canada, 43:113-120, July 1987.

(3.) Bancroft, G.M., 'New Developments in Far UV, Soft X-ray Research at the Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility', Chemistry in Canada, 44:15-22, 1992.

(4.) Hitchcock, A.P., and G.M. Bancroft, 'A Unique, Rapidly Developing Tool for Chemical Research', Chemistry in Canada, 43:16-20, 1991.

(5.) Hitchcock, A.P., 'Synchrotron Radiation has Research Potential in all Chemical Areas', Canadian Chemical News, 44:9-12, 1992.

(6.) Hitchcock, A.P., and J.J. Neville, 'Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemistry and Physics', Physics in Canada, 55:191198, 1999.
 Canadian Light Source
 Beamlines (as of November 2000)
 Beamline Project Source Energy Range
1 High Res. Far Infrared Spectroscopy BM 0.01 - 0.13 eV
2 Infrared Spectromicroscopy BM 0.08 - 0.8 eV
3 Infrared Spectromicroscopy BM 0.08 - 0.8 eV
4 CSRF SGM U 0.22 - 1.9 keV
5. Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy EPU 0.2 - 2.0 keV
6. Protein Crystallography SG-U 6.5 - 18 keV
7 General Purpose XAFS W 5 - 40 keV
8. Facility Diagnostic BM - (white)
9. CSRF PGM U 5 - 250 eV
10. CSRF DCM BM 1.7 - 5.5 keV
11. General purpose Diffraction W 4-40 keV
12. X-ray Micro-probe/Diffraction SG-U 4-40 keV
 Beamline Project Project Leader
1 High Res. Far Infrared Spectroscopy Robert McKellar, Tom Ellis
2 Infrared Spectromicroscopy Mike Jackson, Tom Ellis
3 Infrared Spectromicroscopy Farid Bensebaa, Tom Ellis
4 CSRF SGM TK Sham
5. Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy Adam Hitchcock
6. Protein Crystallography Louis Delbaere
7 General Purpose XAFS DeTong Jiang
8. Facility Diagnostic Jack Bergstrom
9. CSRF PGM TK Sham
10. CSRF DCM TK Sham
11. General purpose Diffraction John Tse
12. X-ray Micro-probe/Diffraction Don Baker
 Beamline Project CLS Coordinator
1 High Res. Far Infrared Spectroscopy T. May
2 Infrared Spectromicroscopy T. May
3 Infrared Spectromicroscopy T. May
4 CSRF SGM I. Coulthard
5. Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy K. Kaznacheyev
6. Protein Crystallography P. Grochulski
7 General Purpose XAFS D. Jiang
8. Facility Diagnostic J. Bergstrom
9. CSRF PGM J. Cutler, K. Tan
10. CSRF DCM E. Hallin
11. General purpose Diffraction D. Jiang
12. X-ray Micro-probe/Diffraction D. Jiang


BM = bending magnet; U = linear undulator; SG-U = small gap undulator; EPU = elliptically polarized undulator; W = wiggler

* These beamline projects were reviewed by the Facility Advisory Committee in April 2000. Based on their advice, the Board of Directors has approved funding for the 7 projects indicated in bold. Further review is in progress for the remaining four beamlines.

* Two additional letters of intent were received on October 2, 2000 [small molecule crystallography (Jim Britten), and soft X-ray spectroscopy (A. Moewes)]. These have been reviewed by CLS Management and the BPAC, and have been presented to the President's Committee, a submission of full proposals are due on May 10, 2001, and they will be reviewed by the FAC in summer 2001.

Canadian Light Source Vision and Mission Statements

Canadian Light Source Vision Statement

To advance Canadian scientific and industrial capabilities by operating the Canadian Light Source facility as the national synchrotron research and development centre of excellence.

Canadian Light Source Mission

* To become the recognized national centre of excellence and repository of academic and operational expertise in synchrotron science and technical applications.

* To demonstrate global leadership in synchrotron research and development, and in innovative multi-disciplinary industry partnerships.

* To provide a national venue for scholarly collaboration for academic, government and industry partners, and to facilitate cooperative fundamental and applied science and technology.

* To operate an industry friendly, not-for-profit facility, such that continuous investments and developments anticipate customer requirements and ensure international competitiveness.

* To support industrial competitiveness and entrepreneurial commercialization opportunities, thereby creating wealth and improving the quality of life for Canadian society.

[Graph omitted]
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Author:Bancroft, G.M.
Publication:Canadian Chemical News
Date:Jan 1, 2001
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